The Oregon Trail & California

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  • 1. The Adventure of a Lifetime: The Journey to Oregon and California
    Lesson Essential Question:
    Would you go on the Oregon Trail?
  • 2. What did the U.S.A look like at this time?
    When?
    • 1846
    F - Oregon Territory
    From Where?
    • Great Britain
    Why?
    • Land claimed by both the United States and Great Britain
    • 3. Americans demanded “54° 40’ or fight!”
    • 4. The on-going dispute was finally settled by the Treaty of 1846
    • 5. Great Britain compromised and said the 49th parallel would be the boundary,and the U.S.A. accepted
    F
    A
    C
    B
    G
    E
    D
  • 6. The Oregon Trail
    People began trekking west to Oregon because…
    Oregon had lots of trees for building
    Fertile land for farming
    Land that was good for hunting, trapping, and fishing.
  • 7. How did they do it?
    Families traveled to Oregon in covered wagons.
    Wagons were pulled by horses and oxen
    In 1843, many families in 120 wagons gathered in Independence, Missouri, and headed northwest to Oregon.
    These 120 wagons were known as a wagon train.
  • 8. What was the Oregon Trail like?
    You would wake up early and travel for as many hours as you could.
    At night, pioneers would sleep on the floors of their covered wagons.
    When it rain, wagons would often get stuck in the mud.
  • 9. What it was like…(Cont.)
    It was very difficult to find food while on the trail. Many families were very hungry.
    Wagons travelled across…
    Mountains
    Forests
    Rivers
    The trip from Independence, Missouri to the Oregon Country took about six months.
    The Trail was approximately 2000 miles long.
  • 10. Major Landmarks on the Oregon Trail
  • 11. Independence, Missouri
    Founded in 1827 near where the Missouri River flows into the Mississippi, the town of Independence grew rapidly as a trading post. By the 1840's, it was the most popular "jumping off" point for pioneers to stock their wagons with supplies before heading out to Oregon or California.
    Missionaries from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints attempted to make Independence their Zion, or holy capital. But the Mormons came into conflict with the local economic and political establishment, and by 1833 the missionaries were driven out. From then on, Nauvoo, Missouri, instead of Independence, became the point of departure for Mormons heading out along the Oregon Trail
  • 12. Courthouse and Jailhouse Rocks
  • 13. Located in the Platte River valley, Courthouse Rock and its smaller companion, Jailhouse Rock, were among the first landmarks seen by pioneers heading west.
    Named after the courthouse in Saint Louis, the rocks were often mentioned in contemporary accounts. Artist Alfred J. Miller noted it as a "curious formation of Earth near the Platte River." Famous British explorer Sir Richard Burton wrote that it "resembled anything more than a court house," and that it really looked like an irregular pyramid.
    Like Chimney Rock, which is about twelve miles west, Courthouse and Jailhouse Rock have eroded somewhat since the days of the great emigrations along the Oregon Trail.
  • 14. Chimney Rock
  • 15. Located some twelve miles west of Courthouse and Jailhouse Rock, Chimney Rock was one of the most picturesque landmarks along the Oregon Trail. It signaled the end of the prairies as the trail became more steep and rugged heading west towards the Rocky Mountains.
    Many drawings of it were made by surveyors and artists, and most pioneers mentioned it in their diaries. Travelers reported that it was visible forty miles away. General Joel Palmer, leading a surveying party in 1845, said it had the "appearance of a haystack with a pole running far above its top."
    Many 19th century accounts stated that Chimney Rock was losing its height due to erosion. But some measurements recorded back then are very close to the modern measurement of 325 feet from tip to base and 120 feet for the spire.
  • 16. Fort Laramie
  • 17. The fort was begun by fur traders as Fort William in 1834 where the North Platte and Laramie rivers meet. In 1849, the U.S. Military purchased the fort and named it in honor of Jacques La Ramie, a local French fur trapper.
    One of the most important forts in the settlement of the American West, Fort Laramie served many functions throughout its history. It was located along the Oregon Trail to protect and supply emigrant wagon trains. It later became a major link in the Pony Express, Overland Stage and transcontinental telegraph systems. It also served as a base of operations for the High Plains Indian Wars.
