Beneficial Insects Commonly Found in the Garden and Landscape
If you build it…… . . . . They will come!!!
Attracting Beneficials <ul><li>Complex vegetation structure  can provide more niches for natural enemies. </li></ul><ul><l...
Complex Vegetation Structure Canopy Trees   Understory Trees   Groundcover   Turf  Shrub
Euonymus scale <ul><li>Euonymus plants surrounded by flowering plants had less scale compared to those surrounded by bark ...
Flowers that Attract  Beneficial Insects <ul><li>Small flowers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dill, Fennel, Basil </li></ul></ul><u...
Limit Pesticide Use! <ul><li>Pesticides kill beneficials too! </li></ul><ul><li>Pests return quicker than beneficials </li...
No. of plants infested with scale insects Landscapes under cover sprays for longer periods of time have higher levels of s...
Assassin Bugs Assassin bugs prey on aphids, caterpillars, beetles, leafhoppers,and other insects. They  do not like to be ...
Big-eyed Bugs These small insects with big eyes attack spider mites, thrips, aphids and other  insect eggs .
Damsel Bugs Damsel bugs resemble assassin bugs. They feed on aphids, leafhoppers,  mites and caterpillars.
Green  Lacewings Green or brown, the lacewing, or  aphid lion , is known to eat as many as 600 aphids. larva adult eggs
Ground Beetles These beetles are large, dark, and  sometimes metallic. They feed along the  ground on soft-bodied insects,...
Lady Beetles Lady beetle adults and larvae attack aphids, mites, insect eggs and small insects. adult larva
Tiny Parasitic Wasps Micro- and mini-wasps can sting and lay eggs in caterpillars, aphids  or insect eggs. The larvae cons...
Tachinid Flies Heavily bristled tachinid flies lay eggs on caterpillars, beetle larvae, and bugs. Parasitized monarch cate...
Predaceous Stink Bugs Many stink bugs are pests, but predaceous stink bugs feed on beetles and caterpillars both as adults...
Predatory Mites Predatory mites move rapidly to catch and feed on their plant-eating counterparts. They are often white, t...
Soldier Beetles Adults resemble fireflies and are attracted to  milkweed,hydrangea,  and goldenrod. They eat aphids, cater...
Syrphid Flies adult larva The harmless adults resemble bees, but the small larvae consume many aphids.
Minute Pirate Bug These bugs attack thrips, spider mites, aphids and small insects. larva
Wasps, Hornets, & Spiders Though often considered pests, these insects feed heavily on caterpillars, flies and other  soft...
Praying Mantids Mantids have a good reputation, but eat  relatively few insects in the garden.
Carolina Mantid Egg Case Chinese Mantid Egg Case
Chinese Praying Mantis Up to 5” long
Carolina Mantid Female Male Juvenile 2” long when mature
Are Mantids Beneficial?
Green Anoles <ul><li>Native lizard – voracious insect eaters </li></ul>
Bug Eating Plants! <ul><li>Pitcher Plants –  Sarracenia  species </li></ul><ul><li>Venus Fly Trap –  Dionaea muscipula </l...
Next Week: <ul><li>Tues, Sept. 1, 9:30 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension Center, Burgaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant Dis...
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Beneficials class 5

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Beneficials class 5

  1. 1. Beneficial Insects Commonly Found in the Garden and Landscape
  2. 2. If you build it…… . . . . They will come!!!
