A New Methodology for Public EducationPurposeful AssessmentCopyright MM 2009
Do you want to organize yourassessments but you don’t know how?
Assessments are chosen to fulfill a need;to answer a question.Needed by whom, you ask?
Information is needed for decision making by:0 Parents0 Teachers0 Grade level teams0 Principals0 District administration0 ...
It is a fine lineYour assessment plan needs to be efficient!Data is needed toinsure that all studentsreceive appropriatein...
Tests are organized according topurpose.So, use tests that serve multiplepurposes.
What tests can be used for morethan one purpose, you ask?Let’s start by describing thepurposes that assessments serve.
Classroom assessments – formativeand summative – masterymeasurementAre the students learning the material I amcurrently te...
The Assessment Hierarchy• There are two sectionsAssessments given to:• all students• students who are at risk• Assessment ...
The Assessment Hierarchy• Some diagnostic tests are given to allstudents; students who are at risk aregiven additional dia...
Some Underlying Premises:• Universal screening identifies studentsat risk; does not analyze why• Program supports are desi...
Some Underlying Premises(Continued):• Diagnostic assessments take longer toadminister and score. Because they tell uswhat ...
A Basic Reading Skills ExampleGrades 1-5-State Test-R-CBM-Reading seriestheme tests-ReadingCurriculum BasedMeasurement(R-C...
A College and Career Ready ExampleHigh School-State Test-Early WarningSystem (EWS)-EPAS/Work Keys-EarlyWarningSystem (EWS)...
The Steps to an AlignedAssessment Plan.1. Inventory the assessments used by staff. Include ELL andspecial education assess...
The Steps to an AlignedAssessment Plan.4. Decide which Assessment Hierarchies you will use (K-5Reading, K-5 Math, 6-8 Read...
For more practical resources visitwww.millerguidance.com
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Purposeful assessments

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"Purposeful Assessment" is a practical tool for school administrators. Using the Miller Guidance Assessment Hierarchy, administrators are given the rationale for choosing assessments and organizing them by purpose.
The Assessment Hierarchy clearly identifies gaps and overlaps in assessment practices. The result is an efficient assessment plan that saves precious district resources and minimizes the impact on instruction.

