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Skripsi the correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text

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  • 1. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SIMPLE PAST TENSE MASTERY AND WRITING ABILITY IN RECOUNT TEXT AT TENTH GRADE OF SMA IBNU SINA BRAJA SELEBAH IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2011/2012 AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS By: MASRIQON NPM : 07240025 ISLAMIC COLLEGE OF MA’ARIF METRO LAMPUNG 1432H/2011M
  • 2. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN SIMPLE PAST TENSE MASTERY AND WRITING ABILITY IN RECOUNT TEXT AT TENTH GRADE OF SMA IBNU SINA BRAJA SELEBAH IN ACADEMIC YEAR 2011/2012 ABSTRACT By: MASRIQON 07240025 This research is about the correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text at tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah in academic year 2011/2012. The research was done because of students’ pbolems in writing ability, and it was limited in recount text. The objective of study were to find out simple past tense mastery, writing ability in recount text, and whether there was any correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recout text. The hypothesis of the reseacher was; Ha: Ther is correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text, and Ho: There is no correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text. The research was a quantitative research. The populations of the study were 30 students of tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah. The instrument used was a test. The researcher decided to give grammar test and writing test. Type of grammar test was multiple choice and writing test is essay test which asked students to make sentences into a paragraph. After giving test, the writer analyzed the score. The result of testing hypothesis were 0, 745 score and the product moment table N=28 using 5% confidence limited the score 0, 374 and 1% = 0,478, where the score 0,745 is between 0,600 – 0,800. It means that the correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability was enough. rratio = 0,745 > rtable = o,374, it means that there was positive correlation between both of variables. Based on the result data confirmed that rratio higher than rtable. Therefore, it could be inferred that Ha was accepted and Ho was rejected. It means that there was positive and significant correlation berween simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recont text at tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah in academic year 2011/2012. Key words: simple past tense, writing, ability, and recount text.
  • 3. DEDICATION I dedicated this thesis to:  My beloved my father and mother who always supporting and praying in success my study.  Mas Taufiq’s family  My beloved young brother Iskandar, Yahya. R, Erwin, and Fahmi  My beloved Miftah, and friends Istiq Adelia, who M. always Nas, give , me Munzalil, ideas and suggestions.  The big family of English Student Association (ESA) STAI Ma’arif Metro.
  • 4. MOTTO Verily, every difficulty there is relief (By self) God will raise people who are faithful among you and People who are given some level of knowledge. (QS. Al-Mujadalah:4)
  • 5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Praise be to Allah the Almighty for all His bounties and blessings and for enabling the writer to complete this paper. In conducting this paper, the writer has received many valuable and meaningful contributions, suggestions, and guidance from others. Therefore, the writer is indebted to many people for their efforts and he would like to extend his sincere gratitude to:  Drs. M. Zaini, M.Pd.I, as the head of STAI Ma’arif Metro Lampung  Drs. Mahrus As’ad, MA and Sophan Krisna Aji, S.Pd. as his supervisor for their suggestions and corrections during finishing this paper.  All of the lectures English Program of STAI Ma’arif Metro, who have shared the knowledge and experiences during my study at English Program of STAI Ma’arif Metro.  All of the staffs of administration of STAI Ma’arif Metro for their kindness in allowing his using the facilities of department.  The head master of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah for cooperating during completing my study.  Bu Parlin Andriani, S.Pd and her students for being very cooperative and helpful respondents.  All of my friends in English program special in 2007, for being cheerful and uncivilized friends that make the past five years of my studying become so wonderful.  All of my KKS’ friends in Purbolinggo Lampung Timur. PPL’s friends in SMP Islam Purbolinggo and anyone I admire who gave me beautiful and memoreable memories.  My beloved father and mother, for their endless pray and sacrifice. My brother and young brother for their motivations, love, and care.
