Teacher Workbook Example

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Teacher Workbook Example

  1. 1. COMMON CORE TEACHER INSTITUTE Sunday, October 6, 2013 GRADES 6-12 ELA AND LITERACY
  2. 2. A SPECIAL THANK YOU TO OUR SPONSORS & PARTNERS LEAD SPONSOR TABLE OF CONTENTS                                     BIOS................................................................................................................................2 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 MEETING OUR MONSTERS: A LESSON IN TEXT SYNTHESIS WITH SARAH BROWN WESSLING Lesson Plan............................................................................................................................ 4 Instructional Practice Guide............................................................................................ 8 SUPPORTING SPONSORS Reading Materials............................................................................................................. 10 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 HOW ARE MITOCHONDRIA CONNECTED TO THE AGING PROCESS?: A TEXT-BASED LESSON IN SCIENCE KNOWLEDGE PARTNERS WITH VEEKO LUCAS Lesson Plan...........................................................................................................................14 Instructional Practice Guide...........................................................................................18 Worksheets......................................................................................................................... 20 Thank You to Our Advisory Committee America Achieves, American Federation of Teachers, LITERACY IN HISTORY, GRADE 10 “THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FRONTIER IN AMERICAN HISTORY”: A TEXT-BASED LESSON IN HISTORY WITH KATHY THIEBES Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, National Board for Professional Lesson Plan..........................................................................................................................23 Teaching Standards, National Education Association, Instructional Practice Guide..........................................................................................26 Student Achievement Partners, Teaching Channel Worksheets..........................................................................................................................28 RESOURCES.............................................................................................................30
  3. 3. 2 BIOS BIOS WORKSHOP FACILITATOR                                      SUE PIMENTEL For over three decades, Susan Pimentel has focused on helping communities, districts, and states work together to advance meaningful and enduring education reform, and to champion proven tools for increasing academic rigor. Recently, Susan led the development of the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects, and is currently working on Common Core implementation efforts around the nation. Susan holds a bachelor’s degree in early childhood education and a law degree from Cornell University. Since 2007, Susan has served on the National Assessment Governing Board, an independent, bipartisan board that sets policy for the national assessment. She became vice-chair of the body in November 2012. TEACHER LEADERS                                     SARAH BROWN WESSLING Sarah Brown Wessling is a 15-year veteran of the high school English classroom. As a member of the faculty at Johnston High School, she has taught courses for students at different achievement levels – from at-risk to Advanced Placement – and has served the department and district in a variety of leadership roles. Sarah is a National Board Certified Teacher since 2005, and in 2010, she was selected as the National Teacher of the Year. As National Teacher of the Year, Sarah worked as an ambassador for education, giving over 250 talks and workshops in 39 different states, Japan, and Finland. Sarah currently teaches in the mornings and works for the non-profit Teaching Channel in the afternoons as their Teacher Laureate and host of their PBS show Teaching Channel Presents. She is an author of Supporting Students in a Time of Core Standards and blogs on education issues for Huffington Post. VEEKO LUCAS 3 Veeko Lucas has been teaching at Iroquois High School in Jefferson County Public Schools since 2009. He has taught 9th grade Physical Science and 11th grade Biology. Iroquois is a neighborhood magnet school in Louisville, Kentucky that serves a very diverse population of students from over 20 different countries. As a school in the center of Louisville, Iroquois serves students from all kinds of backgrounds, from many different reading levels, and with many different abilities. As a teacher of primarily 9th grade students, Veeko has been using literacy in the classroom since the Common Core was implemented in Kentucky in 2010. He believes that the Common Core standards address the underlying issues that create the achievement gap by making literacy as much of a priority in content classrooms as it is in life outside of the school’s walls. In addition to his career at Iroquois, he is currently studying in the Summer Principals Academy with Columbia University, as he hopes to become an administrator and have the chance to oversee the initial rollout of Common Core-aligned assessments. He is also a member of Kentucky’s Education Commissioner’s Teacher Advisory Council, and teaches at a program called Street Academy on the weekends. Street Academy is a program run jointly through Jefferson County Public Schools and the Louisville Urban League where boys who attend Title I elementary and middle schools receive additional support with literacy and behavior interventions. KATHY THIEBES In 2009, Kathy Thiebes began developing and teaching curriculum driven by the Common Core Standards using tools created by the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) initiative. Since that time, she has become part of the LDC design team and enjoys sharing her experiences using LDC tools with teachers around the country. Kathy is starting her 9th year of teaching at Centennial High School in Gresham, Oregon, where she teaches students of varying grades and skill levels. Kathy also supports her school and students as the advisor of the National Honor Society.
