Model of Geo/Spatial Information Literacy (MG/SIL):  an innovative model for geospatial information education and research...
What is MG/SIL? <ul><li>A model constructed on the properties of conceptions of geospatial information (GI) emerged from a...
Information literacy in  online distance learning GIS programmes  Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Real information ...
Information literacy  <ul><li>“ Knowing when and why you need information, where to find it, and how to evaluate, use, and...
Information literacy Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Information literacy to diagnose their information and learnin...
Overall outcomes of this study <ul><li>Conceptions of GIS </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptions of Geo/spatial information  </li><...
Why to you? <ul><li>Department of information science </li></ul><ul><li>Master course on Geographic information </li></ul>...
In this presentation: <ul><li>Why MG/SIL is needed? </li></ul><ul><li>How was it developed? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it ...
Rationale Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Purpose of GI/S education To enable people use GI/S in different discipli...
Barriers to transferable learning in GI/S education Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield GIS education Diversity in the ...
Rationale Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Diversity in the applications of GI/S GI/S is technology-oriented Diversi...
Fixed GIS curricula Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Key models of GIS curricula Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Community-centred The UCGIS Model Curricula Project  Th...
Some initiatives Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The Body of Knowledge Using current models of IL Pedagogical appro...
Transferable education  Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Understanding ways in which information is perceived and used in the process of tea...
Exploration of GI conceptions and construction of the MG/SIL <ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth, semi-stru...
Conceptions of GI Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatial Temporal Geo/spatially Technology-mediated Geo/spatia...
Conceptions of GI - 1 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatial Location  Attributes Locational (e.g. name of str...
Conceptions of GI - 2 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Temporal It represents features of the earth in certain point...
Conceptions of GI - 3 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatially  contextualised  needs to be spatially conceptu...
Conceptions of GI - 4 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatially  technology-mediated  GI is readable and usable...
The GI conceptions as foundations of the MG/SIL Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The multi-dimensional nature of and...
Various user inputs <ul><li>Spatial way of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial and temporal way of thinking </li></ul><ul><...
The GI conceptions as foundations of the MG/SIL Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The multi-dimensional nature of and...
The GI conceptions as foundations of the MG/SIL Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The multi-dimensional nature of and...
Learners in charge …  <ul><li>To understand the features and characteristics of GI as described in the four conceptions  <...
Implications for teaching and research GI <ul><li>Curriculum design </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy  </li></ul><ul><li>Learning...
…  curriculum design <ul><li>To inform the GI/S curricula design, content, and pedagogy (to develop and evaluate) </li></u...
…  pedagogy <ul><li>To engage students in inquiry-base tasks that involve them in the G/SIL competencies, e.g. tasks that:...
…  learning environment and materials <ul><li>To design learning environment and materials in a way that facilitate learni...
…  to research GI <ul><li>To investigate people’s perceptions of, and ways of, using information, using the current method...
…  to research GI <ul><li>To develop semantics of GI in various subjects and application areas </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics...
<ul><li>Ms. Sheila Webber (my supervisor in Sheffield) </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Robin S. Smith (my GIS advisor in the ICOSS) ...
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Model of Geo/Spatial Information Literacy (MG/SIL): an innovative model for geospatial information education and research

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This model has been contextually constructed on four main foundations as emerged from Nazari's exploratory case study of IL. These are: a and b) conceptions of geospatial information and GIS as emerged from the perceptions and experiences of GIS students and educators as well as from the context of the case i.e. from GIS module outlines and an analysis of other relevant documents such as the GIS curricula as well as the researcher's observations of the ODL environment of the case; c) nature and characteristics of GIS education; d) nature and process of problem solving geospatially.
This presentation introduces the MG/SIL as emerged "only" from the conceptions of geospatial information. So it does NOT present the final picture of the model.
This presentation aims to highlight the implications of the model for GI/S education and research in the particular context of the City University in London (UCL).