  • 18. Independence Rock
  • 19. Named for a fur trader's Fourth of July celebration in 1830, this huge rock became one of the most famous of all Oregon Trail landmarks. The giant piece of granite is 1,900 feet long, 700 feet wide, and 128 feet high.
    The landmark was a favorite resting place for travelers along the trail. Called the "Great Register of the Desert", more than 5,000 names of early emigrant were carved on this boulder.
    Starting the trail in the early spring, emigrants along the Oregon Trail hoped to reach Independence Rock by July 4, Independence Day. If they had not arrived by then, they knew they were behind schedule.
  • 20. Fort Bridger
  • 21. A mountain man named Jim Bridger began this fort as a trading post in 1842. It soon grew to be one of the most important outfitting points for emigrants along the Oregon Trail.
    Mormon settlement near Fort Bridger led to tensions between the Mormon authorities and the federal government. President Buchanan dispatched U.S. troops to the area in 1857 under the command of Colonel A.S. Johnston.
    The Mormons responded by quickly mobilizing the Nauvoo Legion. This guerrilla militia force burned down Fort Bridger and Fort Supply, stampeded thousands of army cattle, and set fire to the prairie grass and seventy-two army supply wagons.
    The so-called "Mormon War" ended when US troops under Johnston occupied Salt Lake City, the Mormon capital. Fort Bridger was later rebuilt and served as a station on the Pony Express and Overland Stage routes until 1890, when the fort was finally abandoned.
  • 22. Soda Springs
  • 23. Natural bubbling pools of carbonated water, caused by ancient volcanic activity, have long made Soda Springs an attraction. Local Indians, fur traders and trappers visited the springs prior to the days of the Oregon Trail emigrations.
    Soda Springs was located along a shortcut in the trail off of the main route to Fort Hall.
    Emigrants used the pools of water for medicinal and bathing purposes. Many pioneers and their animals became sick when they drank too much of the alkali water from the springs.
  • 24. Fort Hall
  • 25. Established by Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth in 1834 along the Snake River, Fort Hall first served as a fur trading post.
    The British flag flew over Fort Hall briefly when it was purchased by an English company, until a treaty placed it and the rest of the Oregon Country in United States territory.
    Early emigrants on the Oregon Trail usually abandoned their wagons at the fort and continued on foot with their animals. But in 1843, Dr. Marcus Whitman, who had established a mission near Walla Walla, Washington, led a wagon train westward from the fort. From then on, migrations along the trail increased as the pioneers could now travel all the way to Oregon with their wagons and possessions.
  • 26. Fort Boise
  • 27. Started by a British firm, Fort Boise was established in 1834 as a direct competitor to the nearby Fort Hall. It was first located along the Snake River near the present town of Parma, Idaho.
    The fort served as a supply point along the Oregon Trail until 1854, when it was abandoned due to flooding and Indian attacks. In 1863, the military constructed a new Fort Boise near the present town of Boise, Idaho.
  • 28. Whitman Mission
  • 29. Founded in 1836 by Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa, the Whitman Mission was the site of one of the worst tragedies along the Oregon Trail.
    The Whitmans, Methodist missionaries, offered religious instruction and medical services to the local Cayuse Indians. They also gave care and supplies to wagon parties travelling along the Oregon Trail.
    When a measles epidemic broke out at the mission in November 1847, many of the Indians were killed while the white newcomers survived. The Cayuse suspected that the Whitmans and their foreign religion were the cause of the fatal disease. In retaliation, the Whitmans and eleven other whites were killed by the Cayuse, and the mission was burned down.
  • 30. The Dalles
  • 31. The Dalles was named by fur trappers for the French word for gutter. Here emigrants floated down the Columbia River in rafts through the stony river gorge.
    The passage, with emigrants and their wagons crowded onto a small wooden raft, was often perilous. As N.M. Bogart described in 1843, "When trying to pass some of the Cascades their frail craft would get caught in one of the many whirlpools, the water dashing over them, and drenching them through and through."