  4. 4. 4 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 MEETING OUR MONSTERS: A LESSON IN TEXT SYNTHESIS   SARAH BROWN WESSLING                     LESSON CONTEXT ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 Learning goal: Learn how to develop a concept by synthesizing the textual evidence of multiple perspectives or texts Essential question: What do monsters teach us about human nature? Time 2 min. This lesson is a compressed version of a longer lesson in which students work to juxtapose more than one text in order to develop a conceptual understanding that will be pertinent to continued reading that is focused and purposeful. It’s also important that students will come to develop a more nuanced and rich understanding of the concept of “monster” by focusing on specific words and lines within the selected texts. As a way to synthesize their learning, they will work collaboratively to develop a focused explanation of the relationship between monstrosity and human nature. We will enter this lesson with students already having “read” the article “Our Monsters, Our Selves.” Also important in this lesson is the content selection that includes classic literature, literary nonfiction, informative and visual texts. TEACHING CONTEXT Lesson Component Introduction to the lesson with images and purpose 3 min. Review and task set-up The pacing of this particular demonstration lesson makes it more appropriate for the 11-12 grade band; although, with more time the texts are appropriate for 9-10 as well. Reading for Literature • RL. 11-12.10. Read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the 11-12 CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. Speaking and Listening • SL.11-12-1a. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched materials under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence form texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas. * While portions of many standards are addressed in this lesson, these standards are most specifically targeted. Also, each of the targeted standards would be considered with more scaffolds over the course of several class meetings. In these first moments of the lesson, I will aim to activate the learner’s background knowledge of monsters with familiar images of many different kinds of monsters. I will use these next few minutes to review our “big findings” from a recently read essay that will further create a context and background for the task they will begin. I will set up the task with directions and context. • I provide a brief description of the four texts found at their tables already. • I explain that half the table will be reading 2 “letter A” texts and half the table will be reading “letter B” texts. • I give an example of what annotation of the texts should look like. • A table leader (the person who lives furthest away) assigns half the table as “letter A” and half as “letter B”. STANDARDS ADDRESSED* Writing • W.11-12. 2f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g. articulating implications or the significance of the topic). Teacher Role Learner Role Learners use this time to activate prior knowledge and determine purpose for their learning. Also, in these first minutes I want to establish both what we want to learn by the end of the lesson as well as the essential question that will guide our inquiry. As we know, students will read more closely when they have an explicit reason for reading. We also know that in order to enter into those skills of analysis and synthesis that we so often see in Common Core, they must have a conceptual understanding to attach new learning to. So, this lesson would most likely be found early or late in a unit of study, either as a way to develop a conceptual understanding or as a way to synthesize texts already studied. We’ll see learners engaging in independent close-reading, focused small-group discussion, and brief writing with an incorporation of basic technology. Reading for Informational Text • RI.11-12.7. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. • RI.11-12.10. Read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the 11-12 CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 5 Learners take in the logistics of the task, paying special attention to the context of each reading as well as how to annotate the text for engaged discourse later. 7 min. Read and annotate I will walk around to answer questions or help when necessary. Learners will read their two texts, annotating and thinking about how the reading helps to answer our essential question. 2 min. Similar group discussion I will ask everyone to find one other person who read the same texts as they did. They each get 1 minute to explain how the lines they chose help answer the essential question. Learners verbalize the anchor lines they’ve chosen and how those lines help answer the essential question. As listeners, they will consider both consistencies with their own annotations as well as the usefulness of divergent readings.
  5. 5. 6 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 7 min. Synthesis discussion Now that learners have had the chance to talk together, now they need to learn about the two texts they didn’t read by “making their pair a square.” I’ll prompt this sharing by telling the newly formed groups that they will need to synthesize what they’ve learned from all four texts by responding to the following prompt: ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 Learners synthesize by comparing, contrasting, choosing and generating a response to our essential question. Differentiation Share and see the concept As definitions are formed, I’ll open up a polleverywhere question and have one person from each group of 4 text in their definition to our live poll. Once the responses are texted in, I’ll take all of their words and make a word cloud that will show the concept in a new and visual way. Note: In order to create more of an “ah-ha” moment at the end, I will refrain from talking about the word cloud prior to actually making it. Learners will work to codify their insight about monsters and human nature through this writing. Because there are a couple of constraints to the writing prompt (the 3 textbased words AND the brevity of it) they will need to further refine their thinking. As they text in responses, learners will be able to read what others have said and consider insights they may not have already thought of. I may have them do a few basic hand signals here to show their response to others’ contributions. 1 min. What did you learn? I’ll invite learners to draw a quick conclusion about the word cloud by writing down their new understanding on note card at the table. I’ll be able to collect the note cards as formative assessments to determine what tomorrow’s lesson will be. Extensions to full lesson There are several ways to differentiate this lesson. Here are some initial approaches. • For the emerging learner. Depending on learner needs or strengths, the teacher could choose either A or B readings with him/her in mind. Also, a student may be asked to work through one carefully and use a summary for a second reading to help guide him/her. Another way of approaching a differentiated lesson for the emerging learner is to provide a partially annotated copy of the readings. His/her work could be to use the annotations to help guide an independent reading and analysis of the text. • For the accelerating learner. While a common way to differentiate this kind of lesson may be to have learners read and synthesize additional texts, an additional way to consider providing challenge may be to add constraint. For example, the accelerated learner may be asked to craft a definition with 5 references to the text. He/she may be prompted to generate annotations that also synthesize the previously read “Our Monsters, Ourselves.” In such scenarios, I’ve even found that challenging students to contribute to their group with “Socratic questions” instead of answers or definitions is both challenging for him/her, but also furthers the learning of others in the group. Using at least THREE words from your texts, BRIEFLY (in about 10 words) explain what monsters reveal about human nature. 4 min. 7 Having learners come back to their own learning shows the progression of the lesson that moves from individual to pairs to groups and back to the individual. Through this process the learner is responsible for constructing his own insight and I can use their notecard as important formative assessment for further instruction. There are a few quick ways this lesson could be extended. • All learners read all of the passages. • Before the synthesis work, have individuals rank how effectively each passage addresses the essential question and/or the “Our Monsters, Our Selves” essay takeaways. • Instead of a brief response at the end, learners could write an extended definition of monstrosity as it applies to human nature. Materials/Sources Allchin, Douglas. “Monsters & the Tyranny of Normality: How do biologists interpret anomalous forms?” The American Biology Teacher 70.2 (2008): 117-119. Print. Beal, Timothy K. “Our Monsters, Ourselves.” The Chronicle of Higher Education 9 Nov. 2001. Ernst, Max. L’Ange de Foyer. ABCGallery.com. Web 22 Sept. 2013. Hughes, Robert. “Art: Max Ernst: The Compleat Experimenter.” Time 12 April. 1976. Shelley, Mary. Frankenstein. New York, NY: Signet, 2000. Print. Wiesel, Elie. Night. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. Print.
