Survey methods of_teaching_esl_reading


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Survey methods of_teaching_esl_reading

  1. 1. Methods of Teaching Reading to ELLs * : A Survey & Analysis Presented by Marvyn A. Mahle, December 8, 2010 for TSL 679, Special Projects in TESOL Dr. Soonhyang Kim, Advisor * English Language Learners
  2. 2. What Is Reading? ... <ul><li>Reading is a receptive language process...a psycholinguistic process that starts with a linguistic surface representation encoded by a writer and ends with meaning which the reader constructs...The writer encodes thought as language and the reader decodes language to thought. (Goodman, 1975) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Reading? Cont'd... <ul><li>A reader's brain uses five distinct processes to understand the letters, words, symbols before his/her eyes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition – the reader sees a graphic display and recognizes it as written language and starts reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction – the reader anticipates words and phrases to come, based on his/her vocabulary and previous reading experiences. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What Is Reading? Cont'd... <ul><li>Confirmation – Reader must verify that what was predicted is actually what is encountered. This takes place virtually instantaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Correction – If a predicted word or phrase is not encountered in the text stream, the brain must momentarily stop and process the unexpected input. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Is Reading? Cont'd... <ul><li>Termination – The brain terminates the reading process when the reading task is complete. This happens when... </li></ul><ul><li>the end of the text stream is reached. </li></ul><ul><li>the reader is distracted or bored. </li></ul><ul><li>the reader cannot understand the passage. (Goodman, 1975) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reading Models... <ul><li>Rumelhart (1977) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information perceived by reader's eyes goes the to the VIS (Visual Information Store) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful items are extracted by the Feature Extraction Device </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Pattern Synthesizer creates the most probable interpretation of the letters/symbols being read, using the reader's current knowledge of syntax, semantics, grammar, and vocabulary. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. RUMELHART MODEL Grapheme Input VIS* Feature extraction device Pattern Synthesizer Orthographic Knowledge Lexical Knowledge Syntactical Knowledge Semantic Knowledge Model of probable interpretation *Visual Information Store
  8. 8. Reading Models... <ul><li>Stanovich (1980) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A synthesis of both bottom-up and top-down models, attempts to explain how readers may compensate for reading deficiencies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a reader has little knowledge of a topic, he/she will not be able to make many predictions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, if the reader can recognize words, he can still understand the text. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rolls Royce, Mercedes Benz, BMW, as well as other ____ of automobiles are favorites of the serious collector.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Reading Models... <ul><li>LaBerge & Samuels (1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading is essentially information processing, a mental process akin to that found in computers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With a skilled reader, this processing is very fluid and subconscious. The authors called it “automaticity.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, if a reader must focus a large amount of attention on decoding (e.g. a beginning reader), he has little mental power left to consider the meaning of the text...and his comprehension suffers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Reading Models... <ul><li>Refinements of Psycholinguistic Models </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading is “psycholinguistic guessing game” in which “the reader reconstructs, as best he can, a message that has been encoded by a writer as a graphic display.” (Goodman, 1967) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coady (1979) refined this concept by concentrating on the interplay of a reader's conceptual abilities, processing strategies, and background knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Reading Models... <ul><li>Coady's Model of an ESL Reader (1979) </li></ul>Conceptual Abilities Background Knowledge Process Strategies
  12. 12. Reading Models... <ul><li>Schema Theory Model </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text, by itself, does not carry meaning. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning can only be deduced by the interplay between the text and the reader's previously acquired knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Previously acquired knowledge is referred to as “schemata,” hence the term schema theory. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Every act of comprehension involves one's knowledge of the world as well.” (Anderson, et al 1977) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Reading Models... <ul><li>Short Circuit Hypothesis (Clarke, 1980) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a reader has limited L2 proficiency, his/her ability to read and comprehend is “short circuited.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This short circuit causes the reader to revert to poor reading strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarke suggests that there are no good or poor readers, only readers who – depending on the circumstances of the current reading task – will use good or poor reading strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Phonics & Phonemic Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonics is the ability to recognize the sounds that letters and letter combinations represent in written language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness is the ability to recognize the sounds that occur in spoken language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In L1...if ELLs have had formal schooling in their native language, they may be familiar with phonics. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In L2...ELLs may be able to transfer the phonetic concept from L1. If not, English phonics will have to be taught explicitly. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ELLs are at a disadvantage compared with native speakers...need to play catch up, conscientiously . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In L1...emphasize cognates as much as possible; allow bilingual dictionaries, especially at beginner and intermediate levels. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In L2... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach vocabulary explicitly but not out of context. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take advantage of background knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use visuals when introducing new words and concepts. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary the activities used to introduce and practice vocabulary.: word walls, flashcards, student-generated glossaries. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce vocabulary first learned from print sources with relevant practice in spoken language. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Pre-Reading Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point out titles and subtitles of text passage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize illustrations, tables, and other graphics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce new vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skim to deduce main idea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give information on author </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use graphic organizer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Reading Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links phonics with phonemic awareness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can show how the rhythm of spoken language is reflected in the punctuation of written language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best used for beginner and intermediate levels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can help advanced level students improve presentation skills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Reading Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silent: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When performed in class, helps to reinforce the reading habit for students outside of class. