Cell structure c&m c 7


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Cell structure c&m c 7

  1. 1. •C-7• Inside the Cell• A tour of the Cell © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Key Concepts The structure and function of a cell’s overall shape and composition, as well as individual cell components, are closely related. Molecular “zip codes” aid material transport within a cell. The cell’s cytoskeleton provides a structural framework within the cell, and plays a role in cell division, movement, and transport. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Key Concepts Cells are highly dynamic and integrated; within a cell, thousands of chemical reactions occur every second, molecules are constantly moving across the plasma membrane, cell products are transported along protein fibers, and elements of the cell’s internal skeleton grow and shrink. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. Classifying Cells• According to morphology, there are two broad groupings of life: 1. Prokaryotes, which lack a membrane-bound nucleus 2. Eukaryotes, which have such a nucleus• According to phylogeny, or evolutionary history, there are three domains: 1. Bacteria prokaryotic 2. Archaea 3. Eukarya – eukaryotic © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. Prokaryotic Cells – Structural Characteristics• All prokaryotes lack a membrane-bound nucleus..• Bacterial cells vary greatly in size and shape, but most bacteria contain several structural similarities: – Plasma membrane – A single chromosome – Ribosomes, which synthesize proteins – Stiff cell wall © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  7. 7. Prokaryotic Cells – Genetic Information• Most prokaryotic species have one supercoiled circular chromosome found in the nucleoid region of the cell. – The chromosome contains a long strand of DNA and a few supportive proteins.• In addition to the large chromosome, many bacteria contain plasmids. – Small, supercoiled, circular DNA molecules – Plasmids usually contain genes that help the cell adapt to unusual environmental conditions. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  9. 9. Prokaryotic Cells – Internal Structure• In addition to the nucleoid chromosome and plasmids, other structures are contained within the cytoplasm: – All prokaryotic cells contain ribosomes, consisting of RNA molecules and protein, for protein synthesis. – Many prokaryotes have internal photosynthetic membranes. – Some prokaryotes have membrane-enclosed organelles. – The inside of many prokaryotic cells is supported by a cytoskeleton of long, thin protein filaments. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  11. 11. Bacterial Organelles• Recently, internal compartments in many bacterial species were discovered. – These compartments qualify as organelles (“little organs”). – An organelle is a membrane-bound compartment inside the cell that contains enzymes or structures specialized for a particular function. – Organelles are common in eukaryotic cells.• Each type of bacterial organelle is found in certain species.• Bacterial organelles perform an array of tasks. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12. Prokaryotic Cells – External Structure• Some prokaryotes have tail-like flagella on the cell surface that spin around to move the cell. 256 H+ per turn• Most prokaryotes have a cell wall. – Bacterial and archaeal cell walls are a tough, fibrous layer that surrounds the plasma membrane.• Many species have an additional layer outside the cell wall composed of glycolipids. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  15. 15. Eukaryotes• Eukaryotes range from microscopic algae to 100-meter-tall redwood trees.• Most eukaryotes are multicellular, some are unicellular.• Most eukaryotic cells are larger than most prokaryotic cells. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. Eukaryotic Cells• The relatively large size of the eukaryotic cell makes it difficult for molecules to diffuse across the entire cell. – This problem is partially solved by breaking up the large cell volume into several smaller membrane-bound organelles. – Surface area to volume problems• The compartmentalization of eukaryotic cells offers two primary advantages: 1. Separation of incompatible chemical reactions 2. Increasing the efficiency of chemical reactions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes Compared• Four key differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have been identified: 1. Eukaryotic chromosomes are found inside a membrane- bound compartment called a nucleus. 2. Eukaryotic cells are often much larger. 3. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane bound organelles. 4. Eukaryotic cells feature a diverse and dynamic cytoskeleton. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  22. 22. The Nucleus• The nucleus is large and highly organized.• STRUCTURE: – The nucleus is surrounded by a double-membrane nuclear envelope. – The nucleus has a distinct region called the nucleolus.• FUNCTION: – Information storage and processing – Contains the cell’s chromosomes – Ribosomal RNA synthesis (in the nucleolus) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  24. 24. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum• STRUCTURE: – The rough endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER, RER) is a network of membrane-bound tubes and sacs studded with ribosomes. – The interior is called the lumen. – The rough ER is continuous with the nuclear envelope.• FUNCTION: – Ribosomes associated with the rough ER synthesize proteins. – New proteins are folded and processed in the rough ER lumen. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  26. 26. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum• STRUCTURE: – The smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER, SER) lacks the ribosomes associated with the rough ER.• FUNCTION: – Enzymes within the smooth ER may synthesize fatty acids and phospholipids, or break down poisonous lipids. – Reservoir for Ca2+ ions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  28. 28. Golgi Apparatus• STRUCTURE: – The Golgi apparatus is formed by a series of stacked flat membranous sacs called cisternae.