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21st Century Civil Society: Implications for Open Government

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Presentation for the Open Government Partnership regional meeting in Santiago, Chile, January 2013. The Open Government Partnership is a new multilateral initiative that aims to secure concrete …

Presentation for the Open Government Partnership regional meeting in Santiago, Chile, January 2013. The Open Government Partnership is a new multilateral initiative that aims to secure concrete commitments from governments to promote transparency, empower citizens, fight corruption, and harness new technologies to strengthen governance. In the spirit of multi-stakeholder collaboration, OGP is overseen by a steering committee of governments and civil society organizations.

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  • 1. n ssociatio Transparency A21st Century Civil Society: Implications for Open Government Mary Joyce Latin America Regional Outreach Meeting Open Government Partnership January 10, 2013 | Santiago, Chile
  • 2. This presentation is based on 3 propositionsimage: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 3. ①open government is a partnership between Government and Civil Society image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 4. Civil society is undergoing transformations. ②image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 5. Government will benefit from better③ understanding those transformations.image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 6. 2 Questions: 1) What will civil society look like in the digital age? 2) How will these changes affect open government?image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 7. Historic Civil Society “bricks and mortar” Transparency Associationimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 8. Historic Civil Society Member Mobilization Model Transparency Association Staff Formal Organization Membersimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 9. Historic Civil Society Collaboration in the Member Mobilization Model Transparency Association Governance Associationimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 10. Historic Civil Society Member Funding Model Transparency Association Staff Formal Organization Members Governmentimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 11. Digital technology challenges both of these models.image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 12. Reductions in Group Affiliation ① image: Flickr/prayitno
  • 13. images: Pew Research Center, The Australian, House of Commons Library, The Asian-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus
  • 14. Transformations in Civil Society Reductions in Group Affiliation Transparency Associationimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 15. Fewer Donations ②image: Flickr/xornalcerto
  • 16. Transformations in Civil Society Fewer Donations Transparency Association Source: Karpf, D. (2012) The Moveon Effect: The Unexpected Transformation of American Political Advocacyimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 17. While old civil society organizations have less members and less money, new types of organizations are emerging.image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 18. Earthquake hits Sichuan Province, China Monday, 2:28pm May12th, 2008image: Flickr/China Photos/Getty Images
  • 19. Because of corruption, school buildings did not meet safety codes and thousands of children died. Yet the government refused to acknowledge their deaths.image: Shiho Fukada/http://www.shihofukada.com
  • 20. Using his blog, artist Ai Weiwei organizes a team of volunteers totravel to Sichuan and collect the names of the children who died. image: unknown source
  • 21. Using the Internet, the network of volunteers worked for 1 year.They collected 5,385 names and forced the Chinese government to publicly report the death toll. Then the organization ended. image: Ai Weiwei
  • 22. Civil society used to look like this: Transparency Association Staff Formal Organization Membersimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 23. Now it also looks like this: Transparency Association Staff Formal Organization Membersimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 24. Now it also looks like this: Transparency Association Staff Formal Organization Members No single physical location. Small staff or no staff.image: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 25. What are the main characteristics of 21st century civil society? 1) Digital 2) Fast 3) Decentralized 4) Participatoryimage: Flickr/Victor1558 5) Cheap
  • 26. ① Digital: the new civil society infrastructure image: Flickr/sjcockell
  • 27. The connective infrastructure of civil society was once the formal ONG. Transparency Association
  • 28. The connective infrastructure of civil society was once the formal ONG. Transparency Association Now that infrastructure is also being provided by social media. Source: Bennett W. L., and Segerberg, A., (2012) “The Logic of Connective Action,” Information, Communication & Society
  • 29. They don’t need to ONG to connect them. They can connect with each other directly.image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 30. FastQuic ker tquick o mo er to bilize dispe , r se ②
  • 31. #YoSoy132: multi-city protestsmobilized in 8 days image: Wikipedia
  • 32. “In the past, it might have taken 10 days for an official involved in a sex scandal to lose his job. This time he was gone in 66 hours.” - Journalist Zhu Ruifeng on the effect of viral videos, photos, and online rumors on on the firing of Lei Zhengfu Source: Jacobs, A (Dec. 26, 2012) “Chinese Officials Find Misbehavior New Carries Cost,” The New York Timesimage: Flickr/alaina.buzas
  • 33. The average age of the organizations that assisted with the 15Mprotests was 3 years, many times less than organizations responsiblefor previous mass mobilizations (10-40 years).Source: Anduiza E., Christancho, C., and Sabuecho J. (2011) “the political protests on the outraged in Spain: what’s new?’ image: Flickr/furlin
  • 34. Mobilizations are faster. Organizations are younger.image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 35. Decentralized Participants are less geographically③ concentrated. image: Flickr/ArmandoH2O
  • 36. Online platforms aggregate action across geographies.
  • 37. Less Activism is LocalIn a recent study of over 800 digital activism cases from 80 countries, only 8% of cases were purely local,with 92% eventually gained national or international attention and participation.Source: Global Digital Activism Data Set, Digital Activism Research Project at the University of Washington (www.digital-activism.org) 8% Local 92% National or International image: Mary Joyce
  • 38. Action occurs wherever participants are located, rather than location dictating the possibility of participation. New York Atlanta Berlin Paris Vancouverimage: Flickr/foxtongue, Björn Kietzmann, looking4poetry, Pazarm, Hiloxy, harrystaab
  • 39. ④ Participatory Campaigns without ownership, rigid leadership, or barriers to joining image: Flickr/xavi tellada
  • 40. Participatory Civil Society •easily personalized ideas and action frames • allow people to participate on their own terms • sharing campaigning values with peers via memes and slogans and targeting demands to decision-makersSource: Bennett W. L., and Segerberg, A., (2012) “TheLogic of Connective Action,” Information, Communication& Society
  • 41. self-organized in 900 global cities image: Flickr/bogieharmond
  • 42. Successful ONG allow don’t command, they suggest and inspire
  • 43. ⑤ Cheap Infrastructure ofinformation, collaboration, and mobilization is near-free image: Flickr/Elvert Barnes
  • 44. Possibility of delinking money and power image: Flickr/Elvert Barnes
  • 45. Let’s review...image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 46. Historic Civil Society Formal Organization with Members and Unaffiliated Citizens Transparency Associationimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 47. 21st Century Civil Society Less Formal Membership Transparency Associationimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 48. 21st Century Civil Society Fast, Large-Scale Mobilization by Formal Organizations Transparency Association Fewer members, greater capacity for mobilizationimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 49. 21st Century Civil Society Fast, Large-Scale Mobilization without Organizations Transparency Association Larger but less durable associationsimage: Flickr/cdsessum
  • 50. What are the implications for open government?image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 51. ① Lack of clear or durable counter-parties. tion Associa rency Transpaimage: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 52. ② ② People still believe in government and want it to be more effective. 1 in 5 campaigns in the University of Washington’s digital activism study were explicitly focused on governance issues. Source: Global Digital Activism Data Set, Digital Activism Research Project at the University of Washington (www.digital-activism.org)image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 53. These groups are also vibrant and passionate constituencies to support the work of open government and the politicians who undertake it. ③image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 54. ④ 21st century civil society is a partner for open government.They have the desire and capacity to make open government work. image: Flickr/Victor1558
  • 55. Thank You! Mary Joyce www.digital-activism.org mjoyce@uw.eduimage: Flickr/Victor1558