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  1. 1. Historical and General Background of Egypt Medieval Egypt In the 4th century the Roman Empire split into two. Egypt was part of the eastern half, known to us as the Byzantine Empire. However in the 7th century the Arabs conquered it. The Arabs invaded Egypt in 639 and by 642 all of Egypt was in their hands. It became part of an Islamic Empire and was ruled from Baghdad. However in 868 an administrator called Ahmed IbnTulun declared Egypt independent but independence did not last long. His son and successor was assassinated and rule from Baghdad was reimposed. Then in 969 Egypt was conquered by the Fatamids of Tunisia. The Fatamids ruled Egypt until 1171 and they built Cairo, which became the capital. However in 1171 a Syrian named Salah-ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin, became ruler of Egypt. He founded a dynasty called the Ayyubids who ruled Egypt for nearly 80 years. Then in 1250 a man named Beybars seized power in Egypt. He and his successors were called the Mamlukes and they ruled Egypt until 1517. During that period Egypt was rich and powerful. However in 1517 Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Turks. Modern Egypt Under the Ottomans Egypt was allowed some autonomy. As long as Egypt paid taxes the Ottomans were content to let the Egyptians administer themselves. Nevertheless the 17th and 18th centuries were ones of economic decline for Egypt and in 1719 the country suffered a devastating outbreak of plague. Then in 1798 a French army led by Napoleon landed at Egypt. (Napoleon hoped that if he occupied Egypt British links with India would be disrupted). Napoleon defeated the Egyptians on land at the battle of the Pyramids but he was utterly defeated at sea by the British navy. So Napoleon abandoned his army and left Egypt. Afterwards British and Ottoman forces defeated the French army and forced them to surrender. However the French expedition led to a renewed interest in Ancient Egypt in Europe. After the French left there was a power struggle in Egypt. It was eventually won by Albanian mercenaries led by Mohammed Ali, who became the Viceroy of Egypt. (Nominally he was under the control of the Ottoman Sultan but in practice he was more or less independent). Ali tried to modernise Egypt and he built factories and shipyards. However he died in 1849. In 1859 work began on the Suez Canal. It was built by the French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps (1805-94).
  2. 2. Khedive Ismail (1863-79) carried on the policy of trying to modernise Egypt, establishing a postal service and building railways. In 1869 the Suez Canal was completed. However he had to borrow from European lenders at high rates on interest to fund modernisation. Eventually to avoid bankruptcy Ismail was forced to sell his shares in the Suez Canal to the British in 1875. He was followed by his son Tewfiq in 1879. In 1882 there was an uprising in Egypt. Worried about their investments in the Suez Canal the British sent troops to occupy Egypt. They kept Khedive as a puppet ruler. Naturally the Egyptians resented becoming a British colony and in 1919 anti-British riots swept Egypt. In 1922 Britain recognised Egypt as an independent state. Yet the British still controlled the Egyptian communication system, its legal system and its foreign policy! The British made a successor of Khedive called Fuad king of Egypt but he had only limited power. In 1935 he was followed by his son Farouk. Then in 1942 German troops invaded Egypt but they were repulsed by the British at the battle of El-Alamein. However following anti-British riots the last British troops were withdrawn from Egypt in 1947. In 1948 Egypt was defeated in a war with Israel. Farouk was blamed for the disaster and in 1952 a group of army officers called the Free Officers staged a coup and forced Farouk to abdicate. Their leader, General Naguib became leader of Egypt but in 1954 he was replaced by Gamal Abdel Nasser. In 1956 Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal. Britain, France and Israel formed an alliance and in October 1956 Israel invaded Sinai. The British and French sent troops to Port Said but American pressure forced them to withdraw. Nasser introduced a socialist regime and moved Egypt closer to the Soviet Union. Under him education and health care improved but it was a repressive regime and the economy stagnated. However Egypt was defeated by Israel in the Six Day War of 1967 and Nasser died in 1970. He was replaced by Anwar Sadat who reversed the discredited socialist policies and encouraged foreign investment. As a result the Egyptian economy boomed (although Egypt fought another unsuccessful war with Israel in 1973). In 1978 Sadat made peace with Israel by the Camp David Agreement. However he was assassinated by extremists in 1981 and was replaced by Hosni Mubarak. Today Egypt faces the problems of a rapidly rising population and a lack of farming land. However the tourist industry is booming and Egypt has great potential for exporting natural gas. In 2011 after demonstrations in Egypt Hosni Mubarak was forced to resign and a new chapter in the history of Egypt began. Today the population of Egypt is 82 million.