  6. 6. 8 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 9
  7. 7. 10 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 READING MATERIALS   MEETING OUR MONSTERS                     GROUP A CONTEXT This is from the moment in Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein, where Dr. Frankenstein creates his monster. Remember, “Frankenstein” is actually the scientists, not the monster (as Hollywood portrays it). AS YOU’RE READING underline the key words or phrases that help you answer what this text reveals about human nature. In the margin, explain why or how. Chapter 5 It was on a dreary night of November that I beheld the accomplishment of my toils. With an anxiety that almost amounted to agony, I collected the instruments of life around me, that I might infuse a spark of being into the lifeless thing that lay at my feet. It was already one in the morning; the rain pattered dismally against the panes, and my candle was nearly burnt out, when, by the glimmer of the halfextinguished light, I saw the dull yellow eye of the creature open; it breathed hard, and a convulsive motion agitated its limbs. How can I describe my emotions at this catastrophe, or how delineate the wretch whom with such infinite pains and care I had endeavored to form? His limbs were in proportion, and I had selected his features as beautiful. Beautiful! Great Got! His yellow skin scarcely covered the work of muscles and arteries beneath; this hair was of a lustrous black, and flowing; his teeth of a pearly whiteness; but these luxuriance’s only formed a more horrid contrast with his watery eyes, that seemed almost the same color as the dun-white sockets in which they were set, his shriveled complexion and straight black lips. The different accidents of life are not so changeable as the feelings of human nature. I had worked hard for nearly two years, for the sole purpose of infusing life into an inanimate body. For this I had deprived myself of rest and health. I had desired it with an ardour that far exceeded moderation; but now that I had finished, the beauty of the dream vanished, and breathless horror and disgust filled my heart. Unable to endure the aspect of the being I had created, I rushed out of the room and continued a long time traversing my bedchamber, unable to compose my mind to sleep. Shelly, Mary. Frankenstein. New York, NY: Signet, 2000. Print. ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 11 GROUP A CONTEXT This is from an article that addresses how biologists define monstrosity. AS YOU’RE READING underline the key words or phrases that help you answer what this text reveals about human nature. In the margin, explain why or how. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, monsters were wonders (Allchin, 2007b). Anomalous forms – like conjoined twins, hermaphrodites, hydrocephalic babies, or the extraordinarily hairy Petrus Gonsalus and his equally hairy children – amazed people. They evoked a spirit of inquiry that helped fuel the emergence of modern science. Today, however, such bodies tend to strike us as freakish or grotesque – possibly even “against nature.” How did our cultural perspective, and with it, our values and emotional responses change so radically? With faith in lawlike regularities, philosophical anatomy, teratology and statistics, monsters changed in the 1800s from anomalous wonders to pathological errors. Consider, for example, the case of Joseph Merrick also known as “the Elephant Man,” in mid-century. Merrick exhibited the Proteus syndrome (genetically based excessive bone growth). His head was enormous and bulbous, his right arm and left leg inflated with pendulous folded tissue (even while his left arm seemed utterly familiar). His body was strikingly asymmetrical, resulting in uneven movements. Eventually, Merrick reached the care of physician Frederick Treves and was welcomed in London’s elite society. But such care was deliberately protective. Treves described how earlier, “he had been ill-treated and reviled and bespattered with the mud of Disdain” (Howell & Ford, 1980, p. 189). Even under Treves care, he went hooded and cloaked when traveling in public lest he spark incident. Merrick himself never stopped dreaming of being ordinary. Merrick’s unusual form did not evoke fascination, but an alienation to be overcome. Naturalizing the “Normal” The concept of laws of nature has a powerful hold on our minds. They very language is highly charged. In human society, laws specify what we ought to do. They ensure social order. We tend to interpret laws of nature in the same way, as the guarantors of natural order, profiling how nature should act. Once established, descriptive laws take on a prescriptive character. The laws of “normal” development easily become standards for how organisms “ought” to grow. The normal becomes naturalized, or apparently constitutive of nature’s order (Allchin, 2007a). At the same time, the abnormal comes to reflect undesirable disorder or chaos. Facts thereby become imperceptibly—but inappropriately—imbued with values. The irony of monsters is that while they are plainly products of nature, they are often viewed as “unnatural” because they seem to “violate” its “laws.” The term “monstrous” now implies impropriety, not merely unusualness. The effect of naturalizing the “normal” is not unlike a paradox of democracy. When one honors exclusively the wishes of the majority, the minority can be wholly disenfranchised. Such “tyranny of the majority” eclipses the political question of how to address dissent. In a similar way, undue focus on the laws of nature, or the normal can eclipse understanding of exceptions or phenomena not fully described by the laws. One may call it, by comparison, “the tyranny of normality.” Scientifically, it means our interpretations of nature may be skewed or incomplete. Culturally, it means monsters—according to the “natural” categories established by “science”—are shunned (or pitied) as abnormal, not welcomed or celebrated as unique. Allchin, Douglas. “Monsters & the Tyranny of Normality: How do biologists interpret anomalous forms?” The American Biology Teacher 70.2 (2008): 117-119. Print
