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  1. 1. HIV/AIDS Types Transmission Prevention Infection Diagnosis Vaccination/Alternative Medicine History/Origins Society and Culture Epidemiology 
  2. 2. WHAT IS HIV? Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (slowly replicating retrovirus) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.
  3. 3. WHAT IS AIDS? AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a disease caused by a virus called HIV. AIDS is the syndrome which appears in advanced stages of HIV infection.
  4. 4. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN HIV AND AIDS HIV  HIV is the virus which attacks the T-cells in the immune system.  HIV is a virus. AIDS  AIDS is the syndrome which appears in advanced stages of HIV infection.  AIDS is a medical condition.
  5. 5. Two Major Types of HIV HIV-1 is the most common and pathogenic strain of the virus. Scientists divide HIV-1 into a major group (Group M) and two or more minor groups. Each group is believed to represent an independent transmission of SIV into humans (but subtypes within a  HIV-2  is mostly related to simian immunodeficiency virus endemic in sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys) (SIVsmm), a monkey species inhabiting the forests of littoral West Africa. Phylogenetic analyses show that the viruses most closely related to the two strains of HIV-2 which spread considerably in humans (HIV-2 groups A and B) are the SIVsmm
  6. 6. THREE MAIN STAGES OF HIV INFECTION •Acute infection •Clinical latency •Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  7. 7. Acute infection The initial period following the contraction of HIV is called acute HIV, primary HIV or acute retroviral syndrome. Symptoms occur in 40– 90% of cases and most commonly include fever, large tender lymph nodes, throat inflammation, a rash, headache, and/or sores of the mouth and genitals.
  8. 8. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome The most common initial conditions that alert to the presence of AIDS are pneumocystis pneumonia (40%), cachexia in the form of HIV wasting syndrome (20%) andesophageal candidiasis. Other common signs include recurring respiratory tract infections.  Opportunistic infections may be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the immune system. Which infections occur partly depends on what organisms are common in the person's environment. These infections may affect nearly every organ system. 
  9. 9. Clinical latency The initial symptoms are followed by a stage called clinical latency, asymptomatic HIV, or chronic HIV. Without treatment, this second stage of the natural history of HIV infection can last from about three years to over 20 years (on average, about eight years). near the end of this stage many people experience fever, weight loss, gastrointestinal problems and muscle pains.
  10. 10. Average per act risk of getting HIV by exposure route to an infected source Exposure route Chance of infection  Blood transfusion  Childbirth (to child)  Needle-sharing injection drug use  Percutaneous needle stick  Receptive anal intercourse   90% 25%    0.67% 0.30% 0.04–3.0%
  11. 11. Average per act risk of getting HIV by exposure route to an infected source Exposure route   Chance of infection  0.03% Insertive anal intercourse   0.05–0.30% Receptive penilevaginal intercourse  0.01–0.38% Insertive penile-vaginal  0–0.04% intercourse   0–0.005% Receptive oral intercourse assuming condom use  Insertivesource refers no oral intercourse oral to intercourse performed on a man
  12. 12. Transmissions Sexual Body Fluids Mother to Child
  13. 13. Sexual The most frequent mode of transmission of HIV is through sexual contact with an infected person. Commercial sex workers (including those in pornography) have an increased rate of HIV • Rough sex can be a factor associated with an increased risk of transmission. • Sexual assault is also believed to carry an increased risk of HIV transmission as condoms are rarely worn, physical trauma to the vagina or rectum is likely, and there may be a greater risk of concurrent sexually transmitted infections. •
  14. 14. Body fluids The second most frequent mode of HIV transmission is via blood and blood products. Blood-borne transmission can be through needle-sharing during intravenous drug use, needle stick injury, transfusion of contaminated blood or blood product, or medical injections with unsterilized equipment. The risk from sharing a needle during drug injection is between 0.63 and 2.4% per act, with an average of 0.8%
  15. 15. Mother-to-child HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, during delivery, or through breast milk. Is the third most common way in which HIV is transmitted globally.
  16. 16. Prevention Sexual contact Consistent condom use reduces the risk of HIV transmission by approximately 80% over the long term. When condoms are used consistently by a couple in which one person is infected, the rate of HIV infection is less than 1% per year.
  17. 17. Pre-exposure PrEP is short for Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis. It is a new HIV prevention method in which people who do not have HIV take a daily pill to reduce their risk of becoming infected. When used consistently, PrEP has been shown to reduce the risk of HIV infection among adult men and women at very high risk for HIV infection through sex or injecting drug use.
  18. 18. Post-exposure Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) involves taking anti-HIV medications as soon as possible after you may have been exposed to HIV to try to reduce the chance of becoming HIV positive. These medications keep HIV from making copies of itself and spreading through your body. There are two types of PEP: 1. occupational PEP taken when someone working in a healthcare setting is potentially exposed to material infected with HIV, and 2. non-occupational PEP taken when someone is potentially exposed to HIV outside the workplace. 