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Purposeful assessments

  1. 1. A New Methodology for Public EducationPurposeful AssessmentCopyright MM 2009
  2. 2. Do you want to organize yourassessments but you don’t know how?
  3. 3. Assessments are chosen to fulfill a need;to answer a question.Needed by whom, you ask?
  4. 4. Information is needed for decision making by:0 Parents0 Teachers0 Grade level teams0 Principals0 District administration0 State education officials and0 the US Department of Education
  5. 5. It is a fine lineYour assessment plan needs to be efficient!Data is needed toinsure that all studentsreceive appropriateinstruction throughouttheir educationHowever, too muchassessment takes awayfrom instructionalminutes and cannegatively impactstudent growth
  6. 6. Tests are organized according topurpose.So, use tests that serve multiplepurposes.
  7. 7. What tests can be used for morethan one purpose, you ask?Let’s start by describing thepurposes that assessments serve.
  8. 8. Classroom assessments – formativeand summative – masterymeasurementAre the students learning the material I amcurrently teaching and what changes can Imake to increase their learning?How much of what was taught in thelesson/unit/course did the students learn?Universal Screening and Progress MonitoringGeneral Outcome MeasurementAs a result of the programmy students are receiving,do the indicators suggestthat they are on the pathto becoming college andcareer ready? Whatchanges can I make in myprogram to improvestudent performance?Program evaluationHigh Stakes Tests - summativeHave my studentsmet the statecriteria forproficiency?Diagnostic Assessment for some studentsWhy is thisstudent(s) failingto makeprogress in thisprogram?Assessments in EducationMiller Guidance, Inc.
  9. 9. The Assessment Hierarchy• There are two sectionsAssessments given to:• all students• students who are at risk• Assessment Hierarchies are constructedfor grade levels and skill areas. They areclustered according to the curriculumthat they represent. For example, if adistrict uses a reading curriculum for K-6 and a language arts curriculum for 7-8, the Assessment Hierarchies wouldmirror this configuration. However, ifgrades 6-8 use a language artscurriculum, then the readingHierarchies would cluster K-5 and 6-8.• Students who are at risk are defined bythe universal screening tool. (Below the25th percentile using a standards basedcut score)
  10. 10. The Assessment Hierarchy• Some diagnostic tests are given to allstudents; students who are at risk aregiven additional diagnostics, if needed• The rigor of diagnostic testing matchesthe severity of need. So students scoringbelow the 10th percentile are given amore rigorous battery of diagnosticsthan students between the 10th and the25th percentiles• If the teacher or interventionist knowswhat instructional focus the studentneeds, there is no reason to administerdiagnostics• Progress monitoring is conducted withall students receiving supplementalsupport• The frequency with which progressmonitoring data is collected is relativeto the severity of need
  11. 11. Some Underlying Premises:• Universal screening identifies studentsat risk; does not analyze why• Program supports are designed forstudents scoring at risk on the universalscreener• The specific supplemental supports thatthese students receive is determined bydiagnostic assessments. Commonformative and formative assessments arediagnostic but generally are more closelyaligned to the student’s curriculum• Different screeners exist for differenttarget skills. Align your screening tool tothe skills that are important for that ageor grade• Universal screeners are brief andreliable indicators of a larger body ofskills. They don’t test everything butthey do test important things
  12. 12. Some Underlying Premises(Continued):• Diagnostic assessments take longer toadminister and score. Because they tell uswhat a student needs, they are constructedto have many production-type items• Diagnostic tests can also be summative.They are used for program eligibility andevaluation purposes• Program evaluation tools use standardsbased criteria and are in essence “progressmonitoring” for the entire population• Individual progress monitoring tools alignto the universal screener since the universalscreener is the tool that determined risk.Local norms are often used as a criterion onthese measures• All students are given some diagnostic testsbut school resources can be conserved ifadditional diagnostic tests are only given tostudents who are at risk and for whom theteachers need information on instructionalfocus
  13. 13. A Basic Reading Skills ExampleGrades 1-5-State Test-R-CBM-Reading seriestheme tests-ReadingCurriculum BasedMeasurement(R-CBM)-Reading seriestheme tests-Curriculumbased evaluation-Interventionassessment-Curriculum basedevaluation-Intervention assessment-Diag Reading Assess 2(DRA-2)-Texas Primary ReadingInventory-ReadingCurriculumBasedMeasurement(R-CBM)-ReadingCurriculumBasedMeasurement(R-CBM)
  14. 14. A College and Career Ready ExampleHigh School-State Test-Early WarningSystem (EWS)-EPAS/Work Keys-EarlyWarningSystem (EWS)-EPAS-Work Keys-Review records-Interviewparents, teachers,student-Observe student-EWS-Interventionmeasurementplan-Review records-Interviewparents, teachers,student-Observe student-Test basic skills-EWS-Interventionmeasurementplan
  15. 15. The Steps to an AlignedAssessment Plan.1. Inventory the assessments used by staff. Include ELL andspecial education assessments. Also, ask generaleducation teachers to list the tools that they use to gaugestudent learning, no matter how informal.2. Compile a list and note which assessments are requiredby the district or state.3. Classify each assessment according to purpose(Universal screening, Diagnostic, Progress monitoring,Program evaluation)
  16. 16. The Steps to an AlignedAssessment Plan.4. Decide which Assessment Hierarchies you will use (K-5Reading, K-5 Math, 6-8 Reading etc.)5. Place the assessments that you are currently using on theappropriate Hierarchy6. Note where there are gaps and overlaps7. Formulate a plan for eliminating overlappingassessments and acquiring assessments to fill in gaps
  17. 17. For more practical resources visitwww.millerguidance.com

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