The Solar System
Some scientist have debated that the solar system
has formed in variety ways but however, they
estimated that it was 4.6 billion years ago
It is a region of space that contains 1 star and 8
It is the Sun and all of the objects in space that
orbit (go around) it. The Sun is orbited by
planets, moons, asteroids, comets and other
The sun is not a planet, it is a star, and it
is the closest star on earth
• It contains 99.9 percent of the Solar Systems
mass. This means that it has strong gravity.
The other objects are pulled into orbit
around the Sun.
• The Center of the solar system . The actual
distance of sun to earth is 149.6 million
The Sun glows because of
nuclear reactions in its core
which turn hydrogen gas
Is a ball of hot gases. Is 70%
hydrogen, 28% helium,
1.5% carbon, nitrogen, and
oxygen, and 0.5% all other
elements. The Suns
temperature is 10,000
degrees Fahrenheit at the
surface and 27,000,000
degrees Fahrenheit at the
The closest planet to the Sun, can range from
800 degrees F in the day, and at night,
temperatures reach -280 F.
Mercury is the innermost and smallest planet
in the solar system.
It makes one trip around the Sun once every
88 days. It orbits at 29 miles per second.
It is covered in craters
The Planet Mercury is
sometimes known as the
Morning Star and Evening
Star on Earth where it
shines the brightest.
The second closest planet to the sun.
It is named after Venus, the Roman
goddess of love and beauty.
It is a terrestrial planet because it has a
solid, rocky surface.
Venus is considered to be the hottest of all
planets in the Solar System due to
Venus is covered with fastmoving sulphuric acid clouds
that trap heat from the sun.
Has a lot of volcanic plains
with this covering almost 70%
of the planet.
Temperature is about 900 F
Venusthe Moon, it is the
brightest natural object
in the night sky.
Venus is almost the same
size as Earth.
Spins backwards on its
axis. 1 Venus day equals
243 Earth days and 1
Venus year Equals 225
Is the densest of all
planets, also called the
Earth is the only place in
the universe where life has
been confirmed to exist.
The Earth is home to
millions of species of
plants and animals,
The only planet that has liquid
Earth has oceans of water, and an
oxygen-rich atmosphere. It is
made up of 75% (three quarters)
The distance from the surface to
the center of the Earth is about
1 Earth day equals 24 hours and
1Earth year equals 365.25 days.
Mars is called the Red Planet, because of the
many particles of iron oxide found on the
surface of the planet.
Mars is named after the mythological Roman
God of War because it is a red planet, which
signifies the colour of blood.
Mars is smaller and colder than Earth.
Temperatures range from 30 degrees to –220
Olympus Mons, the
highest known volcano
within the Solar System
found in the planet
Mars has two moon
called Phobos and
Mars is a dry rocky planet
with ice caps at its north
and south poles like
1 Mars year equals 687
Earth days and 1 Mars day
equals 24 hours and 39
Has a planetary ring
system and has 63
Lo, a satellite of the planet
Jupiter, is the biggest
natural satellite found in
the Solar System.
Jupiter is home to the biggest
storm in the solar system, known
as the Great Red Spot, located in
southern hemisphere(a hurricane
-like storm) which is big enough
to swallow the Earth whole.
Jupiter is so big that all the
other planets could fit
Jupiter is classified as a gas
giant, because it is large,
and is made up mostly of
• It is a gas giant with a mass slightly less than one-
thousandth of the Sun but is two and a half times
the mass of all the other planets in our Solar System
There are no seasons on the planet Jupiter.
Jupiter is the fastest spinning planet in the solar
system completing one rotation every 10 hours.
Jupiter’s fast rotation causes the clouds to form
1 Jupiter year equals 11.9 Earth years and 1 Jupiter day
equals just under 10 hours.
This is made up of 9 different
but continuous rings which
are the main rings; and there
is also 3 other arcs which
aren’t continuous in features.
Saturn is known as the
Rings are made of ice and
rock, consisting mostly of ice
particles with a smaller
amount of rocky debris and
Saturn has 33 moons so far.
Titan is the largest moon.
Titan is also bigger than
Mercury and it has its own
atmosphere. It’s the only moon
in the entire Solar System to be
able to have this.
