Westward Settlement Before 1820 1. Driving force was economic improvement 2. Acquisition of Louisiana 3. War 1812 4. Transportation After 1820 1. Slavery 2. Promotion of common man 3. Pioneers 4. Immigration form Europe 5. Manifest Destiny 6. Homestead Act
American Civil War • Causes • Conduct of the war • Results –Northern domination –Republican party and Lincoln
Industrialization Fisk and Gould—Stock market speculation Rockefeller—Standard Oil Pulitzer & Hearst—Newspaper Harriman—NY Central Railroad Carnegie—Steel Henry Ford—Automobile, production line E.I. DuPont—Gunpowder, plastic, chemical Sloan—General Motors
Little Ice Age The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period. While not a true ice age, the term was introduced into scientific literature by François E. Matthes in 1939. It is conventionally defined as a period extending from the 16th to the 19th centuries, though climatologists and historians working with local records no longer expect to agree on either the start or end dates of this period, which varied according to local conditions
Frontier? A frontier is a politicaland geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary. The use of "frontier" to mean "a region at the edge of a settled area" is a special North American development. In the United States, frontier was the term applied by scholars to the transition zone where explorers, pioneers and settlers were arriving. That is, as pioneers moved into the "frontier zone", they were changed significantly by the encounter. Throughout American history, the expansion of settlement was largely from the east to the west, and thus the frontier is often identified with "the west". On the Pacific Coast, settlement moved eastward. In New England, it moved north.
Prince Alexander Philipp Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied German explorer, ethnologist and naturalist He joined the Prussian army in 1800 during the Napoleonic Wars, rising to the rank of major. He was given a leave of absence from the army in 1815 (prior to Napoleon's escape from Elba) In 1832 he travelled to the Great Plains region of North America, accompanied by the Swiss painter Karl Bodmer on a journey up the Missouri River, and wrote Reise in das Innere Nord-Amerikas (1840) on his return. During his travels, he studied the cultures of tribes such as the Mandan and the Hidatsa and collected many specimens of flora and fauna of the area
Karl Bodmer Swiss painter of the American West. He accompanied German explorer Maximilian zuWied-Neuwied from 1832 through 1834 on his Missouri River expedition. He was hired as an artist by Maximilian with the specific intent of traveling through the American West and recording images of the different tribes they saw along the way When the expedition was complete, he returned to Germany with Prince Maximilian, then traveled to France. In Paris he had many scenes from the expedition (81 in total) reproduced as aquatints.. After returning to Europe, Bodmer lived in Barbizon, France, where he became a French citizen. At that point he changed his name to “Charles Bodmer.”
Carlota Lucia de Brito Brazil experienced less upheaval upon independence than did the Spanish-American nations. Under the 1824 constitution, Emperor Pedro I (1822-1831) allowed upper-class Brazilians to exercise some political influence, especially at the local and regional levels Carlota Lucia de Brito, an attractive young woman, was allied with her lover, a local politician, and his Liberal friends in a small town in the northeastern state of Pernambuco. In 1848, when the emperor changed ministries in Rio, the region erupted into a bloody feud between Liberals and Conservatives. Carlota ordered the assassination of a Conservative enemy and was condemned to life imprisonment by an imperial court for her role in the crime.
Napoleon (1769-1821) Was an officer under King Louis XVI and had become a general at age 24 Gained fame in the First Italian Campaign of 1796-1797 Drove the Austrians from northern Italy and established French rule there Although leading a very underequipped army, Napoleon fought 18 major battles and 47 engagements in 10 months to defeat Piedmont and Austria, destroy the First Coalition, and ensure France’s territorial integrity Favorite techniques included: Manoeuvresur les derrieres Central position
Napoleonic Soldiers Napoleon’s soldiers were different from those in other European armies They were largely combat veterans that seldom saw garrison duty New recruits spent little time in training camps, instead learning by mingling with the veterans Napoleon prized eagerness and spirit over education Of Napoleon’s seven corps commanders in 1805, only two were over 40 The ability to march long distances was essential
Influences of Napoleonic Warfare Revolutionary ideology marked a rejection of limited war in favor of total war Armies got bigger in order to achieve the goals of destroying enemies, overthrowing governments, and annexing territory The levee en masse mobilized every aspect of the country The quality of soldiers and officers improved Citizen-soldiers were motivated by patriotism Officers corps were opened up to men of talent Helped Mahan formulate his theories on sea power Saw the Navy’s economic strangulation of France by blockade as the key to Britain’s defeat of Napoleon “It was not by attempting great military operations on land, but by controlling the sea, and through the sea the world outside Europe,” that the British “ensured the triumph of their country.” Problems Napoleon had his own limitations Failed to comprehend the new situations in Spain or Russia Overconfident and power-hungry Unwilling to compromise at the peak of his power in 1809 or before in order to achieve a comfortable peace A great campaigner, but not so skilled at grand strategy or foreign policy
The U.S.-Mexican War (1846-1848) The Mexican-American War was the first major conflict driven by the idea of "Manifest Destiny"; the belief that America had a God-given right, or destiny, to expand the country's borders from 'sea to shining sea'. This belief would eventually cause a great deal of suffering for many Mexicans, Native Americans and United States citizens. Following the earlier Texas War of Independence from Mexico, tensions between the two largest independent nations on the North American continent grew as Texas eventually became a U.S. state. Disputes over the border lines sparked military confrontation, helped by the fact that President Polk eagerly sought a war in order to seize large tracts of land from Mexico.
The war between the United States and Mexico had two basic causes. First, the desire of the U.S. to expand across the North American continent to the Pacific Ocean caused conflict with all of its neighbors; from the British in Canada and Oregon to the Mexicans in the southwest and, of course, with the Native Americans. The Mexican government refused the opportunity to sell half of its country to Mexico's most dangerous neighbor. The second basic cause of the war was the Texas War of Independence and the subsequent annexation of that area to the United States. Not all American westward migration was unwelcome. Mexico of course did not like the idea of its breakaway province becoming an American state, and the undefined and contested border now became a major international issue. Texas, and now the United States, claimed the border at the Rio Grande River. Mexico claimed territory as far north as the Nueces River. Both nations sent troops to enforce the competing claims, and a tense standoff ensued. On April 25, 1846, a clash occurred between Mexican and American troops on soil claimed by both countries. The war had begun.
The Crimean War In July 1853 Russia occupied territories in the Crimea that had previously been controlled by Turkey. Britain and France was concerned about Russian expansion and attempted to achieve a negotiation withdrawal. Turkey, unwilling to grant concessions declared war on Russia. After the Russians destroyed the Turkish fleet at Sinope in the Black Sea in November 1853, Britain and France joined the war against Russia. On the 20th September 1854 the Allied army defeated the Russian army at the battle of Alma River (September 1854) but the battle of Balaklava (October 1854) was inconclusive. Soon after British soldiers arrived in Turkey, they began going down with cholera and malaria. Within a few weeks an estimated 8,000 men were suffering from these two diseases.