  19. 19. Mother-to-child This primarily involves the use of a combination of antiviral medications during pregnancy and after birth in the infant and potentially includes bottle feeding rather than breastfeeding. 
  20. 20. Diagnosis HIV tests are used to detect the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in serum, saliva, or urine. Such tests may detect antibodies, antigens, or RNA.
  21. 21. AIDS Clinic, McLeod Ganj, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2010
  22. 22. Vaccination As of 2012 there is no effective vaccine for HIV or AIDS. A single trial of the vaccine RV 144 published in 2009 found a partial reduction in the risk of transmission of roughly 30%, stimulating some hope in the research community of developing a truly effective vaccine. Further trials of the RV 144 vaccine are ongoing.
  23. 23. Alternative medicine In the early 1980s, when the HIV/AIDS epidemic began, patients rarely lived longer than a few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV have longer, healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical step during the HIV life cycle and keep the virus from making copies of itself Protease inhibitors - interfere with a protein that HIV uses to make infectious viral particles Fusion inhibitors - block the virus from entering the body's cells Integrase inhibitors - block an enzyme HIV needs to make copies of itself Multidrug combinations - combine two or more different types of drugs into one These medicines help people with HIV, but they are not perfect. They do not cure HIV/AIDS. People with HIV infection still have the virus in their bodies. They can still
  24. 24. Antiviral therapy Benefits of treatment include a decreased risk of progression to AIDS and a decreased risk of death. In the developing world treatment also improves physical and mental health. With treatment there is a 70% reduced risk of acquiring tuberculosis. Additional benefits include a decreased risk of transmission of the disease to sexual partners and a decrease in mother-to-child transmission. The effectiveness of treatment depends to a large part on compliance.
  25. 25. History AIDS was first clinically observed in 1981 in the United States. The initial cases were a cluster of injecting drug users and homosexual men with no known cause of impaired immunity
  26. 26. Origins Both HIV-1 and HIV-2 are believed to have originated in non-human primates in Westcentral Africa and were transferred to humans in the early 20th century. HIV-1 appears to have originated in southern Cameroon through the evolution of SIV(cpz), a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that infects wild chimpanzees.
  27. 27. Society and culture Stigma - AIDS stigma exists around the world in a variety of ways, including ostracism, rejection, discrimination and avoidance of HIV infected people; compulsory HIV testing without prior consent or protection of confidentiality; violence against HIV infected individuals or people who are perceived to be infected with HIV.
  28. 28. Society and culture AIDS stigma has been further divided into the following three categories: Instrumental AIDS stigma—a reflection of the fear and apprehension that are likely to be associated with any deadly and transmissible illness. Symbolic AIDS stigma—the use of HIV/AIDS to express attitudes toward the social groups or lifestyles perceived to be associated with the disease. Courtesy AIDS stigma—stigmatization of people connected to the issue of HIV/AIDS or HIV-positive people.
  29. 29. Ryan Wayne White (December 6, 1971 – April 8, 1990) was an American teenager from Kokomo,Indiana, who became a national poster child for HIV/AIDS in the United States, after being expelled from middle school because of his infection. As a hemophiliac, he became infected with HIV from a contaminated blood treatment
  30. 30. Epidemiology  HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic. As of 2010, approximately 34 million people have HIV worldwide. Of these approximately 16.8 million are women and 3.4 million are less than 15 years old. It resulted in about 1.8 million deaths in 2010, down from a peak of 2.2 million in 2005.
  31. 31. Epidemiology South Africa has the largest population of people with HIV of any country in the world at 5.9 million. Life expectancy has fallen in the worst-affected countries due to HIV/AIDS. South & South East Asia is the second most affected; in 2010 this region contained an estimated 4 million cases or 12% of all people living with HIV resulting in approximately 250,000 deaths. Approximately 2.4 million of these cases are in India. United States approximately 1.2 million people were living with HIV, resulting in about 17,500 deaths.
  32. 32. Epidemiology  In the United Kingdom as of 2009 there where approximately 86,500 cases which resulted in 516 deaths.  In Canada as of 2008 there were about 65,000 cases causing 53 deaths.  Prevalence is lowest in Middle East and North Africa at 0.1% or less, East Asia at 0.1% and Western and Central Europe at 0.2%.
  33. 33. Red Ribbon The red ribbon, as an awareness ribbon colored red, has several different meanings in different contexts. It is used as the symbol of the prevention of drunk driving and solidarity of people living with HIV/AIDS.
  34. 34. PREPARED BY: Malinis, Mary Joy Anne M. Bombita, Benie Jhane Reyes, Julienne Ramirez, Arvin Kim BSBA – 1A Submitted to: Dr. Alinaya