  8. 8. 12 ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 GROUP B ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS, GRADES 11-12 13 GROUP B CONTEXT CONTEXT This passage comes from Elie Wiesel’s memoir, Night. Wiesel was a concentration camp survivor in WWII. This passage comes from Elie Wiesel’s memoir, Night. Wiesel was a concentration camp survivor in WWII. AS YOU’RE READING underline the key words or phrases that help you answer what this text reveals about human nature. In the margin, explain why or how. AS YOU’RE READING underline the key words or phrases that help you answer what this text reveals about human nature. In the margin, explain why or how. Some years later, I watched the same kind of scene at Aden. The passengers on our boat were amusing themselves by throwing coins to the “natives,” who were diving in to get them. An attractive, aristocratic Parisienne was deriving special pleasure from the game. I suddenly noticed that two children were engaged in a death struggle, trying to strangle each other. I turned to the lady. Some questions to help you unpack the painting: What does this figure remind you of? Is this monster elated or frightening? What is the impact of the color? What do you make of the landscape behind the monster? “Please,” I begged, “don’t throw any more money in!” “Why not?” she said. “I like to give charity….” In the wagon where the bread had fallen, a real battle had broken out. Men threw themselves on top of each other, stamping on each other, tearing at each other, biting each other. Wild beasts of prey, with animal hatred in their eyes; an extraordinary vitality had seized them, sharpening their teeth and nails. A crowd of workmen and curious spectators had collected along the train. They had probably never seen a train with such cargo. Soon, nearly everywhere, pieces of bread were being dropped into the wagons. The audience stared at these skeletons of men, fighting one another to the death for a mouthful. A piece fell into our wagon, I decided that I would not move. Anyway, I knew that I would never have the strength to fight with a dozen savage men! Not far away I noticed an old man dragging himself along on all fours. He was trying to disengage himself from the struggle. He held one hand to his heart. I thought at first he received a blow to the chest. Then I understood; He had a bit of bread under his shirt. With remarkable speed he drew it out and put it to his mouth. His eyes gleamed; a smile, like a grimace, lit up his dead face. And was immediately extinguished. A shadow just loomed up near him. The shadow threw itself upon him. Felled to the ground, stunned with blows, the old man cried: “Meir, Meir, my boy! Don’t you recognize me? I’m your father… you’re hurting me …you’re killing your father! I’ve got some bread…for you too…for your too….” He collapsed. His fist was still clenched around a small piece. He tried to carry it to his mouth. But the other one threw himself upon him and snatched it. The old man again whispered something, let out a rattle, and died amid the general indifference. His son searched him, took the bread, and began to devour it. He was not able to get very far. Two men had seen and hurled themselves upon him. Others joined in. When they withdrew, next to me were two corpses, side by side, the father and the son. I was fifteen years old. Wiesel, Elie. Night. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000. Print. “Rebellious, heterogeneous, full of contradiction, [my work] is unacceptable to specialists of art, culture, morality. But it does have the ability to enchant my accomplices: poets, pataphysicians and a few illiterates. Thus Max Ernst (tongue poked its usual quarter-length into one rubicund cheek) summed up his own career at the age of 68. “Accomplices” was the key word, for it is hard to look at Max Ernst without feeling a pact between his secret language and one’s own fantasies. The carnivorous or petrified landscapes, the enchanted pencil forests, the enigmatic rooms in which sinister things happen – these constitute a world on the other side of the mirror, access to which depends on an involuntary conspiracy with the artist” (Hughes). Ernst, Max. L’Ange de Foyer. ABCGallery.com. Web 22 Sept. 2013. Hughes, Robert. “Art: Max Ernst: The Compleat Experimenter.” Time 12 April. 1976.
  9. 9. 14 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 HOW ARE MITOCHONDRIA CONNECTED TO THE AGING PROCESS?: A TEXT-BASED LESSON IN SCIENCE   VEEKO LUCAS                           Lesson Objective Core Standards I can explain the impact mitochondria have on the aging process. I can cite evidence in an article and use it to explain real-life phenomena. I can use evidence from the text to describe the role of mitochondria in cell activity. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12: RST.11 – 12.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. RST.11 – 12.2: Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. RST 11 – 12.9: Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. R.ST.11 – 12.10: By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11–CCR text-complexity band independently and proficiently. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6–12: W.11 – 12.9: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Setting This lesson takes place during the cellular biology unit or during the cellular respiration unit. Students should be familiar with the anatomy of a cell and the basic function of mitochondria. Students should also have covered protein synthesis so that the last question about the role genetic mutations play in damaged mitochondria can be answered. This lesson takes place the first time students are introduced to the readings. Students are expected to become familiar with the reading through the initial jigsaw exercise and the Levels exercise designed to facilitate evidence-based higher order thinking. Protocol 15 Opening - Recap of the different parts of a cell and the basic info for mitochondria. Group reading - As students receive the reading, cover the annotation directions: ! = Idea, ? = Question, and C = Connection. Group students by counting off to five, grouping the like numbers together, and assigning different portions of the assignment according to their assigned number: 1 = “Power Failure” Sections 1-22 2 = “Power Failure” Sections 23-36 3 = “What If…Grow Old” Sections 1-18 4 = “What If… Grow Old” Sections 19 – 31 5 = “What If… Grow Old” Sections 32- 47 Be sure to allow students to debrief for 2 minutes so those who did not get as much from the article can hear more from their group mates. Stand, Point, and Share All members of a specific number group stand. They close their eyes and point at a group mate that is not next to them. The student with the most fingers pointing at them is the scribe. The scribe goes to the board while each group mate shares one sentence they have to say about their portion of the reading. In the end, the scribe should have a summary of their part of the reading. Regroup, Discuss, and Describe Students will regroup accordingly: SUFUPU (Stand Up, Fingers Up, Pair Up.) Students stand up holding up the number finger they represent. They keep them up until they find someone to high-five, creating a pair. Every 1 finds a 3. Every 2 finds a 4. The even pairs find an odd pair. Fives get their choice of groups to join. Once groups are created, each table comes up with a summary of the article. The students then share summaries with the rest of the class. Levels Students answer text-dependent questions in groups and share their answers. Ideally the questions have multiple answers so students are not looking for “the answer.” Level 1 questions should have simple answers that can be cited directly from the text. Level 1: Explain the effects of dysfunctional ANT protein formation on mitochondria function.