  3. 3. Introduction Egypt Background: The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C. and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Following the completion of the Suez Canal in 1869, Egypt became an important world transportation hub, but also fell heavily into debt. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty following World War II. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to ready the economy for the new millennium through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure. Geography Egypt Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E Map references: Africa Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km
  4. 4. land: 995,450 sq km water: 6,000 sq km Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico Land boundaries: total: 2,665 km border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km Coastline: 2,450 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc Land use: arable land: 2.87% permanent crops: 0.48% other: 96.65% (2001) Irrigated land: 33,000 sq km (1998 est.) Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping,
  5. 5. Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees People Egypt Population: 77,505,756 (July 2005 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 13,106,043/female 12,483,899) 15-64 years: 62.6% (male 24,531,266/female 23,972,216) 65 years and over: 4.4% (male 1,457,097/female 1,955,235) (2005 est.) Median age: total: 23.68 years male: 23.31 years female: 24.05 years (2005 est.) Population growth rate: 1.78% (2005 est.) Birth rate: 23.32 births/1,000 population (2005 est.) Death rate: 5.26 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.) Net migration rate: -0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.) Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2005 est.) Infant mortality rate: total: 32.59 deaths/1,000 live births male: 33.31 deaths/1,000 live births female: 31.83 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71 years male: 68.5 years female: 73.62 years (2005 est.)
  6. 6. Total fertility rate: 2.88 children born/woman (2005 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 12,000 (2001 est.) HIV/AIDS - deaths: 700 (2003 est.) Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s) adjective: Egyptian Ethnic groups: Eastern Hamitic stock (Egyptians, Bedouins, and Berbers) 99%, Greek, Nubian, Armenian, other European (primarily Italian and French) 1% Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 94%, Coptic Christian and other 6% Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 57.7% male: 68.3% female: 46.9% (2003 est.) Government Egypt Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt conventional short form: Egypt local long form:JumhuriyatMisr al-Arabiyah local short form:Misr former: United Arab Republic (with Syria) Government type: republic Capital: Cairo Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al
  7. 7. Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, BaniSuwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, JanubSina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, ShamalSina', Suhaj Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK) National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952) Constitution: 11 September 1971; amended 22 May 1980 Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981) head of government: Prime Minister Ahmed NAZIF (since 9 July 2004) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term; note - a national referendum in May 2005 approved a constitutional amendment that changed the presidential election to a multicandidate popular vote; previously the president was nominated by the People's Assembly and the nomination was validated by a national, popular referendum; last referendum held 26 September 1999; first election under terms of constitutional amendment held 7 September 2005; next election scheduled for 2011 election results: Hosni MUBARAK reelected president; percent of vote - Hosni MUBARAK 88.6%, Ayman NOUR 7.6%, Noman GOMAA 2.9% Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al- Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve six-year terms; mid-term elections for half the members) elections: People's Assembly - three-phase voting - last held 19 October, 29 October, 8 November 2000 (next to be held October- November 2005); Advisory Council - last held May-June 2004 (next
