Modern latin america


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Modern latin america

  1. 1. Modern Latin America<br />AliaksandravaMaryia<br />
  2. 2. British Interests<br />The first real concessions came in 1810, when the British government negotiated preferential trading privileges in Brazil in return for its support for the Portuguese royal family during the Napoleonic Wars. In the Spanish empire, where the struggle for emancipation lasted from about 1810 until 1825, restrictions on direct trade between the colonies and other countries were gradually dismantled during the conflict. When it finally became clear, in the early 1820s, that Spain could do little to reverse the independence process, Canning took the first steps towards safeguarding Britain's economic interests and recognizing the new republics by sending out consular officials. The British mania for Latin America rose in a crescendo early in 1825, just after the government's decision to grant formal recognition to some of the new nations. Merchants with cargoes of manufactured goods, particularly cotton textiles, established themselves in large numbers in ports along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, while in London eager speculators invested their savings in loans to the young governments and in mining enterprises which promised a new El Dorado. Most cities grew very rapidly during the export boom. Buenos Aires, which had a population of almost 80,000 in 1869, had increased to nearly 1.6 million by 1914; by then ten cities in Latin America had over 200,000 inhabitants.<br />
  4. 4. WAR AGAINST THE PERU-BOLIVIA CONFEDERATION <br />In 1837 Rosas joined Chile to make war on the Peru-Bolivia Confederation. Numerous factors motivated Rosas to declare war on May 19, 1837. Most important was a boundary dispute over the province of Tarija. Also, Rosas perceived the unification of Peru and Bolivia as creating a strong neighbor and a possible threat. And finally, Unitarian refugees had found haven in Bolivia from Rosas' terror. Throughout the first year the fighting was inconclusive, but on June 24, 1838, the Bolivians defeated troops from the United Provinces at the Battle of Montenegro (495 mi NW of Buenos Aires and 495 mi SSE of La Paz, Bolivia), and Rosas withdrew from the war.<br />
  5. 5. Urbanization in Mexico & Latin America<br />Сolonial Mexico was a filthy place, but the long-term accumulation of waste did not really become a problem until after the 1910 revolution, which yanked the Indian population out of self-sufficient subsistence economies and into the world of buying, selling, and discarding. In the nineteen-forties, when the economy finally stabilized after the long devastation of civil war, consumerism made its first in-roads. Waste multiplied. Each month, thousands of peasants abandoned their land and came to the capital looking for a better life. By the nineteen-sixties, urban prosperity had proved to be a mirage, but the situation in the countryside was infinitely worse, and the mass urban migration continued. The newcomers settled in shacks along the roads leading into the city, stole their electricity from the highway power lines, and made do without running water, drainage, or garbage-collection systems. The communities grew at such a rate that one of them, Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl, is the country's fourth-largest city. Thoroughly integrated by now into the consumer economy, its million- plus inhabitants carry their groceries home in plastic bags, use their spare change to buy hair spray, splurge at United States-based fast-food chains on soda pop served in plastic-foam cups, and pour milk for their children from plastic-coated-cardboard cartons. <br />
  6. 6. The Second World, by ParagKhanna - Part III<br />The United States, by contrast, is described as naïve and arrogant, a musclebound superpower searching for a brain. The State Department, he writes, is run like “the world’s largest travel agency.” With its special envoys and troubleshooters rushing around the planet to put out brush fires, the United States practices a “diplomacy by dilettantism” unworthy of a great power.<br />In his polemical conclusion Mr. Khanna becomes a little unhinged in his analysis of the ills afflicting the United States, which, by his description, should collapse sometime in the middle of next month. He works himself into a lather over the popularity of police car chases on television, football and “wasteful motor sports.” <br />“American socioeconomic attitudes would be laughable if they were not so scary,” he writes.<br />A prime example of imperial overstretch, the United States faces a highly uncertain future, Mr. Khanna argues, somewhat more coherently, with economic decline and waning international influence distinct possibilities. From a position of world dominance, it must readjust to a fluid international order in which it is “merely one of several competing vendors or brands on the catwalk of credibility.” You sense that Mr. Khanna will enjoy the show.<br />