  10. 10. 16 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 Protocol (continued) Possible response for Level 1 question: Protocol Reduced ATP production due to an interruption in oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial cancer. Level 2 questions should be increasingly complex, but strictly textdependent (requiring no outside knowledge). Level 2 questions require drawing inferences and must synthesize numerous parts of the text to deliver a proficient answer. This question also builds upon the Level 1 question. Wallace’s team published its findings in the July Nature Genetics. Together, the results suggest that a defect in oxidative phosphorylation can result in the skeletal and cardiac muscle symptoms characteristic of mitochondrial disease. Level 2: According to the text, defective mitochondrial activity can have negative effects on one’s quality of life. Explain this phenomenon in a CER (Claim Evidence, Reasoning) style response. This is the first time that we can show a cause-and-effect relationship between limiting ATP and the pathophysiology that has been correlated with [mitochondrial] diseases,” Wallace said at the Bar Harbor meeting. Closing “Be the Teacher.” A student leads the class through a final lesson recap and facilitates a question and answer session where students ask the questions they annotated on the original readings or talk about the ideas the reading generated. • At this point it is good to have a conversation with the students about what is meant by quality of life. Possible Response for Level 2 question: Wallace believes that if they could protect their mitochondria, people might be able to mitigate some of the debilitating effects of old age. Muscle fatigue, heart failure, and memory loss may all stem from mitochondria that can’t keep up with the cells’ energy requirements Level 3 questions must be text-dependent and connect to the content. Level 3 questions must be text-dependent and connect to the content from the unit of study. The answer to this question should synthesize numerous topics, processes, or concepts. This question also builds upon the preceding question. Level 3: In “Power Failure” the author introduces research that poses the claim that mutations in mitochondrial DNA could cause defects in mitochondria function. Explain the connection between these mutations, cell performance, and the resulting pathophysiology associated with an organism experiencing mitochondrial disease. Possible Response for Level 3 question: Mutations in mitochondrial DNA lead to mutations in the mRNA and changes in the resulting amino acid change that is translated from the mRNA. The changes in amino acid chains mean changes in the shape of the 3 dimensional protein that is created. Dysfunctional mitochondrialproteins (like ANT proteins) lead to problems in mitochondrial function, which can hinder cell function by hampering its ability to generate energy, proliferating cancerous mitochondria, or disrupting the normal flow of cellular function altogether. When cells do not function correctly, the tissues they are a part of, and the organs of which they are composed. These problems in various organs, like the heart, lungs, and skeletal muscles can lead to all of the symptoms associated with the pathophysiology of an individual with mitochondrial diseases including fatigue, weakness and a general loss of energy. People diagnosed with mitochondrial disease often have a defective system of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which mitochondria make ATP. This flaw shows up as elevated concentrations of organic acids in their blood. Wallace and his colleagues noted that the genetically engineered mice had four times as much of one such acid as normal mice did. Thus, the biochemical profile of the engineered mice appeared consistent with faulty ATP production, says Wallace. Loss of energy, muscle fatigue, heart failure, memory loss, and a loss of dignity. Since dysfunction in mitochondrial function usually spells out a loss in energy production, a person’s quality of life can be reduced in the general inability to function like a younger, more vibrant and functional former self, thusly robbing people of the basic human need to be self sufficient, reducing the quality of life. Older people who notice a lack of zip, says Wallace, may be feeling the effects of the failing power plants in their cells. “I’ve felt for years that [older people] were telling me verbally what we were seeing in the laboratory,” he says. “What really robs old people of dignity is their loss of energy,” he continues. 17 Next Steps Students write individual summaries. Follow-up lessons can include any of the lessons from the LDC Exemplar. http://www.literacydesigncollaborative.org/ resources/sample-modules/science-technical-subjects/
  11. 11. 18 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 19
  12. 12. 20 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 WORKSHEETS   HOW ARE MITOCHONDRIA CONNECTED TO THE AGING PROCESS?             Name___________________________________________________ Date_________________________ Summarize each Power failure. Lexile: 1130L “chunk” in 10 words Science News(09/27/97) Author: Fackelmann, Kathleen or less. 1. Nine years ago, Wallace and his colleagues discovered the first inherited mitochondrial DNA defect--a mutation that results in a rare form of blindness called Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. In 1992, the researchers demonstrated that flaws in mitochondrial DNA can, in rare cases, lead to type 2 diabetes, a disease in which the body can't process sugar properly. By 1995, Wallace's group and several other teams had evidence suggesting that such defects may underlie some cases of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders (SN: 8/5/95, p. 84). 2. Now, Wallace's group has found that the introduction of mitochondrial energy defects into mice can also cause heart and muscle disease. This leads Wallace to suspect that mitochondrial malfunctions may trigger some cases of cardiomyopathy, a disease of the heart muscle that afflicts up to 50,000 people in the United States. He and his colleagues have already linked mitochondrial damage to other forms of heart disease (SN: 10/5/91, p. 214). 3. To understand how the new research came about, one must first consider that ancient cell's encounter with the fuel-generating bacterium. To get any benefit from ATP, the cell had to get it out of the bug. The cell therefore created a protein that ferried ATP through the outer membrane of the bacterium. The adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) protein is like 4. the nozzle that transports fuel from a gas station pump to a car. If the nozzle doesn't work, gas can't get to the tank and the car can't move. Likewise, ATP has to be pumped from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm of a cell. The cell uses ATP for a variety of crucial functions. Muscle cells, for example, need this fuel in order to contract. 5. There are several types of this translocator protein, and they have been found in different tissues. Wallace and his colleagues wondered what would happen if they disabled the gene for ANT1, the protein that skeletal muscle and heart cells use. They reasoned that without the protein, skeletal muscle and heart cells wouldn't have enough energy to contract. ?-Question C- Connection !- Idea 6. To test their hypothesis, the researchers incapacitated the ANT1 gene in mice. They then studied the mice for signs of energy deficiency. 7. First, the team scrutinized skeletal muscle. Samples from the genetically engineered mice revealed ragged muscle fibers with abnormal mitochondria. Wallace notes that people with similar muscle fibers, called ragged-red muscle, are diagnosed with mitochondrial myopathy, a disorder that causes extreme fatigue and an intolerance for exercise. Closer examination of the samples revealed that the 8. mitochondria had proliferated in the muscle cells, displacing the muscle contraction machinery. 9. "What we've got is a mitochondrial cancer," Wallace said in July at Press Week 1997, a meeting in Bar Harbor, Maine, sponsored by Jackson Laboratory and Johns Hopkins University. Although mitochondria don't invade other cells, the wild proliferation destroys the structures in the cells they inhabit, Wallace says. 10. People diagnosed with mitochondrial disease often have a defective system of oxidative phosphorylation, the process by which mitochondria make ATP. This flaw shows up as elevated concentrations of organic acids in their blood. Wallace and his colleagues noted that the genetically engineered mice had four times as much of one such acid as normal mice did. Thus, the biochemical profile of the engineered mice appeared consistent with faulty ATP production, says Wallace. 11. Moreover, people with mitochondrial disease suffer from fatigue and muscular weakness. Eventually, many need help with their daily activities. Wallace's team decided to find out whether the genetically engineered mice also suffered from weakness and fatigue. 12. Wallace's team published its findings in the July Nature Genetics. Together, the results suggest that a defect in oxidative phosphorylation can result in the skeletal and cardiac muscle symptoms characteristic of mitochondrial disease. 13. "This is the first time that we can show a cause-andeffect relationship between limiting ATP and the pathophysiology that has been correlated with [mitochondrial] diseases," Wallace said at the Bar Harbor meeting. 21
