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NIKOLA VAPTSAROV Culture and Ethnography in SCHOOL the town of Radomir RADOMIR Editorial Team: Editors: Mihaela Betova E - B O O K Kristina Zhivkova Radostina Dimitrova Land of Ancient Civilization Stela Slavcheva Press Photographers: Simona Karadachka Tsvetelina Fidanova Computer Design: The territory of Radomir is domir, suggesting that it lennium BC); DREN village Georgi Nenkov abundant in archaeological keeps in its bowels historical early Chalcolithic sites. Through the artifacts artifacts of this earliest Head Consultant: surviving to this day , made era. Several prehistoric set- NEGOVANTSI village: Mariana Kolarska of long-lasting materials , tlements of the early and late Klenovska mound-early Neo- mostly stone , ceramics and Neolithic, Chalcolithic and the lithic; bone , it is easy to trace the diver-city of artistic skills , RADOMIR town – late Neo- lithic – early Bronze age; aesthetic flair and views of the people who settled in the GERENA locality-late Chal- upper reaches of the Struma colithic and Early Bronze River at the dawn of human Age. civilization. This is evident from the common everyday utensils, as well as the works Prehistoric finds of plastic arts, cult and idol INSIDE THIS making, with their impressive ISSUE: forms, both exquisite and expedient. Bulgarian 2 As early as the late 19th cen- Middle Ages tury and early 20th century early Bronze Age have been scientists were informed of found. Saint Dimitar 2 particular cases of prehistoric PRIBOI village – early- finds from the region of Ra- Neolithic settlement (5th mil- Ancient Hub 3 in Arbanas Excavations 3 in Arbanas Excavations 4 in Arbanas Boza-making 5 Stoyo’s 5, House 6
PAGE 2 Bulgarian Middle Ages The land of the municipality localities with some of them letters of the 13th c., Ra- of Radomir is abundant in being named after medie- domir, who wrote the Ra- vestiges of the Bulgarian val Bulgarian tsars and domir’s Psalter, etc. Middle Ages, the physical boyars. The name of Ra- In the Middle Ages, the evidence of which is the domir city falls into the valley of Radomir has often large number of ruins of same category of Bulgarian happened to be the scene settlements, ancient names. A legend has it that of fierce battles waged by churches and monasteries. the city was called after a Bulgarians against Byzan- Byzantine chronicles are Bulgarian voivode of the tium, as it is crossed by a emphatic that the popula- same name. Bulgarian strategic road to the Ae- tion from the upper reaches history gives a number of gean Sea, trailing along the of the Struma River has examples of the same Struma riverbed, well-know always been ethnically name: King Gavril Radomir even to Romans, which pure Bulgarian communi- of Bulgaria, the fifth son, road had never lost its im- ties in the Middle Ages. Radomir of King Ivan portance all along, includ- The fact is reflected in the Vladislav of Bulgaria, re- ing the Middle Ages. names of the villages and nowned Bulgarian man of In many of the legends told Golo Bardo, the ruins by the locals about the above the village of Dren, ancient ruins on the high where a locality, called The hilltops, where arrowheads Tsar’s Tree, is situated, the and medieval coins have ruins on the hillside be- been unearthed, the names tween the villages of Vladi- of Bulgarian Kings Samuil mir and Dolna Dikanya, as and Ivan Shishman, as well well as those rising above as of other medieval sover- the villages of Drugan, Ra- eigns and voivodes are dobosh, etc., bear tacit involved. witness to the dramatic The ruins of Malo and events. Goliamo Gradishte atop Saint Dimitar Patron of Radomir With the consecra- Day of St. Demetrius of sents the saint as St. Caption tion of the St. Dimi- Thessalonica. The popular George’s twin brother,describing tar Church, the beliefs hold the Day of St. while in iconography he is picture or citizens of Radomir Demetrius to be a celebra- painted mostly riding a red graphic. chose the church tion related to a turn in the horse. The Day of St. De- patron saint for seasons and a bottom line metrius is an immutable their city’s patron of the work done in the holiday of the municipality as well. The Bul- summer half-year, which is of Radomir with celebra- garian Orthodox the season of the most tions and cultural events Church celebrates strenuous agricultural ac- held in the city on a yearly on October 26, the tivities. Folk tradition repre- basis. CULTURE AND ETHNOGRAPHY IN THE TOWN OF RADOMIR