  • 6. Finally, I realize that my study is still far from being perfect. There are still so many expectations can be done to make it better. My God bless you Metro, July 2011 The writer MASRIQON NPM.07240025
  • 7. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Definition of Key Terms In order to gives consists idea in this research, some key terms are defined: 1. Simple past tense is use to report a state or activity that can be a scribed to a definite past time. The past tense is also used for activities that occurred over a period of time in the past, but are now finished, or that occurred at intervals in the past, but don’t occur now.1 2. Writing is a process. Its mean the writing process follows three major stages: prewriting, writing, and revising.2 3. Ability is the quality of being able to perform a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplish.3 4. Recount text is a piece of text that retell past events, usually in order in which they occurred.4 B. Background of problem English is one of international language used by many people in the world. Many source information in books, technology and science written in English. In Indonesian, English as foreign language or second language. The first language based on their mother tongue such as Javanese, Sudanese, and Bataknese. They 1 Wishon George E, Julia M. Burks, Let Write English (American Book Company, 1980) p. 195 2 Macmillan Publising Company, English (Macmillan, 1986) p. 2 Http:// www.Definitions. Net/ ability/ (23 may 2010) 4 Anderson Mark and Kathy Anderson, Text Types In English (Macmillan Education Australia, 2003) p. 24 3
  • 8. use the first language to communication in their daily activities. In Indonesia, the students compulsory to learn begin in elementary school, kindergartens, junior high school, senior high school and university. In learning English process, the students have to master not only vocabulary but also grammar because grammar is essential as the rules of word to make meaningful. They find many kinds about English grammar such as verb, adverb, noun, pronoun, etc. Tenses are one of grammar, it is very important to clear in writing because tense to identity of time. There are three tenses: 1. Present 2. Past, and 3. Future In learning English, there are four skills such as listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The students must master four skills in the language learning process. All these language skills related to each other. The students must be trainer adequately in all the four basic skills to make them easily practice and use the language. Although the learners have mastered the rules, they have not learned the correct distribution of rules yet. In fact, some students in Indonesian get some difficulties in learning English. The writer wants to know the student’s ability at SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah to be master of grammar especially in simple past tense and to use it in writing recount text and is there correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text.
  • 9. Based on the explanation above, the writer entitle as “The correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability at tenth grader of SMA Ibnu Sina”. The writer got the data of writing ability especially the tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina, based on pre-survey. The data can be seeing as follows: Table 1 The result of students’ writing ability recount text. Students’ Writing Ability Number Score 1 60 2 40 3 45 4 35 5 45 6 35 7 45 8 50 9 40 10 35 Source: the result of the writing ability test by; SMA Ibnu Sina Teacher’s The students still got difficult in writing. There are any problems students to mastery in writing abilities. They often made error when they used it in their sentences. This condition is very poor, I realized that this poor condition might be happened because the differences of their vocabulary and structure between
  • 10. Indonesia and English. Another cause of difficulties may be the teaching method, which is not interesting, and many of students are low of vocabulary, especially in past tense. Therefore, they got bored in studying writing. C. Problem of the study Considering to the background of study above, there are any problem but the researcher limit of the problem as follow: “Is there correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text?” D. Objectives of the study 1. To find out of the simple past tense mastery 2. To find out of the writing ability in recount text 3. To find out whether there is correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text. E. Significant of study 1. For the teachers To give information how to apply between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text. 2. For the students To gives information how to simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text. 3. For the institution To gives reference for all the students.
  • 11. F. Scope of the study Researcher limited the research to tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah in usage simple past tense in writing ability recount text. G. Hypothesis Based on the problems above, the hypothesis of the study stated as follows: Ha: There is correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text to tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah in the academic year 2011/2012. If rratio is higher than rtable. Ho: There is no correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text to tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah in the academic year 2011/2012. If rtable is higher than rratio.