• FUNCTION: – The Golgi apparatus processes, sorts, and ships proteins synthesized in the rough ER. – Membranous vesicles carry materials to and from the organelle. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  30. 30. Ribosomes• STRUCTURE: – Ribosomes are non-membranous (they are not considered organelles). – Have large and small subunits, both containing RNA molecules and protein – Ribosomes can be attached to the rough ER or free in the cytosol, the fluid part of the cytoplasm.• FUNCTION: – Protein synthesis © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  32. 32. Peroxisomes• STRUCTURE: – Peroxisomes are globular organelles bound by a single membrane.• FUNCTION: – Center of oxidation reactions• Specialized peroxisomes in plants called glyoxysomes are packed with enzymes that oxidize fats to form a compound that can be used to store energy for the cell. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  34. 34. Lysosomes• STRUCTURE: – Lysosomes are single-membrane-bound structures containing approximately 40 different digestive enzymes. – Lysosomes are found in animal cells.• FUNCTION: – Lysosomes are used for digestion and waste processing. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  36. 36. How Are Materials Delivered to Lysosomes?• Materials are delivered to the lysosomes by three processes: – Phagocytosis – Autophagy – Receptor-mediated endocytosis• Endocytosis is a process by which the cell membrane can pinch off a vesicle to bring outside material into the cell. – In addition to phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis, a third type of endocytosis called pinocytosis brings fluid into the cell. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  41. 41. Vacuoles• STRUCTURE: – Vacuoles are large membrane-bound structures found in plants and fungi. – Some contain digestive enzymes.• FUNCTION: – Some vacuoles are specialized for digestion. – Most vacuoles are used for storage of water and/or ions to help the cell maintain its normal volume. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  43. 43. Mitochondria• STRUCTURE: – Mitochondria have two membranes; the inner one is folded into a series of sac-like cristae. The solution inside the cristae is called the mitochondrial matrix. – Mitochondria have their own DNA and manufacture their own ribosomes.• FUNCTION: – ATP production is a mitochondrion’s core function. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  45. 45. Chloroplasts• STRUCTURE: – Most plant and algal cells have chloroplasts that, like mitochondria, have a double membrane and contain their own DNA. – Chloroplasts contain membrane-bound, flattened vesicles called thylakoids, which are stacked into piles called grana. Outside the thylakoids is the solution called the stroma.• FUNCTION: – Chloroplasts convert light energy to chemical energy – in other words, they perform photosynthesis. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  47. 47. The Cell Wall• Fungi, algae, and plants have a stiff outer cell wall that protects the cell. – In plants and algae, the cell wall’s primary component is cellulose. – In fungi, the primary component is chitin.• Some plants have a secondary cell wall containing lignin. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  49. 49. Cytoskeleton• The cytoskeleton, composed of protein fibers, gives the cell shape and structural stability, and aids cell movement and transport of materials within the cell.• In essence, the cytoskeleton organizes all of the organelles and other cellular structures into a cohesive whole. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  51. 51. Structure and Function at the Whole-Cell Level An organelle’s membrane and its enzymes correlate with its function, and cell structure (e.g., the type, size, and number of organelles) correlates with cell function.• Cells are dynamic living things with interacting parts and constantly moving molecules. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  57. 57. How Dynamic Are Eukaryotic Cells?• Your body’s cells use, and synthesize, approximately 10 million ATP molecules per second.• Cellular enzymes can catalyze >25,000 reactions per second.• Each membrane phospholipid can travel the breadth of its organelle or cell in under a minute.• The hundreds of trillions of mitochondria inside you are replaced about every 10 days, for as long as you live. (Aging)• The fluid plasma membrane’s composition is constantly changing. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  58. 58. The Nuclear Envelope: A Transport Mechanism• The nuclear envelope has two membranes, each consisting of a lipid bilayer, and is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.• The inside surface is linked to fibrous proteins that form a lattice- like sheet called the nuclear lamina. – Stiffens the membrane’s structure and maintains its shape – Provides attachment points for each chromosome• The envelope contains thousands of openings called nuclear pores. – Function as doors into and out of the nucleus © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  60. 60. How Are Molecules Imported into the Nucleus?• Messenger RNAs and ribosomes are synthesized in the nucleus and exported to the cytoplasm. Materials such as proteins needed in the nucleus are imported into the nucleus.• Movement of proteins and other large molecules into and out of the nucleus is an energy-demanding process. Proteins destined for the nucleus have a molecular “zip code”—a 17-amino-acid-long nuclear localization signal (NLS)—which allows them to enter the nucleus. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  65. 65. The Endomembrane System• The endomembrane system is composed of the smooth and rough ER and the Golgi apparatus, and is the primary system for protein and lipid synthesis.• Ions, ATP, amino acids, and other small molecules diffuse randomly throughout the cell, but the movement of proteins and other large molecules is energy demanding and tightly regulated. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  66. 66. The Secretory Pathway Hypothesis• The secretory pathway hypothesis proposes that proteins intended for secretion from the cell are synthesized and processed in a highly prescribed set of steps.