Please read and respond. <ul><li>"For years and years, our school district did the innovation "du jour." One year it was a new math program. The next year it was a new science program. We measured our success by how much we had done. And yet we had no idea what, if anything, was making a difference in student learning. Now we have a set of clearly defined learning goals for all students. We choose approaches that we think will help us meet those goals. We keep checking whether we are getting there or not by analyzing student learning results. We're not shooting in the dark any more." </li></ul><ul><li>-- a teacher </li></ul>
Metacognitive Learners <ul><li>In order for students to perform well on the NJ ASK and HSPA—they must be able to perform independently. </li></ul><ul><li>They need to be able to draw on relevant prior knowledge—so as to assist them with the cognitive demands of the test. </li></ul>
How Do We Improve Student Achievement? <ul><li>Stabilize student achievement gains by insuring that students become self-regulated learners </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease having students practice “the test” as a means for improving student achievement </li></ul>
Teacher Effectiveness <ul><li>A study in Tennessee found that students who have three effective teachers or three ineffective teachers in a row have vastly different achievement levels. </li></ul>
Teacher Effectiveness <ul><li>Because of differences in teacher effectiveness, students whose achievement levels were similar in mathematics at the beginning of third grade scored 50 percentile points apart on fifth grade achievement tests just three years later. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Sanders, William L. & Joan C. Rivers. Cumulative and Residual Effects on Teachers on Future Student Academic Achievement , Knoxville: University of Tennessee, 1996. </li></ul>
Teacher Effectiveness Fifth Grade Math Scores: Tennessee 100 80 60 40 20 0 After 3 years of Very Ineffective Teachers After 3 years of Very Effective Teachers 29% 83%
Cumulative Effects of Teaching <ul><li>In Dallas, Texas, students who started at similar achievement levels in reading and math at the beginning of third grade were 34-50 percentile points apart three years later, as a result of the difference in effectiveness of their teachers. </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Jordan, Heather, Robert Mendro & Dash Weerasinghe. Teacher Effects on Longitudinal Student Achievement , paper presented at CREATE Annual Meeting, 1997. </li></ul>
Fifth Grade Math and Sixth Grade Reading Scores: Dallas, Texas (Beginning Percentile = 60) 80 60 40 20 0 After 3 years of Very Ineffective Teachers After 3 years of Very Effective Teachers 27% 76% Math Reading 76% 42%
Importance of Teacher Knowledge <ul><li>“ What teachers know and can do is the most important influence on what students learn. Competent and caring teachers should be a student right.” </li></ul><ul><li>Source: What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future, National Commission on Teaching & America’s Future, NY:1996, p. 6. </li></ul>
What Is Cognitive Apprenticeship? <ul><li>An approach to learning that emphasizes the role of the adult in supporting student’s developing control of knowledge. </li></ul>
Why Is Cognitive Apprenticeship Important? “ Although schools have been relatively successful in organizing and conveying large bodies of conceptual and factual knowledge, standard pedagogical practices render key aspects of expertise invisible to students. Too little attention is paid to the processes that experts engage in to use or acquire knowledge in carrying out complex or realistic tasks .” Collins, Brown, & Newman. 1989. “Cognitive Apprenticeship: Teaching the Crafts of Reading, Writing, and Mathematics.” In Lauren Resnick’s Knowing, Learning, and Instruction: Essays in Honor of Robert Glasser. Hillsdale, NJ: LEA.
Why Is Cognitive Apprenticeship Critical? <ul><li>Vygotskian theory proposes that once an externalized activity becomes an internalized function, the structure and the organization of the brain is changed, moving the learner to a higher intellectual level. (Luria, 1982; Vygotsky, 1978). </li></ul>
Modeling <ul><li>In modeling the teacher demonstrates a learning task. </li></ul>
Modeling <ul><li>The students observe the processes that are required to accomplish the task. In so doing, t he student begins as a spectator, as the majority of the cognitive work is done by an expert. </li></ul>
Modeling <ul><li>Without clear models, students may not be able to conceptualize the goal of instruction. Good models provide students with benchmarks. </li></ul>
An example of a great deal of support would be when a teacher models the complete performance of a task, with verbal explanations that identify the elements of the content, strategy, and/or thinking disposition. Modeling
Message Time <ul><li>For example, during Message Time, the teacher provides students with a conceptual model of the literacy task well before they are asked to attempt any aspect of it independently. </li></ul>Message Time in a Kindergarten Classroom. Jackson Avenue, 9/02.
Message Time <ul><li>During the demonstration, the teacher provides students with simultaneous models of language and action that enable the children to observe the types of strategies and skills they need to apply as they problem-solve on their own. </li></ul>Message Time in Kindergarten Classroom. Fairmount School. 3/02.
Coaching <ul><li>Coaching involves guided participation, whereby the teacher observes the students during learning events and offers hints, reminders, feedback, modeling, and other types of support to ensure successful performance. </li></ul>Literature Discussion, Grade 5
Coaching <ul><li>Through language prompts and direct modeling, teachers and/or peers assist the student in integrating various sources of information and applying strategies for working out new solutions. </li></ul>OG Lesson in action.
