“ Brand equity is the set of associations and behavior on the part of a brand’s customers, channel members and parent corporation that permits the brand to earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand name” (Leuthesser, 1988).
Corporate sustainability has been defined as ‘‘a business approach that creates long-term shareholder value by embracing the opportunities and managing the risks associated with economic, environmental and social developments’’ (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987).
In business, corporations that practiced sustainable development were those that incorporated environmental and social concerns in some of the ways they conducted business. In many cases, these companies were able to create win–win situations by ‘‘greening’’ the environment and enhancing their competitive advantage in the process (Elkington, 1994).
Procter & Gamble’s Ariel washing powder reformulation which enables washing at the lower temperature of 30 degrees is an example of the environment-friendly product.
Carbon Trust is UK non-profit organization which helps small and big business to reduce their carbon footprint, as well as make an economy e.g. on its companies energy bills ( the energy bills could be from the as much as £50K to £500K and more)
Bioapply – a swiss company, that offers practical and economically viable solutions for ecological alternatives to plastic packaging and petroleum-derived products using renewable, biodegrabable and compostable materials of vegetal origin.
Example 3. Vivo Miles –reward system created by privately-owned company in 2009 to increase school and university attendance, to improve academic results, to improve the health of young people, to prepare students for like’s financial reality and it’s completely web-based.
The legal standards and ethical practices of firms operating in the target nation are also crucial factors in today’s business (Combs and Nadkarni, 2005; van Tulder and Kolk, 2001).
As the contract between business and society expands, the ethical dimension of managerial decision-making is becoming more of a major concern for corporate leaders, organizational researchers, policy makers, and society as a whole. (Akhter, 2004; Dyer and Chu, 2000; Myers, 1999).
The result of rapid globalization in recent years =>
an increase in ethical awareness for managers of multinational