• Proteins are packaged into vesicles when they move from the RER to the Golgi apparatus and from the Golgi apparatus to the cell surface. – The RER and Golgi apparatus function as an integrated endomembrane system. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  72. 72. The Signal Hypothesis The signal hypothesis predicts that proteins bound for the endomembrane system have a “zip code” that directs the growing polypeptide to the ER. – This “zip code” is a 20-amino-acid-long ER signal sequence.• The ER signal sequence binds to a signal recognition particle (SRP) that then binds to a receptor in the ER membrane.• In the RER lumen, proteins are folded and glycosylated. – Carbohydrates are attached to the protein. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  75. 75. From ER to Golgi• Proteins are transported from the ER to the Golgi apparatus in vesicles that bud off the ER, then fuse with the Golgi apparatus membrane and deposit their contents inside. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  76. 76. Inside the Golgi Apparatus• The Golgi apparatus’s composition is dynamic. – New cisternae form at the cis face. – Old cisternae break off from the trans face.• Protein products enter the Golgi apparatus at the cis face and pass through cisternae containing enzymes for attaching specific carbohydrate chains, before exiting on the far side (trans face) of the Golgi. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  77. 77. How Are Products Shipped from the Golgi?• Each protein that comes out of the Golgi apparatus has a molecular tag that places it in a particular type of transport vesicle. – Each type of transport vesicle also has a tag that allows it to be transported to the correct destination. Proteins produced in a cell have distinctive molecular address labels, which allow proteins to be shipped to the compartments where they function. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  78. 78. Exocytosis• Some proteins are sent to the cell surface in vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents to the exterior of the cell in a process called exocytosis. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  80. 80. The Dynamic Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton is a complex network of fibers that helps maintain cell shape by providing structural support. The cytoskeleton is dynamic; it changes to alter the cell’s shape, to transport materials in the cell, or to move the cell itself.• There are three types of cytoskeletal elements: – Actin filaments (microfilaments) – Intermediate filaments – Microtubules © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  81. 81. Actin Filaments• Actin filaments are the smallest cytoskeletal elements.• Actin filaments form by polymerization of individual actin molecules.• Actin filaments are grouped together into long bundles or dense networks that are usually found just inside the plasma membrane and help define the cell’s shape.• Rubber bands © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  82. 82. Actin-Myosin Interactions• Actin filaments can also be involved in movement by interacting with the motor protein myosin.• Actin-myosin interactions can cause cell movements such as cell crawling, cytokinesis, and cytoplasmic streaming. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  86. 86. Intermediate Filaments• Intermediate filaments are defined by size rather than composition. Many types of intermediate filaments exist, each consisting of a different protein.• Intermediate filaments provide structural support for the cell. They are not involved in movement.• Intermediate filaments form a flexible skeleton that helps shape the cell surface and hold the nucleus in place.• Thick rope © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  87. 87. Microtubule Structure• Microtubules are large, hollow tubes made of tubulin dimers (two- part compounds).• Microtubules have polarity, are dynamic, and usually grow at their plus ends.• Microtubules originate from the microtubule organizing center and grow outward, radiating throughout the cell.• Animal cells have just one microtubule organizing center called the centrosome. Centrosomes contain two bundles of microtubules called centrioles.• Steel beams © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  89. 89. Microtubule Function• Microtubules provide stability and are involved in movement; they may also provide a structural framework for organelles. – Microtubules can act as “railroad tracks”; transport vesicles move through the cell along these microtubule tracks in an energy-dependent process.• Microtubules require ATP and kinesin for vesicle transport to occur. Kinesin is a motor protein that converts chemical energy in ATP into mechanical work. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  96. 96. Cilia and Flagella: Moving the Entire Cell• Flagella are long, hairlike projections from the cell surface that move cells. – Bacterial flagella are made of flagellin and rotate like a propeller. – Eukaryotic flagella are made of microtubules and wave back and forth.• Closely related to eukaryotic flagella are cilia, which are short, filament-like projections.• Cells generally have just one or two flagella but may have many cilia. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  98. 98. Cilia and Flagella Structure• The axoneme of cilia and flagella is a complex “9 + 2” arrangement of microtubules connected by links and spokes.• The axoneme attaches to the cell at a structure called the basal body. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  102. 102. A Motor Protein in the Axoneme• The motor protein dynein forms the arms between doublets and changes shape when ATP is hydrolyzed to “walk” up the microtubule.• When the dynein arms on just one side of the axoneme move, cilia and flagella bend instead of elongating because the links and bridges constrain movement of the microtubule doublets. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  104. 104. Chapter Summary Taken together, the data reviewed in this chapter can be summed up in six words: Cells are dynamic, highly integrated structures. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.