Hope you find it useful :)

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Model of Geo/Spatial Information Literacy (MG/SIL): an innovative model for geospatial information education and research

  1. 1. Model of Geo/Spatial Information Literacy (MG/SIL): an innovative model for geospatial information education and research Maryam Nazari Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield giCentre, Department of Information Science, City University, London, October 2008
  2. 2. What is MG/SIL? <ul><li>A model constructed on the properties of conceptions of geospatial information (GI) emerged from a qualitative, exploratory case study </li></ul><ul><li>It provides GIS (Geographic Information Science/Systems) learners, educators, curriculum designers, and other stakeholders with approaches that facilitate transferring learning in GI/S education </li></ul><ul><li>It also provides GI researchers with a framework and methodological approach to research GI and the needs of GI users </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  3. 3. Information literacy in online distance learning GIS programmes Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Real information and learning needs Perceptions, and teaching and learning experiences of, GIS and geo/spatial information Real skill and knowledge-needs An exploratory case study Identify Explore - Academics and students - 23 GIS modules - 3 ODL programs - semi-structured interview - questionnaire - students’ reflection - document study - To identify competencies GIS students need: a) to be able to find, evaluate, and use geospatial information; b) to solve problems geo/spatially Explore
  4. 4. Information literacy <ul><li>“ Knowing when and why you need information, where to find it, and how to evaluate, use, and communicate it in an ethical manner”. </li></ul><ul><li>(CILIP 2007) </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  5. 5. Information literacy Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Information literacy to diagnose their information and learning needs when dealing with a task to find, evaluate and use appropriate information to meet their needs
  6. 6. Overall outcomes of this study <ul><li>Conceptions of GIS </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptions of Geo/spatial information </li></ul><ul><li>A five-phase process of problem-solving geo/spatially </li></ul><ul><li>Model of Geo/Spatial Information Literacy </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  7. 7. Why to you? <ul><li>Department of information science </li></ul><ul><li>Master course on Geographic information </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in interactive methods of teaching and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Research on understanding GI and needs of GI users is one of the core aims of the giCentre </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  8. 8. In this presentation: <ul><li>Why MG/SIL is needed? </li></ul><ul><li>How was it developed? </li></ul><ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>How can it be used in GI education and research? </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  9. 9. Rationale Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Purpose of GI/S education To enable people use GI/S in different disciplines and application areas for various purposes Calls for transferable education
  10. 10. Barriers to transferable learning in GI/S education Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield GIS education Diversity in the GIS learners’ backgrounds, abilities, and ambitions Wide application areas Technology-oriented nature of the information and learning in the GIS discipline Tight schedule, instruction-led Involves using wide range of tools, techniques, and operations Self-contained modules and tasks to deliver wide range of instructions and skill-sets Need for application and subject-relevant principles, knowledge and terminology, etc Wide range of knowledge-base and value systems Need to match various knowledge-base and value systems
  11. 11. Rationale Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Diversity in the applications of GI/S GI/S is technology-oriented Diversity in the knowledge of application areas Diversity in the GIS learners’ backgrounds Diversity in their knowledge-base Diversity in their value system Diversity in the GIS learners’ goals of learning GI/S Involves using wide range of GIS and non-GIS tools and techniques Diversity in their way of viewing and using GI/S Diversity in their ability to deal with a GI/S task Require doing various operations Require wide range of skill-sets Tight schedule GIS courses Diversity in the GIS learners’ knowledge and skill-needs Diversity in the underpinnings of the tools and techniques Instruction-led Self-contained tasks Transferring education
  12. 12. Fixed GIS curricula Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
  13. 13. Key models of GIS curricula Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Community-centred The UCGIS Model Curricula Project The Body of Knowledge (BoK) NCGIA Core Curriculum
  14. 14. Some initiatives Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The Body of Knowledge Using current models of IL Pedagogical approaches The BoK- providing learners with multiple pathways to select their destination from ten areas of knowledge Jablonski (2004) uses the Big6: problem-solving process to develop GIS learning objectives that increase independent task accomplishment in undergraduate learners Xgrain, e-MapScholar, and EDINA use learning materials and resources to enable IL and research skills in undergraduate and graduate students, adopting the SCONUL model (Massey 2002) To engage learners in some IL activities in some GIS introductory courses (DiBiase 1996; Rahn and Zygo 2004)
  15. 15. Transferable education Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
  16. 16. Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Understanding ways in which information is perceived and used in the process of teaching and learning
  17. 17. Exploration of GI conceptions and construction of the MG/SIL <ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 20 academics within the context of 23 different GIS ODL modules </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth, semi-structured interviews with 7 students who had learning experiences of various GIS modules, and some workplace-oriented tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>How would you describe geospatial information (GI) and what makes it unique? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you describe the physical format of GI? </li></ul><ul><li>What competencies are needed to make sense of, and use GI in each GI conception? What are the implications of the conceptions for the MG/SIL? </li></ul><ul><li>Data analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Grounded theory methods  conceptions of GI </li></ul><ul><li>Further analysis on the properties of the conceptions to construct the MG/SIL </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  18. 18. Conceptions of GI Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatial Temporal Geo/spatially Technology-mediated Geo/spatially contextualised Geo/spatial information
  19. 19. Conceptions of GI - 1 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatial Location Attributes Locational (e.g. name of streets, postal codes) Non-locational (e.g. diseases, pollution, sand, water etc) Represents the earth feature Information about the location Information about the target phenomenon in the location Defines in the corresponding context of application or subject area
  20. 20. Conceptions of GI - 2 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Temporal It represents features of the earth in certain point(s) of time It is about a dynamic-temporal phenomenon i.e. the earth It has a life span e.g. census data
  21. 21. Conceptions of GI - 3 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatially contextualised needs to be spatially conceptualised and contextualised socially and geographically constructed phenomenon
  22. 22. Conceptions of GI - 4 Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield Geo/spatially technology-mediated GI is readable and usable by GIS It needs to be formed and transformed - x,y,z coordinates; - latitude-longitude; - spatial identifier GI is originally in any format - Text ; e.g. names of streets, lakes etc - Number ; e.g. table of census data, columns of spreadsheet etc - Visual formats ; e.g. maps, graphs, digital maps and images, scanned aerial photographs etc.
