LearningStylesKey Concepts:Field IndependenceField DependenceBy Mary C. Acevedo, M.Ed., TESOL
Learning Styleis how a person approachesproblems, addresses issues, asksquestions, and interacts with theteacher and peer...
FieldIndependenceWho are field independent learners?European American students as a wholeHow are field independent learn...
FieldIndependenceWhat problems will arise?The field-independent approach toeducation will not be compatible with thenon-m...
FieldDependence a.k.a. field sensitive learners Who are field dependent learners?“minorities”:-- African Americans, Arab...
Implications for theClassroomClearly state and restate the degreeof cooperation that is allowable inyour written and verb...
Implications for theClassroomThe teacher herself can becomemore field dependent and student-centered.Provide a model of ...
Implications for theClassroomDo not stereotype; even within thesetwo culturally-driven styles, there areindividual differ...
ReferencesZainuddin, H., et. al. (2007).Fundamentals of teaching English toSpeakers of Other Languages in K-12Mainstream ...
ReferencesZainuddin, H., et. al. (2007).Fundamentals of teaching English toSpeakers of Other Languages in K-12Mainstream ...
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Learning styles: Field Independence and Field Dependence

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Learning styles: Field Independence and Field Dependence

  1. 1. LearningStylesKey Concepts:Field IndependenceField DependenceBy Mary C. Acevedo, M.Ed., TESOL
  2. 2. Learning Styleis how a person approachesproblems, addresses issues, asksquestions, and interacts with theteacher and peers.Culturally-triggered learning styles:field independencefield dependence
  3. 3. FieldIndependenceWho are field independent learners?European American students as a wholeHow are field independent learners characterized?Motivated by impersonal, analytical activities that do notnecessitate a group-type approach.Show a rational, intrinsic appeal for the task withoutconsulting others.Typically like competition and individual recognition.Do best with learning the history or theory of the activitybefore attempting to do the assignment (“analyticallearners”).
  4. 4. FieldIndependenceWhat problems will arise?The field-independent approach toeducation will not be compatible with thenon-mainstream minority students.Teachers may assume students are lesscompetent than they really are , and itmay even appear that the minority studentis in need of special education or has abehavioral disorder.Cultural bias may occur.
  5. 5. FieldDependence a.k.a. field sensitive learners Who are field dependent learners?“minorities”:-- African Americans, Arab Americans, Hispanics, NativeAmericans and many Asian American groups How are field dependent learners characterized?Prefer to work with others to achieve a common goal.Are greatly influenced by the teacher and very often interactwith the him/her.Are more sensitive to others’ feelings, opinions, and ideas.Like to practice and learn by experimentation (as opposed toconceptual discussion) before starting the task (“globallearners”).
  6. 6. Implications for theClassroomClearly state and restate the degreeof cooperation that is allowable inyour written and verbal instructions.Directly teach rules about turn takingand other ways of participating inclass will need to be taught.
  7. 7. Implications for theClassroomThe teacher herself can becomemore field dependent and student-centered.Provide a model of the schoolwork.Insist that the student make a culturaladjustment and learn to feelcomfortable asking questions.
  8. 8. Implications for theClassroomDo not stereotype; even within thesetwo culturally-driven styles, there areindividual differences: Visual, Auditory,Tactile, KinestheticTeachers and students whounderstand each other’s expectationscan anticipate fewer cultural collisionsthat disturb the educational process.
  9. 9. ReferencesZainuddin, H., et. al. (2007).Fundamentals of teaching English toSpeakers of Other Languages in K-12Mainstream Classrooms. Dubuque, IA:Kendall/Hunt.
  10. 10. ReferencesZainuddin, H., et. al. (2007).Fundamentals of teaching English toSpeakers of Other Languages in K-12Mainstream Classrooms. Dubuque, IA:Kendall/Hunt.

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