  • 12. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Definition of Writing People consider that writing skill is the most difficult skill to develop. In the process of studying and acquiring new languages writing process is more complex than other skills. People realize that writing cannot stand alone without any other supported skills, writing has relations with reading. All writers rely on their skills as readers, because all writers must be readers. You cannot write without acknowledge your experience through reading. Through reading you can understand how the language work to communicate ideas, through reading you can evaluate how vocabulary constructs together as a certain rules of grammar or how the use of spelling , grammar, punctuation, word choices, and other elements construct as a good written text. Reading helps you to be a good writer. Halliday in Nunan (1985b) suggests that writing has evolved in societies a result of cultural changes creating communication needs which cannot be readily met by spoken language. He speculates that with the emergence of cultural based on agriculture rather than hunting and gathering, there developed a need for permanent records which could be referred to over and over again.5 Writing is an important element in your life. You write notes to your friends, letters of inquiry and application to businesses and schools, and lists of items to remember. As a student you spend a part of most days writing. You 5 Nunan David, Language Teaching Methodology : A Textbook for Teachers, Prentice Hall International, 1998) P. 84
  • 13. communicate many of your thoughts in written form, in papers, reports, creative composition, and answers to essay questions. Writing is a process. The writing process follows three major stages: prewriting, writing, and revising. The writing process is a process discovery. 6 As you write, you discover more about your subject and what you want to say about it. The writing process is the means by which you discovery what you want to say and how you can best say it. Because the writing process is a reflection of your natural thinking processes, using the writing process will enable you to call up ideas you otherwise might not have and express them in language that is uniquely your own. The writing process is equally adaptable to personal writing, such as retelling of a childhood experience, and to more formal writing, such as a research paper. There are three steps in writing process: 1. Prewriting Prewriting is an activity in which you mine your imagination in order to come away with the rough gems you will later shape and polish into finished piece of writing. Prewriting requires concentrating on one subject in order to gather ideas about that subject. 2. Writing a first draft Writing a first draft is related to the word draw; as in drawing water from a well. That is exactly what you are doing when you write a first draft: you are drawing from the well of your mind the words and ideas that you want to put on paper. 3. Revising Revising means questioning your discovery draft to make sure it has fulfilled your purpose in writing. Part of the art of revising is being able to read your work as if you had never seen it before.7 B. Definition of Tenses We use tense as a method to indicate of time. Tense means time. However, it should be pointed out that time in relation to action is a concept that exists in the 6 7 Macmillan, loc. cit. p.2 Ibid. P.2
  • 14. mind of the speaker, reader, or listener. Tense, in actual usage, refers consistently only to grammatical form.8 Tense is the form a verb takes to indicate the time of the action or the state of being; as, present (he speaks), past (he spoke), future (he will speak).9 Grammar tense (a verb form) must be carefully differentiated from actual time, for the two are not always identical. For example, the past tense does not always indicate past time, nor does the present tense always indicate present time. Modern English has six tenses, three of which are simple (or basic) tenses, and three of which are compound (or perfect) tenses. The simple tenses are the present, the past, and the future. The compound (or perfect) tenses are the present perfect, the past perfect, and future perfect. So, tenses to indicate of time in the actions. C. Definition of Past Tense The past tense indicates events happened in the past. Past tense is generally employed to represent an action or state of being as having occurred or existed before the present; but in some of its special uses, the past tense is not restricted to denoting past action.10 The past tense can be concluded as an activity or situation began, happened, and ended in the past. The past tense divide into four forms; simple past, past continuous, past perfect, and past perfect continuous. 8 George E. Wishon, Julia M. Bruks, Op.Cit. P.192 Susan Amolyn Harman, op. cit. P. 116 10 Ibid. P. 120 9
  • 15. D. Simple Past Tense Simple past tense is used to report a state or activity which can be a scribed to a definite past time. The past tense is also used for activities that occurred over a period of time in the past, but are now finished, or that occurred at intervals in the past, but don’t occur now.11 The simple past tense is the most common tense in English. The simple past is used to talk about activities or situations that began and ended in the past. The following are examples of activities that began and ended in the past. Mary walked downtown yesterday I slept for eight hours last night.12 (Betty Schrampler Azar, p.18) E. Simple Past Tense Form Statement {I-You-She-He-It-We-They} worked yesterday ate breakfast Negative {I-You-She-He-It-We-They} did not (didn’t) work yesterday did not (didn’t) eat breakfast Question Did {I-You-She-He-It-We-They} work yesterday? eat breakfast Short Yes {I-You-She-He-It-We-They} did answer No didn’t.13 The simple past tense is formed by using the simple past form of the verb. Firstly, for the regular verb, the past form is made by adding –ED to the verb. 11 Wishon George E, Julia M. Burks, op.cit. P. 195 Betty Schrampler Azar, Fundamental of English Grammar.2nd edt. p.18 13 Ibid. P.19 12