  13. 13. 22 L I T E R A C Y I N H I S T O R Y, G R A D E 1 0 LITERACY IN SCIENCE, GRADES 11-12 23 “THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FRONTIER IN AMERICAN HISTORY”: A TEXT-BASED LESSON IN HISTORY LDC Mini-Task Lesson   KATHY THIEBES                         14. "This is the first time that we can show a cause-andeffect relationship between limiting ATP and the pathophysiology that has been correlated with [mitochondrial] diseases," Wallace said at the Bar Harbor meeting. Donald R. Johns of Beth Israel Hospital in Boston agrees 15. that Wallace and his group have created the first mouse model of mitochondrial disease, but he adds an important caveat: No human patients have been found with a defect in the ANT1 gene. Thus, the mouse model does not mirror any known human genetic defect leading to a mitochondrial disease. 16. A realistic animal model of mitochondrial disease might help prove or disprove a controversial hypothesis. Some researchers, Wallace included, believe that mutations in mitochondrial DNA account for more than just rare diseases. "Aging itself may be at least in part mediated by an accumulation of mutations in the mitochondrial DNA," Johns says. 17. In the process of making ATP, mitochondria spew out reactive oxygen molecules called free radicals. Many scientists think free radicals injure the DNA of the mitochondria. As the damage accumulates, the mitochondria have more trouble cranking out ATP. Brain, heart, and muscle cells, which require the most ATP, start to falter. 18. Older people who notice a lack of zip, says Wallace, may be feeling the effects of the failing power plants in their cells. "I've felt for years that [older people] were telling me verbally what we were seeing in the laboratory," he says. "What really robs old people of dignity is their loss of energy," he continues. 19. Wallace believes that if they could protect their mitochondria, people might be able to mitigate some of the debilitating effects of old age. Muscle fatigue, heart failure, and memory loss may all stem from mitochondria that can't keep up with the cells' energy requirements. “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” – Frederick Jackson Turner Information: Discipline/Course/Grade: Social Studies, US History / AP US History – 10th grade Author: Kathy Thiebes Context/Overview: The following is a “mini-task,” or lesson, that is part of a larger Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) module. In the module, students are introduced to a teaching task and spend 2-4 weeks working to accomplish the task. Students will learn skills defined by the teaching task and the Common Core State Standards in the process of completing the module. Prior to the minitask demonstrated in this lesson, students will engage in multiple activities to break down both the teaching task and LDC rubric to gain an understanding of the expectations and skills required to accomplish the task. In this mini-task, students are introduced to a small piece of the text and focus on mastering the skills of determining central idea, citing evidence from the text, and determining the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text. Social Studies Content: The social studies context of this module is the “Great West” in late 19th century America. This time period was highly significant in the development of industrialization and westward expansion. The experiences of Americans during this time period varied greatly by culture and region, but each made an important contribution to the changing American economy, politics, and culture. Frederick Jackson Turner’s essay, “The Significance of the Frontier in American History”, written in 1893, is considered one of the most influential essays written on United States History. In his essay, Turner analyzes the development of American history and emphasizes the role of the western frontier in shaping American character and identity. His perspective continues to be debated amongst historians today. This topic provides students the opportunity to read complex primary sources and also allows for critical thinking and debate of historical perspectives and relevance to American society today. Literacy Design Collaborative: The LDC framework starts with “template tasks” that have the CCSS literacy standards “hardwired” in. Teachers then put in their own content. Each template includes a “fill-inthe-blank” prompt and a scoring rubric. – LDC Guidebook For this module, I selected Template Task 6 (Argumentation/Evaluation) from the LDC Template Task Collection to write my teaching task: [Insert optional question] After reading __________ (literature or informational texts), write __________ (an essay or substitute) in which you discuss __________ (content) and evaluate __________ (content). Support your position with evidence from the texts. TEACHING TASK: After reading Frederick Jackson Turner’s “The Significance of the Frontier in American History,” additional primary and secondary sources, and viewing multimedia, write an essay in which you discuss Turner’s thesis and evaluate its validity and relevance for shaping American history and character. Be sure to acknowledge competing views. What implications can you draw for America today?
  14. 14. 24 L I T E R A C Y I N H I S T O R Y, G R A D E 1 0 Skills Cluster 2: Reading Process PACING 1 class period (55 minutes) SKILL & DEFINITION (CCSS) Active Reading: • Ability to cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information. (RH 9-10.1) • Ability to determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text. (RH 9-10.2) • Ability to determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies. (RH 9-10.4) • Ability to integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text. (RH 9-10.7) • Ability to read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9– 10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. (RH 9-10.10) • Ability to initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. (SL 9-10.1a) PRODUCT & PROMPT Product: The mini-task product is a summary of the text/author’s claim. SCORING Meets expectations if… Prompt: Summarize the author’s claim by using the “fab four” words you identified from the text. • Students participate in partner discussions. • Text annotations are a Level 2 on the Active Reading Rubric. • Students write a summary using their “fab four” words that are truly essential when discussing the author’s claim. INSTRUCTIONAL Opening Journal Prompt: What information about the Great West can you identify STRATEGIES or infer by examining this primary source? How does this connect to what we’ve learned about the experience of Americans in the Great West? • Display the painting American Progress, by John Gast (1872). Give students time to respond independently in their journals. Next, invite students to share their responses with a partner. Finally, share responses as a class and create a word wall with list of vocabulary/concepts the students connect to the photograph. **This painting will be analyzed further in following lessons. L I T E R A C Y I N H I S T O R Y, G R A D E 1 0 25 INSTRUCTIONAL Prompt #1 – When reading a text, how do you know what vocabulary and STRATEGIES phrases are important? (CONTINUED) • Students will brainstorm strategies and share out as a class. Teacher will write the strategies on the board. Prompt #2 – First, read the text once independently, annotating as you read. In partners, take turns actively reading the text in chunks, pausing after each to discuss and note your questions, comments, or analysis of the text. • Teacher models active reading skills with the first chunk of the text. In partners, students will then actively read aloud to each other (taking turns for each chunk) and discuss its meaning in relationship to the essential question. Encourage students to use the strategies discussed at the beginning of class to support their processing of the text. “FAB FOUR” ACTIVITY Prompt #3: The “fab four” activity is a strategy to help you identify the central idea of the text. With your partner, determine the four words from this text that most exemplify the author’s central claim. Use the sentence frames to help guide your discussion. • In this activity, students will engage in conversations about why each word selected is the most meaningful to the author’s claim. They will use sentence frames to help guide the discussion (attached). Once they have selected their four words, invite students to share their “fab four” with the class. Teacher writes words on the board. Allow students time to change their choice of words if they wish. Prompt #4: With your partner, use your “fab four” words to write a summary of the author’s claim. • As students use their “fab four” to write a summary of the author’s claim, encourage them to keep it succinct. Students will record their claim on chart paper to post around the classroom. Students will have the opportunity to do a gallery walk to read the other statements. *For advanced students, require them to write a summary of exactly 25 words. **As an additional activity, students can vote for the best summary. Exit Activity Prompt: What is America’s new “frontier”? For Americans in the 19th century it was land. What is it today? • Play a 30 sec. clip of a TedTalk on the Internet as the new frontier. This can be used as an exit slip, short discussion, or just a “food for thought” piece.
