Meat and bone meal is the rendered product from beef or pork tissues and should not contain blood, hair, hoof, horn, hide trimmings, manure, stomach and rumen contents, except in amounts as may be unavoidable during processing. Soybean meal is prepared by grinding the flakes after solvent extraction has been used to remove the oil from dehulled soybeans. Blood meal is prepared from clean, fresh animal blood, excluding hair, stomach belching, and urine except in trace quantities that are unavoidable.
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•Three-Group Design •Parallel-Group Design•Counterbalanced or Latin Square Design
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In this design, there are three groups of independent variables.
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Illustration 1 (Experimental Research) Suppose the researcher wishes to conduct a study onthe effect of using direct seeding, transplanting, and usingstem cuttings in growing of Moringa Oleifera at themunicipal grounds of Barotac Viejo. These three methods ofculturing Moringa Oleifera are independent variables andthe dependent variable is the weight of Moringa Oleifera.Mean and ANOVA, two-factor or F-test: two-factor are thestatistical tools used. Mean is used to determine the meanweight of Moringa per method. ANOVA or F-test is used totest the significant difference on the weight of Moringa ofthe three methods. If significant difference exists, thismeans the three methods of growing Moringa Oleiferareally differ with each other because one method is mosteffective. If insignificant difference exists, hence, theweight of Moringa Oleifera using the three methods arealmost the same.
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Table 5.1. Sample of Three-Group Design on the Effect of Using Direct Method, Transplanting Method and Using Stem Cuttings in Growing Moringa Oleifera at the Municipal Grounds of Barotac Viejo
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Illustration 2 (Descriptive Research)Suppose the researcher wishes to conduct a study on the effectiveness of teaching English using grammar translation method, direct method, and audio-lingual method to first year college students at the State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) in Region VI (Western Visayas). The three methods of teaching English are independent variables and the scores of students per method are dependent variables. The students are exposed to the three methods of teaching English with one teacher. Mean and ANOVA: two-factor of F-test: two-factor are the statistical tools used. Mean is used to determine the mean score of the students per method. ANOVA: two-factor is used to determine the significant difference of the scores using the three methods of teaching English. If significant difference exists, this means the methods of teaching English really differ with each other because one method is most effective. If insignificant difference exists, thus, the methods of teaching English are almost the same.
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Table 4.17. Sample of Three-Group Design on the Effectiveness of Teaching English using Grammar Translation Method, Direct Method, and Audio-Lingual Method to First Year College Students at the State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) in Region VI
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This type of experimental design consists of three or more groups wherein one group is control group with two or more experimental groups. The control group or parallel group serves as basis of the experimental groups which is manipulated or changed, but the experimental groups vary.
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Illustration 1 (Experimental Research) Suppose the researcher wishes to conduct a study on theeffectiveness of culturing commercial catfish using, soybeanmeal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, and fish meal asprotein supplements. Fish meal is the control group orparallel group and the experimental groups are meat andbone meal, blood meal, and soybean as protein supplements.Mean and ANOVA: two-factor or F-test: two-factor are thestatistical tools used to determine the mean weight of catfishand significant difference on the mean weight. If significantdifference exists on the mean weight of catfish, this meansprotein supplements really differ on the weight of catfishbecause one protein supplement is most effective. Ifinsignificant difference exists, thus the weight of catfish usingthe four protein supplements are almost the same.
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Table 5.2. Sample Parallel-Group Design on the Effectiveness of Culturing Commercial Catfish Using Soybean Meal, Meat and Bone Meal, Blood Meal and Fish Meal as Protein Supplements (Experimental Group)
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Illustration 2 (Descriptive Research)Suppose the researcher wishes to conduct a study on the effectiveness of teaching Chemistry using traditional method and two modern methods in Third Year Secondary students at the Iloilo National High School. Traditional method is the control group and two modern methods of teaching Chemistry are experimental groups. The students are exposed to the three methods of teaching Chemistry under one teacher. Mean and ANOVA: two-factor or F-test: two-factor are the statistical tools used. Mean is used to determine the mean score of students per method. ANOVA or F-test is used to determine the significant difference on the scores of students using the traditional and two modern methods of teaching Chemistry. If significant difference exists, this means the three methods of teaching Chemistry to Third Year Secondary students really differ with each other because one method is most effective. If insignificant difference exists, thus, the methods of teaching Chemistry are almost the same.
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Table 4.20. Sample Parallel-Group Design on the Effectiveness of Teaching Chemistry Using Traditional and Two Methods to Third Year Secondary Students at the Iloilo National High School (Experimental Group)
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This design is also called “rotation design”. Itinvolves an exchange of two or more treatmentstaken by the subjects during the experiment. Thearrangement employed in the design is Latinsquare in which each variable is a form of squareoccurring once in each row or column. This iscalled quasi-experimental design.
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Illustration 1 (Experimental Research) Suppose an investigator wishes to determine theeffectiveness of growing squash using four different organicfertilizers to four different nurseries. Due to different ecologicalparameters such as light, humidity, temperature, and oxygen ofeach nursery, each is required to have one organic fertilizer. Thefirst treatment combination consists of OF₁, N₁, and G₁ where SFstands for Organic Fertilizer; N, Nursery; and S, Squash orscientifically called Cucurbita. The second combination is OF₁, N₂,S₂ and so on. It will be noted that “S₄” or grouper is the diagonal ofthe square and appears in each position from first supplementalfeed to the fourth organic fertilizer. F-test or analysis of variance(ANOVA) is used to determine the significant difference on theeffectiveness of growing squash using four different organicfertilizer to four different nurseries.
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Table 4.17. Sample of Counterbalanced or Latin Square Design in Growing Squash Using Four Organic Fertilizers to Four Nurseries N₁ N₂ N₃ N₄ OF₁ S₁ S₂ S₃ S₄ OF₂ S₂ S₃ S₄ S₁ OF₃ S₃ S₄ S₁ S₂ OF₄ S₄ S₁ S₂ S₃
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Illustration 2 (Descriptive Research) Suppose the researcher wants to determine theeffectiveness of the four technological innovations in teachingSocial Sciences taught by four professors to four groups ofstudents. Each professor is required to use each method ofreward. The first treatment combination consists of TI₁, P₁, S₁where TI stands for technological innovation; P, professor; andS, student. The second combination is TI₁, P₂, S₂ and so on. Takenote that “S₄” is the diagonal in a square and it appears in eachposition from the first position to the fourth method. F-test orANOVA is used to determine the significant difference on theeffectiveness of the four technological innovations in teachingSocial Sciences taught by four professors.
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Table 5.10. Sample of Counterbalanced or Latin Square Design in Teaching Social Sciences Using Four Technological Innovations Taught by Four Professors P₁ P₂ P₃ P₄ TI₁ S₁ S₂ S₃ S₄ TI₂ S₂ S₃ S₄ S₁ TI₃ S₃ S₄ S₁ S₂ TI₄ S₄ S₁ S₂ S₃
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