    The Barlow Toll Road opened in 1845, offering emigrants an alternative to the Columbia River route to Oregon City. The wagon ride along the toll road took a long route around Mount Hood, but it was a much safer method than rafting.
  • 32. Oregon City
  • 33. Founded in 1842 near where the Willamette River flows into the Columbia River, Oregon City was the first territorial capital of Oregon.
    Always a natural place of commerce between Indians and whites, the town also utilized the nearby river as a dependable source of power for mills for its economic development.
    Due to the great migrations along the trail, Oregon City grew rapidly as an economic center of the territory. Emigrants arrived here at the end of the trail to establish their land claims in the region.
    Local industries sprung up to resupply emigrants planning to start their farms. Today, the city is a suburb of the much larger city of Portland, Oregon.
  • 34. Special Thanks
    America’s Story: Book One to 1865
    http://historyglobe.com/ot/otmap1.htm
  • 35. The Oregon Trail
    What supplies do you think the pioneers took with them on the Oregon Trail??
  • 36. Supplies on the Oregon Trail
    150 – 200 lbs. of flour
    20 lbs. of corn meal
    50 – 150 lbs. of bacon
    40 lbs. of sugar
    10 lbs. of coffee
    15 lbs. dried fruit
    ½ lb. saleratus (baking soda, baking powder mix, used for baking bread)
  • 37. Supplies (cont.)
    2 lbs. tea
    5 lbs. rice
    10-gallon water barrel
    15 lbs. dried beans
    What else do YOU think that pioneers took on the Oregon Trail?
  • 38. 54o 40’ or Fight?
    Both the United States and Great Britain had claimed the Oregon Territory.
    American settlers wanted everything from the 54th parallel south.
    British Settlers wanted everything from the 48th parallel north.
    Finally, the two nations decided that the northern-most border of the U.S. would be the 49th parallel. This was called the Compromise of 1846.
  • 39. The United States government then gave free farmland to families that moved to Oregon.
    In 1859, Oregon became a state.
  • 40. Gold Fever!!!
    Why did thousands of people rush to California in 1848 and 1849?
  • 41. 1848, California
    James Marshall found a few small pieces of gold in a river in California.
    Follow this discovery, hundreds of people began coming to California to find gold.
    These people included:
    Europeans
    Chinese
    Free African-Americans
  • 42. James Beckwourth
    Made it easier for many people to travel west to California.
    African-American who lived with the American Indians.
    Beckwourth looked for and found a pass through the mountains that made passage to California much easier.
    He named this pass, Beckwourth Pass
    California became a state in 1850.
  • 43. Flagging Your Thinking
    Preview Questions 1-5 on your “Flagging Your Thinking” handout.
    2. Carefully read pages 122-125. Take turns reading with your partner.
    3. As you are reading, answer the questions on your “Flagging Your Thinking” handout. You MUST use complete sentences to do this, and make sure your answer is complete. Remember, a brief, one sentence answer will probably not be enough to fully answer the questions. DO NOT forget to list the page number(s) where you found your answer.
    4. Once you feel you have finished, reread each question and make sure you have a good, complete answer for each question.
    5. Come to the front to signal to your classmates that you need a new partner. With your new partner, compare your answers to each question. If your answers do not agree, return to the text and reread the page where you believe the answer can be found. If one or both partners need to change their answers, do it. DO NOT leave an incorrect or incomplete answer on your handout.
    6. Once you have finished sharing your answers, get a copy of the “What Should I Pack?” article from the front table. Work with this same partner to create a list of supplies that can be added to the word splash.
  • 44. The Trek West
    Get into 9 groups of 2 and 1 group of 3. With your group, you will be responsible for one section of the article, “The Trek West”.
    Once you have been assigned your section of the article, you will work with your partner to read that section and determine the 6 most important facts about the information you read.
    You will then get a piece of construction paper from the front table. Using your art supplies, you will create a display poster for your facts. The title of your poster should be the title question from your section of the article. Your facts must be written in complete sentences. Write big enough that it can be seen from a distance. BE NEAT AND BE CREATIVE!!!
    If you finish early, read with your partner the section entitled, “What Was a Typical Day on the Trail Like?”