  15. 15. 26 L I T E R A C Y I N H I S T O R Y, G R A D E 1 0 L I T E R A C Y I N H I S T O R Y, G R A D E 1 0 27
  16. 16. 28 L I T E R A C Y I N H I S T O R Y, G R A D E 1 0 L I T E R A C Y I N H I S T O R Y, G R A D E 1 0 WORKSHEETS   LITERACY DESIGN COLLABORATIVE                       “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” - Frederick Jackson Turner, 1893 TEACHING TASK: After reading Frederick Jackson Turner’s “The Significance of the Frontier in American History”, additional primary and secondary sources, and viewing multimedia, write an essay in which you discuss Turner’s thesis and evaluate its validity and relevance for shaping American history and character. Be sure to acknowledge competing views. What implications can you draw for America today? “Fab Four” Activity The “Fab Four” activity is a strategy to help you identify the central idea of the text. With your partner, determine the four words from this text that most exemplify the author’s central claim. Use the sentence frames to help guide your discussion. Discussion Sentence Frames: I believe _______ is a “fab four” word because _______. Directions: Read the following excerpts independently. Use your active reading skills to show your metacognitive processing of the information. Then, with a partner, take turns reading aloud the chunks of texts and jotting down comments, questions, and analysis of each piece. I believe ______ is a “fab four” word because in the text the author says ________. I believe _____ is a “fab four” word because the author infers ______ when he says _______. Excerpt: I believe ____ is a “fab four” because when the author says _____, it makes me think _____. Each frontier did indeed furnish a new field of opportunity, a gate of escape from the bondage of the past; and freshness, and confidence, and scorn of older society, impatience of its restraints and its ideas, and indifference to its lessons, have accompanied the frontier. What the Mediterranean Sea was to the Greeks, breaking the bond of custom, offering new experiences, calling out new institutions and activities, that, and more, the ever retreating frontier has been to the United States directly, and to the nations of Europe more remotely. And now, four centuries the discovery of America, at the end of a hundred years of life under the Constitution, the frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history. Collaboration: I believe your choice of the word __________, is interesting because ________. I wonder how your choice of the word ___________, connects to ________. I believe that your word choice _______, is also supported when the author says _____. When the author says ______, how does that ___ (support / contradict) your word choice? “Fab Four” Words: Brainstorm and final word selection Text Each frontier did indeed furnish a new field of opportunity, a gate of escape from the bondage of the past; and freshness, and confidence, and scorn of older society, impatience of its restraints and its ideas, and indifference to its lessons, have accompanied the frontier. What the Mediterranean Sea was to the Greeks, breaking the bond of custom, offering new experiences, calling out new institutions and activities, that, and more, the ever retreating frontier has been to the United States directly, and to the nations of Europe more remotely. And now, four centuries the discovery of America, at the end of a hundred years of life under the Constitution, the frontier has gone, and with its going has closed the first period of American history.   Notes       SUMMARY: With your partner, use your “fab four” words to write a summary of the author’s claim.   29
  17. 17. 30 RESOURCES RESOURCES FREE, HIGH-QUALITY RESOURCES TO HELP EDUCATORS IMPLEMENT THE COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS The following list of resources was developed as part of the NBC News Education Nation Common Core Teacher Institute, in partnership with leading non-profits and teachers unions focused on implementing the Common Core: America Achieves, American Federation of Teachers, National Board of Professional Teaching Standards, National Education Association, Student Achievement Partners, and the Teaching Channel. In addition, videos from the Education Nation Common Core Teacher Institute will be available online at www.educationnation.com/teacherinstitute.                                     Achieve The Core Achieve The Core, brought to you by Student Achievement Partners, is a website full of free content designed to help educators understand and implement the Common Core State Standards. It includes practical tools designed to help students and teachers see their hard work deliver results. achievethecore.org was created in the spirit of collaboration - the content available on the site is assembled by and for educators and is freely available to everyone to use, modify and share. www.achievethecore.org CCSS Instructional Practice Guides The CCSS Instructional Practice Guide provides specific guidance on what the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics and English Language Arts & Literacy look like in the classroom. It is intended to help teachers (and those who support teachers) build understanding of the CCSS and strengthen practice; it can be used for planning and self-reflection, peer-to-peer observation and feedback, and instructional coaching. There are separate guides for mathematics (K-8 and high school) and ELA/literacy (K-2, 3-5, 6-12 ELA, 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, and 6-12 Literacy in Science & Technical Subjects). www.achievethecore.org/instructional-practice Basal Alignment Project Lessons (ELA/Literacy, Grades 3-5) The Basal Alignment Project offers an online library of free revised lessons for common Basal reading series (3rd-5th grades), each carefully aligned to the Common Core State Standards. Each lesson includes quality text-dependent questions, improved tasks, and a focus on academic vocabulary. Lessons have been collaboratively authored by teams of teachers. The Basal Alignment Project builds district capacity to better align existing materials to the English Language Arts and Literacy Common Core State Standards while new CCSSaligned materials are developed and published. http://www.achievethecore.org/basal-alignment-project Anthology Alignment Project Lessons (ELA/Literacy, Grades 6-10) The Anthology Alignment Project offers an online library of free revised lessons for common Anthologies (6th-10th grades), each carefully aligned to the Common Core State Standards. Each lesson includes quality text-dependent questions, improved tasks, and a focus on academic vocabulary. Lessons have been collaboratively authored by teams of teachers. The Anthology Alignment Project builds district capacity to better align existing materials to the English Language Arts and Literacy Common Core State Standards while new CCSS-aligned materials are developed and