  8. 8. to be held May-June 2007) election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NDP 388, Tagammu 6, NWP 7, Nasserists 3, Al-Ahrar 1, independents 37 (2 seats determined by a later byelection, 10 seats appointed by President); Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court Political parties and leaders: Al-Ahrar Party [Helmi SALEM]; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party or Nasserists [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (governing party)]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or Tagammu [Rifaat EL-SAID]; New Wafd Party or NWP [No'man GOMAA] note: formation of political parties must be approved by the government Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but moved more aggressively since then to block its influence; civic society groups are sanctioned, but constrained in practical terms; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned International organization participation: ABEDA, ACCT, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, BSEC (observer), CAEU, EBRD, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OIC, ONUB, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador M. Nabil FAHMY chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400 FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319 consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador designate Francis J. RICCIARDONE, Jr embassy: 8 Kamal El Din Salah St., Garden City, Cairo mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900 telephone: [20] (2) 797-3300
  9. 9. FAX: [20] (2) 797-3200 Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the national emblem (a gold Eagle of Saladin facing the hoist side with a shield superimposed on its chest above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; design is based on the Arab Liberation flag and similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band, and Yemen, which has a plain white band Economy Egypt Economy - overview: Lack of substantial progress on economic reform since the mid 1990s has limited foreign direct investment in Egypt and kept annual GDP growth in the range of 2%-3% in 2001-03. However, in 2004 Egypt implemented several measures to boost foreign direct investment. In September 2004, Egypt pushed through custom reforms, proposed income and corporate tax reforms, reduced energy subsidies, and privatized several enterprises. The budget deficit rose to an estimated 8% of GDP in 2004 compared to 6.1% of GDP the previous year, in part as a result of these reforms. Monetary pressures on an overvalued Egyptian pound led the government to float the currency in January 2003, leading to a sharp drop in its value and consequent inflationary pressure. In 2004, the Central Bank implemented measures to improve currency liquidity. Egypt reached record tourism levels, despite the Taba and Nuweiba bombings in September 2004. The development of an export market for natural gas is a bright spot for future growth prospects, but improvement in the capital-intensive hydrocarbons sector does little to reduce Egypt's persistent unemployment. GDP (purchasing power parity): $316.3 billion (2004 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (2004 est.) GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,200 (2004 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 17.2% industry: 33% services: 49.8% (2004 est.)
  10. 10. Labor force: 20.71 million (2004 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 32%, industry 17%, services 51% (2001 est.) Unemployment rate: 10.9% (2004 est.) Population below poverty line: 16.7% (2000 est.) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.4% highest 10%: 25% (1995) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 34.4 (2001) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.5% (2004 est.) Investment (gross fixed): 15.8% of GDP (2004 est.) Budget: revenues: $15.42 billion expenditures: $20.76 billion, including capital expenditures of $2.7 billion (2004 est.) Public debt: 102.7% of GDP (2004 est.) Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (2004 est.) Electricity - production: 81.27 billion kWh (2002) Electricity - fossil fuel: 81%
  11. 11. production by source: hydro: 19% nuclear: 0% other: 0% (2001) Electricity - consumption: 75.58 billion kWh (2002) Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2002) Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2002) Oil - production: 740,000 bbl/day (2004 est.) Oil - consumption: 562,000 bbl/day (2001 est.) Oil - exports: NA Oil - imports: NA Oil - proved reserves: 2.7 billion bbl (2004 est.) Natural gas - production: 21.2 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - consumption: 21.2 billion cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2001 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.264 trillion cu m (2004) Current account balance: $2.113 billion (2004 est.) Exports: $11 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.) Exports - crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products,