E-BOOK PAGE 3Ancient Industrial Hub and Fortress in ArbanasArchaeological excavations in cal tools, lead mirrors, bronze well as two fragments of votive tablets, featuring Zeus.1983-84 testify to the existence button-bells, jewellery andof a significant industrial and coins. n 1987, during the exploration of the late antique fortresscommercial centre until the mid rd at Arbanas, two churches were discovered, construc- After the mid-3 c., a fortress-3rd c. The southern wall and tively connected with the east wall of the enclosure. It had been erected over the well-the gate of the fortress have suggests the existence of a big early Christian centre, functioning industrial and trade most probably a fortified monastery. In the early Byzan-been explored, as well as a hub. tine period the east church was reconstructed into amassive building in its centre. dwelling. For the purpose, its western side was madeThe building is constructed of For the time being, just a few with a hearth of bricks.stone and white mortar. In its hand-made ceramics testify toeast and, in an almost square the pre-Roman period of this Such a rebuilding of an early Christian church into a curious archaeological site.room of stone, an apse is set. A dwelling has a sole logical explanation: the inhabitants of Individual finds have been ex-number of interesting finds the fortress were replaced, most probably, by the tribes cavated, typical of metal-have been unearthed in a late invading the empire from the north. working: a hammer, pair ofantique layer southwest of the compasses, items of bronzebuildings: bone needles, medi- and lead, remains of kilns and pits for keeping raw stuff, asExcavations in Arbanas, RadomirUntil the moment of excava- work. While on the beat around on different aspects of the an-tions at Arbanas quarter of Ra- the vicinity, they could gather cient culture in the westerndomir town, nothing was known some data for ancient settle- Thracian lands and especially in the region of the uppermostabout the antiquity of this place ment remains and a tumulus stream of Struma.in the scientific literature. The nearby, towards the lowlandsurrounding population has, flowing river of Struma. Of special interest is one rarelyindeed, in the course of their The finds discovered during the met adornment. The adornmentwork, brought out some ,,pins, excavations and especially the is mode of silver and repre-clasps, etc.’’ ,treasure-hunters adornments, represent a rich sents a precisely shaped hoophave also dug around, but ar- source of information of typo- logical, stylistic and technologi- with six pendants stringed upchaeologists came to know cal character. They throw light on stitches.only in the process of the fieldClosest parallels to this adorn- erably smaller than the main consider that theyment are the silver bracelets , constructions and this suggests are products of onewhich date from the 80’s of the that it was a part of a bigger and the same epoch1st century. Especially similar is bracelet or some other kind of and are dating froma detail of the bracelet repre-sents a massive open tetrahe- adornment. In spite of the simi- as early as the sec-dral ring, the ends of which are larities between some details it ond half of the 1stmade thinner and pass one is evident that the adornment century.another forming volutes. was made by a different crafts- man under different circum- Bone NeedlesComparing the adornment from stances. However, taking intoArbanas to the bracelets from consideration the decoration,Serbia we see that it is consid- even the choice of material, we
PAGE 4 From the excavations the relatively simplified Subtypes of golden brace- come also two iron pruning decoration scheme. Con- lets are represented by the -knives, which are most sidering its decorative and twisted silver bracelet with- likely cult or votive ones. technical peculiarities we out volutes and by a can enlarge the circle of different kinds of objects, bronze bracelet, consisting At the site of archaeologi- of double, parallel, twisted cal excavations in Arbanas mainly adornments, from our archaeological site as rings. A silver bracelet from was found an iron axe, whose shape is amazingly well as from many others, Bazaurt is a more exact similar to that of the corre- isolating a stylistic group. parallel to the first one, sponding pendant, which while the second one must perhaps explains the The varieties of the decora- be of type D-4 . choice of the model. The tive spiral were used also spiral constructions in on bracelets and rings. It adornment from Arbanas strengthens the impression make an impression at firstIron Spear sight. These elements suc- of a serial mastered pro- cessfully play the part of duction in the region of the decoration ornaments in sanctuary. From Dacia is known a ring consider, that the rings are greater part was made of compared with the similarly dated from the mind 1st to other materials can clam decorated bracelet from the the mind 3rd century. with certainty, that at or Late La Tene. The two Due to the regularly organ- round that sanctuary there massive silver rings deco- rated with two volutes from ized fairs, market, etc., the was a centre of arts and Arbanas, also have a direct sanctuary at Arbanas was crafts unfamiliar till now. analogy in the golden turned into a cross-road The local works of arts, bracelet from Ratiaria, ect. point, providing opportuni- crafts and adornments in ties for connections in dif- particular are included in Proceeding from the speci- ferent directions. Having in the process of formation of fied analogies and from the mind the finds, including provincial Roman styles