  • 16. Forms Examples Jump – Jumped The dog jumped over the fence Walk – walked I walked 22 kilometers yesterday Work – worked We worked together as lawyers for 15 years14 The following is pattern to add –ED which change the ending a little. How to make the Verb Ending Add –D E Examples Simple Past Live- lived Date- dated Consonant + Y Change Y to I then add - Try- tried ED Cry- cried One vowel + one Double the consonant, Tap- tapped consonant (not W or Y) then add –ED Commitcommitted.15 Many verbs in English form their past tense with – ED, some do not. We call this second form as irregular verbs. They have some patterns. Examples be - was/were make – made become - became meet - met begin - began pay - paid break - broke read - read bring - brought ride - rode build - built run - run buy - bought say - said 14 15 http://www.1-language.com/englishcoursenew/unit27 grammar.htm Ibid
  • 17. Examples catch - caught sell - sold choose - chose send - sent come - came shut - shut do - did sing - sang draw -drea sit - sat eat - ate sleep - slept feel - felt smell - smelt/smelled fight - fought speak - spoke find - found stand - stood fly - flew swim - swam forget - forgot take - took get - got teach - taught give - gave tell - told go - went think - thought have - had understand - understood hear – heard wear – wore.16 F. Definition of recount text A recount text is a piece of text that retells past events, usually in the order in which they occurred. Its purpose is to provide the audience with a description of what occurred and when it occurred.17 Everybody have past experience or special event in the past, when study in the kindergarten, elementary school, junior high school, senior high school and when going to in the interesting place. 16 17 http://englishonline. Blogdetik.com/2009/08/10/simple-past-tense/ Anderson Mark, op cit. p. 24
  • 18. A recount text is the unfolding of a sequence of events over time. We are using language to keep the past alive and help us to interpret experience. 18 Thus, a recount text is retelling past events and unfolding sequence of past events. 1. Types of recount text: a. Personal recount Personal recount is retelling of an activity that the writer/speaker has been personality involved in (e.g. oral anecdote, diary entry) b. Factual report Factual report is recording the particulars of an incident (e.g. report of a science experiment, police report, and news report) c. Imaginative report Imaginative report is taking on an imaginary role of giving details of events (e.g. a day in the life of a Roman slave; how I invented….) 2. Text organization of recount text a. Orientation Orientation is provides the setting and introduces participants. b. Events Events are telling what happened, in what sequence. c. Re-orientation Re-orientation is optimal closure of events.19 3. Language features of recount text a. Specific participants E.g. Mrs. Brady, our dog, the shopkeeper b. Use of simple past tense E.g. she smiled, it barked, he pointed c. Use of action verbs / material process E.g. went, climbed, ate d. Use of linking items to do with time E.g. on Wednesday, then, at the same time, next, later, and before. 18 19 Beverly Derewianka, Exploring How Texts Work. Australia. P.14 Ibid.P.15
  • 19. Example of recount text: My friend Sarah When I was in the first grade of senior high, I had a friend, Sarah. She was the friendliest and the most intelligent student in the class. We soon became very close to each other because we had a lot of things in common. Now, we are in the second year, we are not in the same class anymore but we spend a lot of time together. We are used to studying together, doing some assignments and hanging out for fun. Having friends is as valuable as having diamonds. We do realize it and promise that we will remain good friends as long as we live. (Taken from various sources)20 In teaching of writing abut recount text, the teacher was taogh simple past tense bacause there are language features in recount texts as like simple past tense (E.g. she smiled, it barked, hepointed), use of action verb / material process (E.g. went, climbed, ate), and use of linking items to do with time (E.g. on Wednesday, then, at the same time,next, later). Sothat, in teaching learning process about recount text, the students’ have studied simple past tense and writing ability skill. 20 F.A. Soeprapto & Mariana Darwis. The World 3 English for Senior High School. Yudistira. P.7
  • 20. CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Research design This researcher used quantitative research. Quantitative research is “appropriate with the name, this research is much demanded by using number, beginning from collecting the data, interpretation toward the data, and the result”.21 Based on the definition of research method above, the writer investigated that there was correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text. The research design is: T1 T2 Where: T1 : The measureing of the tool to find the first variable. T2 : The measureing of the tool to find the second variable. B. Research population, sample and sampling technique 1. Population Population is all members of well defined class people, events or objects (Ary,dkkk in Suharsimi).22 The population in this research took at tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah. 21 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. (Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2006), P. 10 22 Prof. Dr. Sukardi, Ph.D. Metodology Penelitian Pendidikan Kompeensi dan Praktiknya. Penerbit: Bumi Aksara. 2003. P.53
  • 21. 2. Sample Sample is part of number and characteristic which have by population itself.23 Based on the definition population above, the writer chose tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah which consists of 30 students. 3. Sampling Technique In this research, the writer used the classical random sampling. It means that the writer took all the students of class sample (i.g. the tenth grade of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah). C. Research instrument Instrument is tools used by researcher for the measure of object research.24 In this research I used a test method as the instrument. According (Kingler in Sukardi, 1986) a test is a systematic procedure in which the individual tested are presented with a set of constructed stimuli to which the responses enabling the tester to assign the numeral test.25 1. Validity The instrument say valid if the instrument can measure what will be measured.26 According to Brown, test validity is the complex criterion of good validity, the degree to which the test actually measures what is intended to measure.27 In this case, to know the validity of the test, the writer used logical 23 Prof. Dr. Sugiyono, Metodologi Penelitian Pendidikan, (Bandung: Alfabeta, 2010)p.118 24 Ibid, p.148 25 Sukardi, Op.Cit. P.138 26 Id, p.173 27 H Douglas Brown, Teaching By Principles, (San Francisco :San Francisco State University, 2000), p. 387.