Winds at the equator reach speeds of 1,100 miles
Saturn looks like it has stripes because it is made
of different gases. Some of the gases do not mix
and when Saturn spins, high winds blow the gases
We can see Saturn with a telescope but we need a
small telescope to see its rings
1 Saturn year equals 29.5 Earth years and 1 day
Named after the father of
Saturn in Roman
It is a light-blue gas giant
because of methane gas in
Uranus is the coldest
planet in the solar system.
The planet is made of ice,
gases and liquid metal
covered with clouds.
Uranus has a thin belt of
11 rings made up of rock
As well as its own
with 27 moons known so
far. Oberon is the largest
Uranus has extreme seasons
with extremely dark and cold
years followed by extremely
hot years. Lasted for 42 years
The planet orbits the Sun only
once for every 84 Earth years
which is a length period of
time to orbit the Sun.
Neptune has almost 17 times more
mass than that found on Earth
Neptune has four rings which are
hard to see from the Earth.
It was named after the Roman
God of the Sea.
Neptune At times in its orbit it
trades places with Pluto and
becomes the 9th planet.
Neptune also has a storm
much like Jupiter.
Neptune’s storm is called
its Great Dark Spot.
Also has rings. These rings
are made up of dark rock
and dust. One of the rings
even has a twist in it.
Neptune has 13 moons. 1 of
them, called Triton.
Triton circles the planet
1 year on Neptune equals
165Earth years and 1 day equals
Ceres Found in the asteroid
belt in 1801 Considered a planet
for half a century before
reclassification as an asteroid.
Discovered in 1801 by Giuseppe
Once considered the largest
asteroid Classified as a dwarf
planet on September 13, 2006.
Named for the Roman goddess
Pluto Considered the 9th planet from
1930 to 2006. Classified as a planet for
Reclassified as a dwarf planet on
August 24, 2006 Became the first
Diameter: 2300 Km Temperature:
44 K 3
known moons Charon : more than ½
the size of Pluto
Named for Roman god of the
A plutoid Dwarf planets residing
Discovered in 2004 by Mike Brown
Haumea’s shape spins very fast, a
rotation in 4 hours. This rotation
causes it to deform. Formed into
Diameter: 1400Km Temperature:
Named after the goddess of the
island of Hawaii Has two known
Further from ecliptic than other
dwarfs. Accepted as a dwarf planet
on July 11, 2008.
No known satellites unique
among large KBOs
Discovered in 2005 by Mike
Diameter: 1500Km Temperature:
Makemake Plutoid Named for the
creator god of Easter Island
Eris Largest dwarf planet in solar
system 27% more massive than
Discovered in 2005 by Mike
Originally named Xena
Accepted as a dwarf planet on
September 13, 2006.
Diameter: 2400? Km Temperature:
1 known moon Dysnomia .
Named for Greek goddess of
Comets are small cosmic bodies that have an ellipsoidal
orbit around the sun
Composed of rock, dust, ice, and frozen gasses
Comets do not become spherical because of their low mass
Have irregular shapes because of low mass and gravity
Range from 100 meters to 40 kilometres across.
Gasses found on comets include Carbon Monoxide
and Dioxide, Ammonia, Methane, Ethanol, and
Comet Tails, as comets approach sun, solar
radiation causes particles from the comet to
dissipate, and peel off of comet leaving trail of dust
Asteroids are small bodies that orbit the sun
Millions of asteroids in the solar system though to
be remnants of planetismals which are small
bodies that weren’t large enough to grow into
Many of the asteroids in the solar system are found
in the asteroid belt
Asteroid Belt- Contains roughly 1.5 million
asteroids with a diameter larger than 1 km
The region between the orbits of Mars and
Jupiter, where many asteroids are found.
A Meteoroid is a sand to bolder sized particle in the
Its visible path of light is called a Meteor
Meteors created because of atmospheric pressure on
meteoroid during entry to Earth. This creates a trail of
gases and rocks which create the visible meteor that
one may see.
Phases of Meteoroid
Meteoroid: a chunk of
rock or dust in space.
Meteor: a streak of light
in the sky produced by
the burning of a
meteoroid in Earth’s
Meteorite: a meteoroid
that has hit Earth’s
Three Types of Meteorites
Most iron meteorites are thought to
be the cores of asteroids that
melted early in their history. They
consist mainly of iron-nickel metal
with small amounts of sulphide
and carbide minerals.
Stony-iron meteorites consist of
almost equal amounts of ironnickel metal and silicate minerals
and are amongst the most beautiful
The majority of meteorite falls are
stony meteorites consisting mainly
of silicate minerals.