stylistic-typological peculi- other sorts and types of with its local peculiarity, arities, the archaeologists adornments, whose synthesizing various pre- liminary currents. This is actually the great the present preliminary We, the students of importance of the discovery research is a starting point Nikola Vaptsarov at Arbanas and contribution in the complete interpreta- School and our to studying the problem tion of the site. teacher, would like to which foundation has been express our gratitude laid. Thus the archaeologi- to Mr Pavlov, the mu- cal results of the excava- seum director, for his tions and rapprochement of contribution and help the Balkan cultures, which during the implemen- has begun since earlier tation of our project. times, and for archeologists CULTURE AND ETHNOGRAPHY IN THE TOWN OF RADOMIR
E-BOOK PAGE 5 Boza-makingMost common in the region of ent types of khalva – from sun- Here follow the instructions for making boza at home.Radomir in the second half of flower seed, sesame seed, The recipe is meant for 5 liters.the 19th and the early 20th cen- black khalva, fruit khalva, etc. Ingredients: 5 l water,2 teacupfuls flour,2 teacupfulstury were the making of boza From the mid 20th century on, sugar,1 teacupful boza or home-made ferment.(millet-ale) and the tailoring or the pastry-shops replaced thesaya-making (saya, a type of manual production of boza. In Directions: Slightly roast the flour (to become rosy inlong, female dress). These the village of Dolni Rakovets a colour). Take care not to get it burnt. Mix it with only a bitcrafts involved travelling. modern installation was built by of lukewarm water. Pour the mixture into the pot filled ET “Elektra” Radomir for the with the rest of the water and put it on the plate. Add theThe boza-makers used to prac- production of Radomir boza sugar and leave the liquid to boil stirring it once in atice their trade all over Bulgaria. following the traditional technol- while. Keep boiling for 5-6 minutes still stirring. RemoveIn the autumn, right after the ogy. the pot from the fire and let it cool. Add 1 teacupful bozaend of the field work they used or home-made ferment. Leave the mixture in a warmto travel with their inventory to BOZA is a popular fermented place for 2-3 days to cause fermentation. When the bozathe different towns in the coun- beverage in Bulgaria. It is a is ready, pour it in bottles and store in a cool placetry and work there and returned malt drink, made from wheat or (refrigerator).to their native towns and vil- millet . It has a thick consis-lages not earlier than for the tency and a low alcohol contentnext spring sowing. Along with (usually around 1%), and has athe boza they produced differ- slightly acidic sweet flavor.How to make the boza fer- As we are very proud with bozament: -making in our town, we have a monument devoted to boza-Mix the slightly roasted flour makers. We call them Bozadz-(take care to keep it from burn- hii.ing) with the water and stir well.Add the sugar. Leave the messin a warm place for 2-3 days toferment, stirring it from time totime.Note: The teacupful of boza orhome-made ferment can bereplaced by 6-7 moistened andcrumbled slices of wholemealbread /or toast/, or by 6-7spoonfuls leaven. In this casebefore storage the boza has tobe filtered (without pressing).Stoyo’s House Ethnographic MuseumThe exposition ,arranged in costumes in Radomir, products shirt, the girdle and especiallyStoyo’s House Ethnographic of the local craftsmen, every- the knitted stockings whichMuseum, is a remarkable archi- day life objects. complemented the costumetecture monument from the The Radomir festive costume is with their coloured motifs.second half of the 19th century.It reveals the ethnographic rich- completed by a variety of orna-ness of the Radomir region ments – belt buckles, bead-population from the end of the belts, bracelets, rings and ear-19th and the 20th centuries. rings, breast ornaments, hair- pins, etc. The ornaments and National traditional costumeWhat can you see in Stoyo’s the details of the costumes are for women from the pastHouse? Showcased are valu- very original – the apron, theable examples of the traditional
Stoyo’s House Ethnographic MuseumThe colours of the decorative and sess high artistic value – theartistic fabrics are remarkably mortars, vessels, spoons, combs,colored rugs, bags, cradles, pil- etc. as well as the ceramic ves-lows, tablecloths and cloths. In sels – jugs, bowls with handles,the past they were made in the etc.natural color of the wool and thehemp with variegated linear-stripdecoration. A beautiful addition tothe textile and the dress is thetypical laces knitted or sewn. Theartistic sense and the creativeimagination of the Radomirwomen are expressed in theweaving and the combination ofcolors of the pillows and the ritualcloths.The most typical element of theancient male dress till the end ofthe 19th century is so-calleddolakatnik – a braided whiteshort-sleeved jacket. National traditional costumeThe showcased wooden objects Cradle from the past for men from the pastfrom the everyday life also pos-