  3. 3. Attracting Beneficials <ul><li>Complex vegetation structure can provide more niches for natural enemies. </li></ul><ul><li>Light, shelter, and other abiotic factors also play a role. </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Complex Vegetation Structure Canopy Trees Understory Trees Groundcover Turf Shrub
  5. 5. Euonymus scale <ul><li>Euonymus plants surrounded by flowering plants had less scale compared to those surrounded by bark mulch (Hanks and Sadof 2001). </li></ul>Flowers help attract beneficial insects
  6. 6. Flowers that Attract Beneficial Insects <ul><li>Small flowers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dill, Fennel, Basil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yarrow, Sedum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goldenrod, Joe Pye Weed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Daisy flowers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purple Coneflower, Cosmos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvias, Mints, Asclepias, Zinnia </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Limit Pesticide Use! <ul><li>Pesticides kill beneficials too! </li></ul><ul><li>Pests return quicker than beneficials </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticidal Soap, Horticultural Oil, and B.t. are less toxic to natural enemies </li></ul>
  8. 8. No. of plants infested with scale insects Landscapes under cover sprays for longer periods of time have higher levels of scale insect infestation.
  9. 9. Assassin Bugs Assassin bugs prey on aphids, caterpillars, beetles, leafhoppers,and other insects. They do not like to be handled.
  10. 10. Big-eyed Bugs These small insects with big eyes attack spider mites, thrips, aphids and other insect eggs .
  11. 11. Damsel Bugs Damsel bugs resemble assassin bugs. They feed on aphids, leafhoppers, mites and caterpillars.
  12. 12. Green Lacewings Green or brown, the lacewing, or aphid lion , is known to eat as many as 600 aphids. larva adult eggs
  13. 13. Ground Beetles These beetles are large, dark, and sometimes metallic. They feed along the ground on soft-bodied insects, especially at night. They are usually fast moving.
  14. 14. Lady Beetles Lady beetle adults and larvae attack aphids, mites, insect eggs and small insects. adult larva
  15. 15. Tiny Parasitic Wasps Micro- and mini-wasps can sting and lay eggs in caterpillars, aphids or insect eggs. The larvae consume their prey from within. Braconid wasp cocoons
  16. 16. Tachinid Flies Heavily bristled tachinid flies lay eggs on caterpillars, beetle larvae, and bugs. Parasitized monarch caterpillar and chrysalis
  17. 17. Predaceous Stink Bugs Many stink bugs are pests, but predaceous stink bugs feed on beetles and caterpillars both as adults and colorful nymphs .
  18. 18. Predatory Mites Predatory mites move rapidly to catch and feed on their plant-eating counterparts. They are often white, tan, or orange.
  19. 19. Soldier Beetles Adults resemble fireflies and are attracted to milkweed,hydrangea, and goldenrod. They eat aphids, caterpillars, mites, grasshopper eggs, and small beetles .
  20. 20. Syrphid Flies adult larva The harmless adults resemble bees, but the small larvae consume many aphids.
  21. 21. Minute Pirate Bug These bugs attack thrips, spider mites, aphids and small insects. larva
  22. 22. Wasps, Hornets, & Spiders Though often considered pests, these insects feed heavily on caterpillars, flies and other soft-bodied insects.
  23. 23. Praying Mantids Mantids have a good reputation, but eat relatively few insects in the garden.
  24. 24. Carolina Mantid Egg Case Chinese Mantid Egg Case
  25. 25. Chinese Praying Mantis Up to 5” long
  26. 26. Carolina Mantid Female Male Juvenile 2” long when mature
  27. 27. Are Mantids Beneficial?
  28. 28. Green Anoles <ul><li>Native lizard – voracious insect eaters </li></ul>
  29. 29. Bug Eating Plants! <ul><li>Pitcher Plants – Sarracenia species </li></ul><ul><li>Venus Fly Trap – Dionaea muscipula </li></ul><ul><li>Grow in very poor, wet soils </li></ul><ul><li>Get nitrogen from digesting bugs! </li></ul><ul><li>Not a practical form of insect control! </li></ul>
  30. 30. Next Week: <ul><li>Tues, Sept. 1, 9:30 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extension Center, Burgaw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant Diseases and Diagnosing Plant Problems , chapters 7 & 19 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thurs, Sept. 3, 1:30 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poplar Grove Plantation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated Pest Management and Pesticide Safety , chapter 9 </li></ul></ul>
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