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  2. 2. Motivation  refers to the cause or ―why‖ of behavior or the factors that energize behavior and its direction.  the purpose or psychological cause of an action.
  3. 3. Motivation These motivating mechanism can be called many things • a habit, • a belief, • a desire, • an instinct, • a need, • an interest, • an incentive • a compulsion, or a drive that propels someone (or an organism) in a certain direction or goal.these motivation that prompts us to take action. Indeed, the motivation comes from the verb "to move.― •
  4. 4. Kinds of Motives 1) Physiological Motives > referred to as biological,organic,primary,or basic. Ex. Need for food (hunger) Need for water Need for sleep and rest Need for activity Need for shelter and proper temperature Sex need Pain drives
  5. 5. Kinds of Motives 2)Psychological Motives (also called universal motives) A) Need for affection,need to belong - > We wanted to be accepted by others B) Need for achievement ,self esteem,social recognition (mastery motives) - > People need to feel involved and to feel that his involvement is tipping the balance somewhere
  6. 6. C) Need for independence - > people want to go about their own movement and purpose with a minimum of interference and restriction. (not be confuse with guidance)
  7. 7. Kinds of Motives 3) Conscious and Unconscious Motives  Conscious motives > refers to the feelings and thought within the awareness of individual  Unconscious motives > the individual is unable to symbolize into thoughts and feelings
  8. 8. Motivation Cycle Reward Need Incentive Drive
  9. 9. Motivation Cycle  Need - what person wants Ex. (Physiological needs)  Food (hunger)  Water  Sleep and rest  Activity  Shelter and proper Ex. (Psychological needs)  Achievement,  power,  self-esteem
  10. 10.  Drive – described as a deficiency or need that activates behavior that is aimed at a goal or an incentivaction to fullfill the need  Ex. Pain drive  Incentive - an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior Reward - Satisfaction
  11. 11. Types of
  12. 12. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION  > means that the individual are internally motivated to do something  > reflects the desire to do something because it is enjoyable.
  13. 13. INTRINSIC MOTIVATION  Ex. studying because - it brings pleasure - they think things are important - learning is significant
  14. 14. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION > means that the individual’s motivational stimuli are coming from outside. In other words, our desires to perform a task are controlled by an outside source.
  15. 15. EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION Ex. Competition is in an extrinsic motivator because it encourages the performer to win and to beat others, to hear a cheering crowd and the desire to win a trophy not simply to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity.
  16. 16. THEORIES of
  17. 17. 1) Instinct Theory  instinct are natural or inherited tendencies of people or any organnism to make a specific response to certain environmental stimuli without involving thinking William James and William McDougall - Theorized that people have various instincts that foster self-survival and social behavior.  Ex.  Cleanliness  Curiosity  Parental love  Sociability  Sympathy
  18. 18. Sigmund Freud distinguished two types of instincts: Eros (life) and Thanatos (death) EROS - is the desire to create life and favors productivity and construction THANATOS - is the drive towards death, self-destruction and the return to the inorganic
  19. 19. 2)Drive-Reduction Theory  According to Clark Hull ― all organisms have certain biological needs that must be met if they are to survive.‖
  20. 20. Drive-Reduction Theory  (Push theories ) This theory states that your behavior starts from a need. A need starts from a condition where something is absent or lacking in your body and in this state of deficiency, tension is created by the drive to fulfill that need. You are pushed to do something to reduce that tension in you.
  21. 21. Drive-Reduction Theory  Example: when food is not given,a hungry person feels tense and reduce the tension,one need food and look for something to eat.
  22. 22. 3) Incentive Theories  (Pull theories) Believed that there are external goals which certain characteristics which serve to pull you to do a particular behavior or to move towards a particular goal and  Individuals expect pleasure or satisfaction from the attainment of positive incentives.  Also known as reinforces and rewards
  23. 23. Incentive Theories Ex. People putting their best foot forward because the prize is attractive such as better grades,praise,monetary rewards or fame.
  24. 24. 4) Homeostatic Theory ―A state of body in balance‖  It is the process of maintaining internal equilibrium , that is, keeping all the body’s metabolic and chemical processes in good functioning order  Homeo = same ;  Stasis = standing
  25. 25. Homeostatic Theory Example: A few hours of sleep, a glass of cold water or a hearty meal- the body is in homeostatic condition.  Homeostasis is very important because when it fails, you become ill and may die.
  26. 26. 5) Optimal Level Theory  This theory is partly related to the principle of hedonism, which states a person desires pleasure and avoids pain. According to Bootzin, a person becomes accustomed to a certain level of stimulation which he/she perceives to be balance and pleasurable.
  27. 27. Optimal Level Theory Example: When you ride a swing, you tend to push higher until you reach your satisfaction level. On the other hand, if you perceive your arousal level too be too high, for safety you pull back to lessen it.
  28. 28. 6) Expectancy Theory The motivation to do a particular things depends on the value you assign to a particular behavior.
  29. 29. Expectancy Theory Example: If you value a college diploma highly and you are convinced that studying hard is instrumental in attaining it, then you become motivated to study harder.
  30. 30. 7) Humanistic Theory  Behavior is motivated in part by the conscious desire for personal growth; people will tolerate pain, hunger, and other sources of tension to achieve personal fulfillment.
  31. 31. Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
  32. 32. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs > ascending order with biological needs 1. Physiological needs - Hunger, thirst, warmth, elimination of fatigue and pain 2. Safety needs - Protection from the elements, crime, and financial hardship 3. Love and Belonging needs - Love, acceptance, intimate relationships, friends, social groups 4. Esteem needs - Achievement, prestige, status, competence, approval 5. Self-actualization - Fulfillment of one’s unique potential
  33. 33. Abraham Maslow  According to Maslow, as the lower needs are met, we tend to move upward to meet next higher level of needs. The lower order needs are very powerful. They have to be satisfied first before we go to the higher needs. And even if we have progressed to the higher needs, if satisfaction of a lower need is thwarted, we will move down again to the lower need until it is met.