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher should function as role model, referring to reading often and talking about what he/she has read. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should be performed over an extended period of time, i.e., entire semester or academic year. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students to pick own books or articles, with teacher approval. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Emphasizing Comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading for Gist- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skimming the text in order to distill the overall arguments into 1-2 sentences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also an acronym: GIST = G enerating Interactions between S chemata & T ext (Richardson & Morgan, 2005) Student reads each paragraph, summarizes it into a sentence of 20 words or less. Repeats process for all subsequent paragraphs, then combines all paragraph summaries into a final, overall summary of 20 words or less. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Emphasizing Comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading for Main Idea – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentionally more involved than reading for gist. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May involve re-reading(s). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize that main idea in a paragraph is often at its beginning or end. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize that main idea of a passage will be the sum its paragraphs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Sources of Reading Material </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Print – Printed/graphical images in the environment at large: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Scale Signs, Indoors & Outdoors – traffic signs, signs on buildings, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising billboards – static and electronic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be smaller scale – labels with product information or operating directions, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machine/device controls – automobile, TV remote control, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Sources of Reading Material </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld printed material – textbooks, general interest books (fiction and non-fiction), magazines, newspapers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand written material – letters, notes, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters – for special interest topics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Sources of Reading Material </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Print – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Static, non-interactive files (word processor read-only or pdf), may be online or local on a student's PC or other electronic device </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic, interactive files in html, pdf, or other format; most often online, available to large numbers of users </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can easily integrate graphics and video </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Assessing Effectiveness of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Wh-Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who, what, where, when, why, and how </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most basic, “news reporter”-type questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force student to search for specific details </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple Choice Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit number of alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower affective filter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Assessing Effectiveness of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Short Response/Essay </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student must consciously recall details of passage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links comprehension with recall and builds retelling and recasting skills. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sentence Completion/Fill In the Blank </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If item with blank is verbatim from passage, visual recall from original reading will assist student. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May assist in recall and use of synonyms. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Assessing Effectiveness of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often tested with multiple choice or fill-in-the-blank </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better tested in ways that force student to actively use newly learned words in context, e.g., provide list of words and ask students to compose short response using those words. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral Questions/Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like short written responses, force student to recall details and retell passage in own words. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforces phonemic awareness. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Sample Reading Lesson: ESL Beginner Level... <ul><li>Aesop's The Frogs and the Well </li></ul><ul><li>Simple text </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Tested with wh-questions and sentence completion </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sample Reading Lesson: ESL Intermediate Level... <ul><li>Reading food labels </li></ul><ul><li>More complex text </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Tested with multiple choice questions and vocabulary </li></ul>
  30. 30. Sample Reading Lesson: ESL Advanced Level... <ul><li>Understanding Newspaper Headlines </li></ul><ul><li>Complex, authentic text </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizer optional </li></ul><ul><li>Tested with multiple choice questions, short response/essay, and oral recasting </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusions & Recommendations... <ul><li>Be aware of students' background knowledge and how they may use that knowledge to develop schemata to interpret what they read. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay attuned to students' frustration levels with a given text...strive to create as much automaticity as possible. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Conclusions & Recommendations... <ul><li>To lower affective filter and maintain motivation, match assessment tools to level of text. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of cultural outlooks that may interfere with students' abilities to properly interpret texts. </li></ul>
  33. 33. References Anderson, R. C. (1977). The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. In R. C. Anderson, Spiro, R. J., & Monatague,W. E. (Eds). In Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge . 415-431. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. Clarke, M.A. (1980). The short circuit hypothesis of ESL reading – or when language competence interferes with reading performance. Modern Language Journal , 64, 203-209. Coady, J. (1979). A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader. In Reading in a second language , Ronald Mackay, Bruce Barkman, and R.R. Jordan (Eds.), 5-12, Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Goodman, K. (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. Journal of the Reading Specialist . 6:4, 126-135. LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology , 6, 193-323.
  34. 34. References Richardson, J.S., & Morgan, R.F. (2005). Writing to learn in the content areas. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Rumelhart, D. E. (1977). Toward an interactive model for reading. In W. Otto (Ed.), Reading Problems . Boston, MA:Addison-Wesley Stanovich, K. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly , 16, 32-71.