  12. 12. commodities: chemicals Exports - partners: Italy 11.9%, US 10.8%, UK 7%, Syria 6.2%, Germany 4.7%, Spain 4.2% (2004) Imports: $19.21 billion f.o.b. (2004 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels Imports - partners: US 12.2%, Germany 7%, Italy 6.6%, France 5.7%, China 5.4%, UK 4.7%, Saudi Arabia 4.1% (2004) Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.03 billion (2004 est.) Debt - external: $33.75 billion (2004 est.) Economic aid - recipient: ODA, $1.12 billion (2002) Currency (code): Egyptian pound (EGP) Currency code: EGP Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds per US dollar - 6.1963 (2004), 5.8509 (2003), 4.4997 (2002), 3.973 (2001), 3.4721 (2000) Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June Communications Egypt Telephones - main lines in use: 9.6 million (2005) Telephones - mobile cellular: 8,583,940 (2005) Telephone system: general assessment: large system; underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s and is reasonably modern; Internet access and cellular service are available domestic: principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay
  13. 13. international: country code - 20; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean), 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat; 5 coaxial submarine cables; tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel Radio broadcast stations: AM 42 (plus 15 repeaters), FM 14, shortwave 3 (1999) Radios: 20.5 million (1997) Television broadcast stations: 98 (September 1995) Televisions: 7.7 million (1997) Internet country code: .eg Internet hosts: 3,401 (2004) Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 50 (2000) Internet users: 4.2 million (2005) Transportation Egypt Railways: total: 5,063 km standard gauge: 5,063 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2004) Highways: total: 64,000 km paved: 49,984 km unpaved: 14,016 km (1999 est.) Waterways: 3,500 km note: includes Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in delta; Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m (2004) Pipelines: condensate 289 km; condensate/gas 94 km; gas 6,115 km; liquid petroleum gas 852 km; oil 5,032 km; oil/gas/water 36 km; refined products 246 km (2004)
  14. 14. Ports and harbors: Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said, Suez, Zeit Merchant marine: total: 77 ships (1,000 GRT or over) 1,194,696 GRT/1,754,815 DWT by type: bulk carrier 14, cargo 34, container 2, passenger/cargo 5, petroleum tanker 14, roll on/roll off 8 foreign-owned: 10 (Denmark 1, Greece 6, Lebanon 2, Turkey 1) registered in other countries: 34 (2005) Airports: 87 (2004 est.) Airports - with paved runways: total: 72 over 3,047 m: 13 2,438 to 3,047 m: 38 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 under 914 m: 4 (2004 est.) Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 15 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 914 to 1,523 m: 5 under 914 m: 7 (2004 est.) Heliports: 2 (2004 est.) Military Egypt Military branches: Army, Navy, Air Force, Air Defense Command Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for conscript military service; 3-year service obligation (2001) Manpower available for military service: males age 18-49: 18,347,560 (2005 est.) Manpower fit for military service: males age 18-49: 15,540,234 (2005 est.) Manpower reaching military service age annually: males: 802,920 (2005 est.)
  15. 15. Military expenditures - dollar figure: $2.44 billion (2003) Military expenditures - percent of GDP: 3.4% (2004) Transnational Issues Egypt Disputes - international: Egypt and Sudan retain claims to administer the two triangular areas that extend north and south of the 1899 Treaty boundary along the 22nd Parallel, but have withdrawn their military presence; Egypt is developing the Hala'ib Triangle north of the Treaty line; since the attack on Taba and other Egyptian resort towns on the Red Sea in October 2004, Egypt vigilantly monitors the Sinai and borders with Israel and the Gaza Strip; Egypt does not extend domestic asylum to some 70,000 persons who identify as Palestinians but who largely lack UNRWA assistance and, until recently, UNHCR recognition as refugees Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 70,215 (Palestinian Territories) (2004) Illicit drugs: transit point for Southwest Asian and Southeast Asian heroin and opium moving to Europe, Africa, and the US; transit stop for Nigerian couriers; concern as money-laundering site due to lax financial regulations and enforcement