  23. 23. The GI conceptions as foundations of the MG/SIL Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The multi-dimensional nature of and characteristics of GI The multi-dimensional context of GI Need for various operations & skill-sets Various forms of user input GI conceptions Informative framework of GI conceptions
  24. 24. Various user inputs <ul><li>Spatial way of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial and temporal way of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>To geo/spatially form and transform GI </li></ul><ul><li>To geo/spatially construct GI </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  25. 25. The GI conceptions as foundations of the MG/SIL Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The multi-dimensional nature of and characteristics of GI The multi-dimensional context of GI Need for various operations & skill-sets Various forms of user input GI conceptions Informative framework of GI conceptions Time Location Attributes Subject Application Task/ query Constructive framework of GI conceptions
  26. 26. The GI conceptions as foundations of the MG/SIL Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield The multi-dimensional nature of and characteristics of GI The multi-dimensional context of GI Need for various operations & skill-sets Various forms of user input GI conceptions Informative framework of GI conceptions Time Location Attributes Subject Application Task/ query Constructive framework of GI conceptions Task/ problem Informed thinking & questioning To diagnose and perform appropriate geo/spatial information behaviour , and acquire their needed skill and knowledge to make sense of, and use GI, geo/spatially
  27. 27. Learners in charge … <ul><li>To understand the features and characteristics of GI as described in the four conceptions </li></ul><ul><li>Combining this understanding with their understanding of the task  to determine their way of viewing and using GI </li></ul><ul><li>To think and question </li></ul><ul><li>1- To question the skills and competencies needed to make sense of, and use GI in the way they wanted </li></ul><ul><li>2- To question their KB and VS; to see in what part of the competencies they are good and where they need to improve themselves </li></ul><ul><li>To diagnose and catch up </li></ul><ul><li>To diagnose appropriate geo/spatial information behaviour and gain their needed competencies, using resources inside and outside of the course materials </li></ul><ul><li>To recall and transform </li></ul><ul><li>To connect the new knowledge and competencies to their KB and VS </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  28. 28. Implications for teaching and research GI <ul><li>Curriculum design </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Learning environment and materials </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  29. 29. … curriculum design <ul><li>To inform the GI/S curricula design, content, and pedagogy (to develop and evaluate) </li></ul><ul><li>To develop GI/S curricula around the conceptions </li></ul><ul><li>To evaluate the coverage of the GI/S curricula in terms of the conceptions: to identify their way of viewing GI/S and the extent to which they cover competencies needed relevant to each conception </li></ul><ul><li>To develop an introductory course on the GI </li></ul><ul><li>To develop an introductory course on the MG/SIL </li></ul><ul><li>To integrate the MG/SIL model in the GI/S courses </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  30. 30. … pedagogy <ul><li>To engage students in inquiry-base tasks that involve them in the G/SIL competencies, e.g. tasks that: </li></ul><ul><li>- a) require them construct their meaning of GI and identify their input(s) into it – reflection </li></ul><ul><li>- b) inquire their knowledge base (KB) and value system (VS) in terms of the conceptions and competencies you need to make sense of, and use GI to accomplish their tasks </li></ul><ul><li>- c) inquire their KB and VS to see how the competencies would relate to their KB and VS </li></ul><ul><li>- d) require them to recall their earned knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>- e) facilitate connective and transformative learning, e.g. to develop their awareness of the GI conceptions as that helps them to understand the “why” behind instructions they may be given to operate GI -ATTITUDE </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  31. 31. … learning environment and materials <ul><li>To design learning environment and materials in a way that facilitate learning and practicing the G/SIL competencies, e.g. that facilitate learners: </li></ul><ul><li>- a) to navigate their needed information and learning materials and feed their possible inquires both terms of their skill and knowledge-needs </li></ul><ul><li>- b) to map the components of the curriculum and courses onto their KB and VS </li></ul><ul><li>- c) connect different pieces of learning to their KB and VS </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield
  32. 32. … to research GI <ul><li>To investigate people’s perceptions of, and ways of, using information, using the current methodological approach </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate students’ ways of viewing and using GI, using and/or building upon the GI conceptions </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield “ Understanding GI is fundamental to decisions wherever geography is important, for example, in the prediction of natural hazards, planning transportation options or analysing crime patterns”.
  33. 33. … to research GI <ul><li>To develop semantics of GI in various subjects and application areas </li></ul><ul><li>Semantics of GI may vary in different discipline and application areas- need to be constructed  </li></ul><ul><li>To involve individuals and organizations in constructing their own semantics of GI geo/spatially – meaning of location, time, … in the context of the applications </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield “ We are focused on the use of digital geographic information to achieve new insights into society and the environment, and to enable access to geographic information in ways that are both beneficial and effective”.
  34. 34. <ul><li>Ms. Sheila Webber (my supervisor in Sheffield) </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Robin S. Smith (my GIS advisor in the ICOSS) </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. David DiBiase (my advisor in Penn State) </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide Universities Network (WUN) - Global exchange program award </li></ul><ul><li>The John Campbell Trust – CILIP </li></ul><ul><li>GIS instructors and students in the Universities of Leeds and Southampton, and Pennsylvania State University </li></ul>Maryam Nazari, University of Sheffield

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