Coaching <ul><li>The goal of coaching is to help students understand a new concept, and understanding derives from a meaningful and successful performance. </li></ul>Coaching at Jackson Avenue.
Lev Vygotsky <ul><li>There are three central concepts in Vygotsky's theory, and they all have direct implications for the classroom. These are the concepts of: </li></ul><ul><li>the Zone of Proximal Development </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding </li></ul><ul><li>the Sociocultural Nature of Learning </li></ul>
Zone of Proximal Development <ul><li>Vygotsky believed that learning takes place when children are working within what he called their "zone of proximal development“ (ZPD). </li></ul><ul><li>This refers to an area in which a child or adolescent would have trouble solving a problem alone, but could succeed with help from someone more knowledgeable. </li></ul>
Zone of Proximal Development <ul><li>The zone of proximal development is an area of potential significant advances in a child or adolescent's thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>That is, within this area, a child or adolescent is ready to master new concepts or ideas, but simply needs help in doing so. </li></ul>
What Is Scaffolding? <ul><li>Scaffolding means explaining, demonstrating, and jointly constructing idealized versions of a performance. </li></ul>1-to-1 Assistance.
Scaffolding includes… <ul><li>Recruiting the student’s interest </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing the number of steps so the task is manageable </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining students’ persistence towards the goal </li></ul><ul><li>Making critical features evident </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling frustration and risk </li></ul>
Scaffolding <ul><li>During scaffolded instruction, teachers provide students with varying degrees of support that enable them to complete a specific task. As students become more competent, the scaffolding is removed and the students assume more responsibility. </li></ul>
The Goal of Scaffolding Is… <ul><li>To provide a temporary structure that enables the student to accomplish the action successfully. The teacher regulates the levels of support according to how well the students understand the task at hand. </li></ul>
A Scaffold Needs to be Self-Destructive <ul><li>When the student’s behavior signals to the teacher that she or he can do it by him or herself, the support is removed. </li></ul>
Is All About The Way Teachers Talk WITH Students. Scaffolding
Frames a problem or articulates a goal <ul><li>“ It sounds to me that what you are trying to do is to figure out…” </li></ul>
Encourages attention to conflicts and differences of opinion <ul><li>“ Jerry, Carlos thinks the answer is X, and you think the answer is Y. I want you to keep talking to each other to figure out the problem.” </li></ul>
Refocuses the discussion <ul><li>“ So far we’ve agreed on one thing—let’s consider data from our second experiment.” </li></ul>
Invites interaction of ideas <ul><li>“ What’s Gina asking? Who can add to that?” </li></ul>
Prompts refinement of language <ul><li>“ When you say it went up, what exactly do you mean?” </li></ul>
Turns question back to its owner <ul><li>“ I don’t know. What do you think?” </li></ul>
Communicates standards for explanations <ul><li>“ I need to hear (read) the evidence that backs up your claim.” </li></ul>
Asks for elaboration <ul><li>“ So talk to us about the X you mentioned before.” </li></ul>
Asks for clarification <ul><li>“ You need to tell me what you mean when you say…” </li></ul>
Restates or summarizes student statements <ul><li>“ So you’re saying that with a larger surface and the same weight, the disk would move farther?” </li></ul>
Articulation <ul><li>Purpose: To make the learner more aware of his/her cognitive processes. </li></ul>
Articulation <ul><li>Any language prompt that encourages learners to articulate their knowledge or problem-solving strategies during a particular task. </li></ul>
Articulation <ul><li>How did you know? </li></ul><ul><li>What can you try? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you notice? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some important things you need to consider before editing your composition? </li></ul>
Reflection <ul><li>During reflection the teacher demonstrates how students can analyze and reflect on their own progress and then uses language to prompt such behavior. </li></ul>
Reflection <ul><li>Teachers promote reflection through questions that focus on personal accomplishments so that students might be able to re-present and form their understanding. </li></ul>
Reflection Prompts… <ul><li>How do you think you did on that? </li></ul><ul><li>How does your scored writing sample compare with the rubric? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you think you did your best work? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you find a part that you would like to spend more time on? </li></ul><ul><li>Did you have any problems with this part? </li></ul><ul><li>Show me the hardest part. </li></ul><ul><li>Show me a good space that you included in your writing. </li></ul><ul><li>What might you include on your personal editing checklist given this writing sample? </li></ul>
Exploration <ul><li>During exploration, the teacher guides the students into a mode of problem solving on their own. </li></ul><ul><li>By occasioning students to design and solve their own problems, teachers help students understand that an important part of learning lies in reaching beyond what is already known. </li></ul>
Exploration <ul><li>Exploration is a natural culmination when scaffolding ceases and a student has articulated and reflected on performance. </li></ul>
Making Change… <ul><li>Research suggests that all innovations are multidimensional, involving three components: </li></ul><ul><li>1. the use of new materials, </li></ul><ul><li>2. the use of new teaching approaches, and </li></ul><ul><li>3. an alteration of beliefs </li></ul>
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