source: Flickr/moroccanmary CIVIL RESISTANCE 2.0 A Crowdsourced Project on 21st Century Nonviolence Mary Joyce @ the International Center on Nonviolent Conﬂict November 29, 2012 Digital Activism Research Project University of Washington www.digital-activism.org
GENE SHARP source: humanﬁlm.nointroduction for a man who needs no introduction
GENE SHARP activistNobel Peace Prize nominee scholar canonical list of 198 methods of nonviolent action (1973) most inﬂuential living theorist of nonviolent struggle source: humanﬁlm.no introduction for a man who needs no introduction
THE YOUNG TURKS source: Fllickr/Ushahidi source: Fllickr/Moroccanmarywho deﬁnitely do need an introduction
THE YOUNG TURKS Patrick Meier Mary Joyce source: Fllickr/Ushahidi source: Fllickr/MoroccanmaryDirector of Social & Humanitarian Innovation Co-Founder of the at the Qatar Foundation Digital Activism Research Project PhD - Tufts University MA/PhD Student - UW researches digital technology and researches digital activism in nonviolence in repressive regimes resource-constrained societies who deﬁnitely do need an introduction
THE MISSION source: Fllickr/Elvert Barnes Meld digital tools with nonviolence methods
BUT FIRST source: Fllickr/Picture Perfect Posetwo notes of warning
ACTIVIST SECURITY Do not attempt digital activism without ﬁrst considering the political context in your own country.• Social media is public, meaning the digital actions of you and the people you connect with can be watched by your government.• Governments are also getting very good at cracking passwords and linking accounts to physical locations, meaning you can be identiﬁed and harmed in the physical world.• Read “Digital Security for Activists” (https://oldhelp.riseup.net/assets/ digital_security_for_activists.pdf) or “Protecting Your Security Online” (https:// www.accessnow.org/blog/protecting-your-security-online-english-text-only1)
NETWORKED AUTHORITARIANISMWhile activists are using digital tools to change the power structure, repressive govts are using the same tools to prevent that change.• Censorship of opposition content, so few people in your country will ever see it (particularly in MENA and China)• Surveillance of activists, both for chilling effect and to actually apprehend and punish (particularly in MENA and China)• Propaganda of their own position, successfully using social media to maintain support for the status quo (particularly in CIS)• Read: Rebecca MacKinnon, Katy Pearce, Evgeny Morozov (above typology is his)
NOT ONLY THE GOOD NEWS Method 43: Public Mourning
ENHANCEMENT Of the 54 methods of Protest and Persuasion therewere only 2 for which we could not ﬁnd digital enhancements Though the sections for Noncooperation and Intervention have received fewer notes, coordination of most of these methods could also be facilitated by digital tools like SMS, email, chat, and encrypted versions of these technologies.
NEW FORMS Most means of Protest and Persuasion can now occur online as well as ofﬂine. Because Noncooperation and Intervention requiredirect engagement with institutions of power, new forms require that the institution of power have an online extension that can be targeted, such as a “denial of service” attack on a government website.
10 NEW METHODS1. Maps and Maptivism 6. Inﬂuence Search Engine Results2. QR Codes 7. Livestreaming3. Digital File-Sharing 8. Check-ins4. Nonviolent Media Hijacking 9. Self-Surveillance5. “Trend” a Hashtag 10. Flash Mobs
MAPS AND MAPTIVISMThe digital and global amplifying the physical and local.
QR CODES source: frogloop.com source: oneicity.comLinking physical, mobile, and web.
DIGITAL FILE-SHARING this could be a tactical manual Use infrastructure accessible and familiar to your audience,young people use this software for pirating movies and music.
NONVIOLENTLY HIJACK MEDIAsource: http://adkyle.com Using their own media presence to undermine brand power.
“TREND” A HASHTAGA prominent position for the opposition narrative.
INFLUENCE SEARCH RESULTS A safer method of public satire.
LIVESTREAMINGAnyone can mass broadcast the opposition narrative.
CHECK-INSActivists can check-in to signal participation to friends or leave directly after check-in, creating a protest rally of “ghosts”
SELF-SURVEILLANCESurveillance is not only a method of repression.
FLASH MOBS Minsk, 2006source: smartmobs.com source: feedbackagency.com source: andrewcarr.org This is a great dilemma action.
MORE CHANGES NEEDED? Method 11 is Records, Radio, and Television source: clevescene.comsource: guardian.co.uk source: cleanenergyjobact.com
AN INVITATION bit.ly/ CivilResistance source: Flick/Hello Turkey ToeTo advance strategic nonviolence in the 21st century Digital Activism Research Project University of Washington www.digital-activism.org
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