published. http://www.achievethecore.org/anthology-alignment-project America Achieves The America Achieves website helps teachers to implement the Common Core by showing videos of real 31 classrooms and teachers demonstrating the key shifts that Common Core brings to their pedagogy. The videos provide time segments marked with tips such as, “citing text evidence” so teachers know what to look for in key parts of the lesson. The site also has free downloadable lesson resources, student work, and links to teachers analyzing their own lessons and progress in implementing Common Core. http://commoncore.americaachieves.org EQuIP The EQuIP (Educators Evaluating Quality Instructional Products) rubrics allow teachers to evaluate lessons and units that include instructional activities, assessments aligned to the CCSS, and integrated lesson sets that extend over a few class periods, days, or longer periods. By using the EQuIP rubric as a tool, teachers can build their capacity to evaluate and improve the quality of instructional materials for their classroom, and can increase the supply of high quality lessons and units aligned to the CCSS. The rubrics were designed through a collaborative process between educators in the America Diploma Project Network. http://commoncore.americaachieves.org/equip American Federation of Teachers AFT Share My Lesson’s Common Core Free Information Center has a wealth of resources to help educators, parents, and community members better understand the Common Core State Standards. Available resources include Common Core-aligned lessons, parent letters in English and Spanish, recent news articles on the Common Core, a blog on Common Core implementation written by classroom teachers, as well as the standards themselves. www.sharemylesson.com/commoncore Colorin Colorado Colorín Colorado is a bilingual site for families and educators of English language learners (ELLs). It was launched 10 years ago as a collaborative project of the AFT and PBS Station WETA. Colorín Colorado recently released its Common Core State Standards and ELLs page, where users can find lesson plans, classroom videos, video interviews on preparing for the Common Core, as well as parent resources. Lesson plans and resources from the Albuquerque Common Core Project have received rave reviews and include: lesson plans for grades 1, 4, and 8 with matching classroom videos; videos interviews with participating teachers, AFT state leaders, and researchers; and background on the Project. http://www.colorincolorado.org/common-core/ Illustrative Mathematics Illustrative Mathematics is an initiative of the Institute for Mathematics & Education at the University of Arizona. The Illustrative Mathematics website contains hundreds of free CCSS-aligned sample problems, videos, and other resources, organized by grade, standard, and domain. www.illustrativemathematics.org Literacy Design Collaborative The Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) offers a fresh approach to incorporating literacy into middle and high school content areas. Designed to make literacy instruction the foundation of the core subjects, LDC allows teachers to build content on top of a coherent approach to literacy. This is drastically different than past, less structured notions of “adding” reading and writing when possible to the teaching of content. The LDC work started with a small practitioner team set on addressing the intransigent challenges of adolescent literacy. Partners use the LDC framework as a common chassis to create LDC tasks, modules, and courses designed to teach students to meet Common Core literacy standards while engaging in demanding content. LDC partners and teachers are trying out the LDC strategy, sharing insights about results, proposing ways to design the LDC tools, and moving LDC to wider use. At the same time, other partners are building a set of LDC supports to help teachers in the challenging work of consistently and systemically teaching secondary students to achieve high-level literacy skills.
  18. 18. 32 RESOURCES Math Design Collaborative The Mathematics Design Collaborative (MDC) is a group of curriculum designers, assessment developers, professional learning specialists, and district and school networks creating resources and tools that support teachers in implementing the Common Core Math Standards. Research has shown that formative assessment is a powerful way to improve student learning and performance. This approach first allows students to demonstrate their prior understandings and abilities in employing the mathematical practices, and then involves students in resolving their own difficulties and misconceptions through structured discussion. Central to MDC are sets of Formative Assessment Lessons (FALs) or Classroom Challenges. Each set is aligned to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and is designed to sit within CCSS-aligned courses of study. There are two types of Classroom Challenges. Concept development lessons are meant to first reveal students’ prior knowledge, then develop students’ understanding of important mathematical ideas, connecting concepts to other mathematical knowledge. Problem solving lessons are meant to assess, then develop, students’ ability to apply their mathematical knowledge and reasoning in flexibly ways to non-routine, unstructured problems – within mathematics and with real world applications. http://collegeready.gatesfoundation.org/Learning/MathDesignCollaborative National Education Association This toolkit is intended to be a fully dynamic source of information on Common Core State Standards. Reviewed in its entirety, the toolkit provides general background and links to pertinent information about the CCSS, as well as practical assistance and planning. Users can download editable materials and presentations in smaller chunks that may be used in a variety of settings. Video resources have been included for individual use, as well as for sharing in larger settings. The toolkit and other resources will be updated periodically as implementation of the Standards progresses. www.nea.org/commoncore Teaching Channel Teaching Channel is a video showcase -- on the Internet and Public Television—of innovative and effective teaching practices in America’s public schools. There are nearly 800 videos to choose from, many of which allow teachers to see the Common Core standards in action in real-life classrooms. Teaching Channel’s Teacher Laureate, Sarah Brown Wessling (the 2010 National Teacher of the Year), also offers video tutorials and e-books on implementing Core basics. Supplemental resources accompany each video, and teachers can write time-stamped notes on each video to share with their colleagues. Teaching Channel also offers a live Q&A exchange so that teachers can ask any question about the Common Core and get email alerts when they get answers online. https://www.teachingchannel.org NOTES

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