  • 22. validity. It means that the test is valid if the test is suitable with curiculum and the material that has been given before. 2. Reliability Reliability is meant the stability of test scores.28 To determine the realiability of the test there are some steps. a. Giving test items to the students b. Dividing the test items into odd items and even items c. Calculating between odd and even items using the product moment formula, as follow: rxy  N  XY   X  Y  N  X 2    X  N  Y 2   Y  2 2  29 Where: rxy = Correlation coeficiente reliability between X and Y N = Number of Student X = Number of Simple Past Tense Mastery (X) Y = Number of Writing Ability (Y) xy = Total of X and Y d. Determining coefficient of reliability using Spearman Brown formula.30 r11 = r11 28 2  rxy 1  rxy = reliabilities of instrument David P. Harris, Testing English as a Second Language. (Bombay New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, 1969), P. 14 29 Suharsimi Arikunto, Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik, Jakarta: Rineka Cipta, 2006. P.170 30 Ibid. P.181
  • 23. e. Comparing the result with the criterion reliability as follows: 0.90 – 1.00 High reliability 0.50 – 0.89 Sufficient reliability 0.00 - 0.49 Low reliability So, in this test the writer used objective test of multiple choice A, B, C, D, it consist of 25 items. The score of item is 4 for the true answer. Then the highest score is 100 and the low is 0. To know the student writing ability, the writer measured the students’ writing by giving a topic. The writer asked the students to make simple sentences into a simple paragraph. To know reliability of the test instrument, the writer used the Spearman-Brown formula, because it was suitable for correlation. D. Research data and data collecting technique 1. Research Data There are two variable in this research. The independent variable (X) and dependent variable (Y). The independent variable (X) is simple past tense mastery and dependent variable (Y) is writing ability. 2. Data Collection Technique In this research, the writer used test to collect data. According to Kerlinger, A test is systematic procedure in which the individual tested are presented with a set of constructed stimuli to which they responds, the responses enabling the tester to assign the test numerals.31 The writer uses as data collection 31 Prof. Sukardi, Ph.D, op. cit. P.138
  • 24. method to measure both variables. The writer measured simple past tense mastery by giving test consists of multiple choice form, and measured writing ability of the students by testing them to make a sentences into a simple paragraph. The researcher investigated whether there is correlation simple past tense mastery and writing ability in recount text at tenth grade senior high school SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah, the writer used product moment correlation as data analysis. After data were collected, especially data about simple past tense mastery and writing ability, the data would be processed by statistic formula; becauseconsidering of the data is correlation/quantity data. The formula of Product Moment Correlation: rxy  N  XY   X  Y  N  X 2    X  N  Y 2   Y  2 2  32 Notes: rxy = Correlation coefficient between X and Y N = Number of Student X = Number of Simple Past Tense Mastery (X) Y = Number of Writing Ability (Y) xy = Total of X and Y 32 Arinkunto, op.cit.P.170
  • 25. E. Research procedure As the writer had mentioned, the research was held at SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah. Here, He took several steps of procedure in order to make it flawlessly and well conducted. The steps are as follows: 1) Determined the research subject those are the students of SMA Ibnu Sina Braja Selebah, and problems and then asked the permission of the head of this institution. 2) Gave the test of simple past tense and writing to get data. 3) Analyzed the data of the result of the test in order to know whether there is correlation between simple past tense mastery and writing ability. 4) Took the conclusion of the research.