  34. 34. “EMOTIONS”
  35. 35. EMOTION  comes from Latin verb ―EMOVERSE‖ which means to stir up, agitate, upset or move.  refers to internal feelings as shown in a person’s observable behavior such as facial expressions, gestures, verbal intonations and body movement.
  36. 36. Types of Emotion
  37. 37. Love  can refer to a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from interpersonal affection ("I love my mother") to pleasure ("I loved that meal").  It can refer to an emotion of a strong attraction and personal attachment.  a virtue representing human kindness, compassion, and affection—
  38. 38. Styles of Clyde and Susan Hendrick - Developed a loveattitude scale suggesting six styles of love among college students  Eros - Romantic love, commitment  Ludus - Game-playing love  Storge - Friendship-love  Pragma - Pragmatic or logical love;  Mania - Possessive, excited love; obsession  Agape - Selfless love; put lover’s interests before one’s own
  39. 39. Joy or Happiness  Happiness is a mental or emotional state of wellbeing characterized by positive or pleasant emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. Ex. Beatitude, blessedness, bliss, blis sfulness, felicity, gladness, joy, warm fuzzies,contentedness delectation, delight, enjoyment, gla dness,gratification,relish,satisfaction
  40. 40. Fear  is a mental state of apprehension about dangerous and threatening events  an emotion induced by a perceived threat which causes entities to quickly pull far away from it and usually hide Ex. Anxious, avoidant ,cautious, concerned ,fearful, frozen, insecure, intimidated, guarded, panicked stressed, tense, terrified, trapped, vulnerable, worried
  41. 41. Anger  an emotion related to one's psychological interpretation of having been offended, wronged, or denied and a tendency to react through retaliation  a strong feeling of displeasure or hostility. Anger is mostly caused by something that you hate, or something done that you hate Ex.Displeasure Annoyed Antipathetic
  42. 42. Anxiety  is an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behavior, such as pacing back and forth, unpleasant feelings of dread over something unlikely to happen, such as the feeling of imminent death  is a feeling of fear, worry, and uneasiness
  43. 43. Depression  is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, feelings and sense of well-being. Depressed people may feel sad, anxious, empty, hopeless, worried , helpless, worthless, guilty, irritable, h urt, or restless.  may contemplate or attempt suicide insomia , excessive sleeping , fatigue, loss of energy, or aches, pains, or digestive problems that are resistant to treatment may also be present.[2]
  45. 45. A. James - Lange Theory  William James and Karl G. Lange  an emotion provoking stimulus directly produces physiological changes and behavior, and then these events produce the feeling of an emotion.
  46. 46. James - Lange Theory First, we perceive the situation; second, we react, our heart pounds and we find ourselves screaming. Third, we realize we are afraid and felt afraid. Example: upon seeing a snake , we do not run because we are afraid but are afraid because we run.Running stirs up a visceral reaction and this is the emotion
  47. 47. B. Cannon - Bard Theory  Walter Cannon and Philip Bard  an emotion- provoking stimulus produces the feeling of an emotion, and then this feeling produces physiological changes and behavior.  -emotion can result from brain activity alone
  48. 48. Cannon - Bard Theory EMOTIONAL SEQUENCE: First, the organism perceives the situation to be fearsome. Second, the hypothalamus takes over and at the same time impulses go out from his control center to the brain and other parts of the body. Hence, we have the awareness and feeling of fear at the same time that the bodily changes and the action of screaming are taking place.
  49. 49. C. COMMON SENSE VIEW  an emotion- provoking stimulus produces the feeling of an emotion, and then this feeling produces physiological changes and behavior.
  50. 50. COMMON SENSE VIEW: Three steps:  First, the person perceives the situation that evokes the emotion; second , he becomes aware of the emotion; then he reacts to the emotion. Example: You hear the shout of ―Fire! Fire!‖ while you are in a school. You look at the direction of the shout and you notice the billowing smoke. This strike fear in you, then you run away from the place. Actually, this view states that a person experiences the emotion first before he reacts to it.
  51. 51. D. Schacter-Singer 2Factor Theory  we have the feeling of an emotion when two factors are present: we are physiologically aroused, and we interpret that arousal in terms of a specific emotion based on the situation we are in.
  52. 52. Example:  If after taking the stairs from the ground floor to the third floor you sweat and have a rapid heart rate, you do not interpret that arousal as a sign of emotion. If you experience the same arousal under other circumstances, however, you might interpret it as fear or anger. In short, this theory proposed that a given body state could lead to different emotions depending on how you interpret the state.
  54. 54. 1. Self- statements  people use their own reassuring or self- directing statements to gain control of an emotion.
  55. 55. 2) People can limit the impact of an emotion by shifting attention to something else.  If the situation is very sad, you can choose not to think about it for a while.
  56. 56. 3. Joking or making fun of one’s self- absorbed state in another way of coping. It allows a person to gain some distance from a situation.
  57. 57.  4) People cope up with intense emotions by reinforcing themselves for having deliberately expressed or inhibited emotional expression.
  58. 58. 5) Deliberating relaxation and tension- reducing activities
  59. 59. THANKYOU FOR LISTENING!!! Prepared by:  Danilyn M. Ocampo  Shalina Mae Yamat  Moises Olaco Submitted to: Dra.Minerva Alinaya