  16. 16. PHYSIOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF EGYPT NUBIAN DESERT The Nubian Desert is located in northeast Africa, between the Nile River and the Red Sea. It is an approximately 97,000 square mile region of the Sahara Desert. Primarily a sandstone plateau, this arid (dry) region has numerous wadis, or dry watercourses, which fill with water that flows to the Nile during periods of heavy rainfall. The ancient Kushites mined copper and gold from this desert, and traded these metals to Egypt for linen and grain. NILE DELTA The delta of the Nile River is a triangle shaped region located north of Cairo, in northeastern Egypt. Originally, as many as seven branches of the Nile wound through the delta. The delta contains sixty percent of Egypt’s cultivated land (farmland), large areas of marshy wetlands, and shallow lakes. During ancient times, the Egyptians took advantage of the region’s rich soil, gentle winds, and level landscape to develop an extremely productive agricultural system. ARABIAN DESERT The Arabian Desert is the eastern desert of Egypt. It runs from the Nile River in the west to the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez in the east. The desert is mountainous and rutted by deep, dry riverbeds. The ancient Egyptians used its abundant quarries of granite, feldspar, and other materials for many of their building projects. NILE RIVER The Nile River is the longest river in the world, stretching 4,160 miles. It flows northward from its headstream in Central Africa to its delta on the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile runs through parts of Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Zaire. At six different places along the Nile, crystalline rocks form cataracts, or stretches of rapids and waterfalls that are not navigable. According to the ancient Greek historian Herodotus, Egypt was “the gift of the Nile” because its waters supported large scale agriculture, made transportation easier, and provided a variety of edible plants and animals. MEDITERRANEAN SEA The Mediterranean Sea is the world’s largest inland sea. Surrounded by Europe, Africa, and Asia, it covers an area approximately of nine hundred and sixty-five thousand square miles. The Mediterranean Sea connects with the Atlantic Ocean and the Black Sea by way of the Aegean Sea. The shores of the sea are mainly mountainous. Many species of fish, sponges, and coral are abundant in the sea. The ancient Egyptians were originally afraid to sail on the Mediterranean, and so they relied on traders from other lands to bring them goods from Anatolia (Turkey) and Canaan. Eventually, the Egyptians got over their fear and sailed the Mediterranean Sea doing their own trading.
  17. 17. LIBYAN DESERT The Libyan Desert is the northeastern part of Africa’s Sahara Desert, the largest desert in the world. The Libyan Desert covers parts of southwestern Egypt, eastern Libya, and northwestern Sudan. The region consists primarily of sand dunes, course, stony plains, and plateaus of bare rock. Although its hot, dry climate is harsher and more forbidding than that of Egypt’s eastern deserts, the oases of this region were known in ancient times for their wines and agricultural products. Economy of Egypt[1] Cairo is the financial capital of Egypt Rank 27th Currency Egyptian Pound (EGP) Trade organisations WTO Statistics GDP $548 billion (2012 est.) [2] GDP growth 2.2% (2012) GDP per capita $6,700 (PPP) (2012 est.) GDP by sector agriculture: 14.7%; industry: 37.4%; services: 47.9% (2012 est.)
  18. 18. Inflation (CPI) 8.5% (2012 est.) Population below poverty line 20% (2005 est.) Gini coefficient 34.4 (2001) Labour force 27.2 million (2012 est.) Labour force by occupation Agriculture (32%), Industry (17%), Services (51%) (2001 est.) Unemployment 20.5 (2012 est.) Main industries Textiles, Food Processing, Tourism, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Hydrocarbons, Construction, Cement, Metals, Light Manufactures Ease of Doing Business Rank 110th[3] External Exports $28.37 billion(67th; 2012 est.)[4] Export goods Crude oil and Petroleum products, Cotton, Textiles, Metal Products, Chemicals, Agricultural goods Main export partners United States 8.2% India 7.0% Italy 6.7% Saudi Arabia 6.3% Germany 4.4% France 4.2% (2012 est.)[5] Imports $58.76 billion (50th; 2012 est.)[6]
  19. 19. Import goods Machinery and Equipment, Foodstuffs, Chemicals, Wood products, Fuels Main import partners China 11.9% United States 8.0% Turkey 5.3% Italy 5.1% Germany 4.6% Russia 4.4% India 4.1% (2012 est.)[7] FDI stock $73.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.) Gross external debt $38.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.) Public finances Public debt 85% of GDP (2012 est.) Revenues $73.3 billion (2013 est.) Expenses $98.4 billion (2013 est.) Credit rating CCC+ (Domestic) CCC+ (Foreign) CCC+ (T&C Assessment) (Standard & Poor's)[8] Foreign reserves US$13.100 billion (February 2012)[9] Main data source: CIA World Fact Book All values, unless otherwise stated, are in US dollars