  7. 7. The Second World, by ParagKhanna - Part III<br />Latin America has no long seemed a geopolitical non sequitur, oceans away from the world’s principal strategic theaters. But today it is casting its eyes east and west to avoid the north. The shakes are existential energy self-sufficiency in the Western Hemispheric pan-region and independence from the turbulence of Eurasia. Oil from areas a stretching from the Acetic to Canada’s Alberta to the Golf of Mexico to Venezuela, combined with new sources of power , such as Brazilian ethanol, could unite North and South America in trade bloc unsurpassed in the rest of the world.<br />
  8. 8. The Second World, by ParagKhanna - Part III<br />Imperial system can be compares to bubbles blowing up in size, expanding and rising, then bursting and falling. Latin America has always been caught in others’ imperial bubbles, and never been able to form its own. Indeed, because Latin America’s resources have always served the developed world, its own underdevelopment was integral to the rise of world capitalism. Beginning with arrival of Christopher Columbus, competition on subjugate the hemisphere’s vast expanses was ruthless. United only by a commitment to spread Catholicism, the Spanish and Portuguese monarchies divided all the colonies of the New World.<br />
  9. 9. The Second World, by ParagKhanna - Part III<br />For Latin Americans, China represents a new way of doing business outside of America’s thicket of codes and regulations, one that imposes no political conditionality whatsoever other than lobbying Latin American countries to resend their recognition of Taiwan, which for years had purchased diplomatic loyalty across the region, particularly in Central America, and received market economy status in their trade relations. On the whole, China is not yet putting its mouth where its money is. It’s not China’s Fault if Latin American leaders stand up to the United States.<br />
  10. 10. ARGENTINAPresidents<br />EdelmiroJulián Farrell         1944-1946 (+1980)   military <br /> Juan Domingo Perón Sosa         1946-1955 (+1974)   <br /> Eduardo Lonardi                 1955      (+1956)   military <br /> Pedro Eugenio Aramburu          1955-1958 (+1970)A  military <br /> Arturo Frondizi                 1958-1962 (+1995)   UCR <br /> José María Guido                1962-1963 (+1975)   military <br /> Arturo Umberto Illía            1963-1966 (+1983)   UCR<br /> Juan Carlos Onganía             1966-1970 (+1995)   military <br /> Roberto Marcelo Levingston      1970-1971           military  <br />Alejandro AgustínLanusseGelly 1971-1973 (+1996)   military <br />Héctor José Cámpora             1973      (+1980)  <br /> FREJULI Raúl Alberto Lastiri            1973      (+1978)   civilian (acting)<br /> Juan Domingo Perón Sosa         1973-1974 (+)     <br />María Estela Martínez de Perón  1974-1976           <br />Jorge Rafael Videla             1976-1981           military (2)<br /> Roberto Eduardo Viola           1981      (+1994)   military (3)<br />HoracioTomásLiendo            1981                military (3) (interim) <br />LeopoldoFortunatoGaltieri     1981-1982           military (3)<br /> Alfredo Óscar Saint-Jean        1982                military (3) (interim)<br /> Reynaldo Benito Bignone         1982-1983           military (4) <br />RaúlAlfonsínFoulkes           1983-1989           UCR<br /> Carlos Saúl Menem Akil          1989-               PJ<br />
  11. 11. BRAZILPresidents<br />GetúlioDornelles Vargas             1930-1945 (+1954)S civilian<br /> José Linhares                        1945-1946 (+1957)  civilian (caretaker) <br />Eurico Gaspar Dutra                  1946-1951 (+1974)  civilian<br />GetúlioDornelles Vargas             1951-1954 (+)S     civilian<br />João Café Filho                      1954-1955 (+1970)  civilian (caretaker) <br />Carlos Coimbra da Luz                1955      ?        civilian (caretaker) <br />Nereu de Oliveira Ramos              1955-1956 (+1958)D civilian (caretaker) <br />JuscelinoKubitschek de Oliveira     1956-1961 (+1976)D civilian<br />Jânioda Silva Quadros               1961      (+1992)  civilian<br />PascoalRanieriMazzilli             1961      (+1975)  civilian (caretaker) <br />JoãoBelchior Marques Goulart        1961-1964 (+1976)  civilian<br />PascoalRanieriMazzilli             1964      (+1975)  civilian (caretaker) <br />Humberto de AlencarCasteloBranco   1964-1967 (+1967)D military<br /> Arturo da Costa e Silva              1967-1969 (+1969)  military <br />Rademaker/Mello e Souza/Lyra Tavares 1969               military (triunvirate)<br />  Emilio GarrastazúMédici             1969-1974 (+1985)  military<br /> Ernesto Geisel Beckmann              1974-1979 (+1996)  military<br />JoãoBaptista de Oliveira Figueiredo 1979-1985          military<br /> José Sarney                          1985-1990          civilian <br />Fernando Collor de Mello             1990-1992          civilian <br />Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco       1992-1995          civilian<br /> Fernando Henrique Cardoso            1995-              civilian,<br />