Methods of  Teaching Reading  to  ELLs * : A Survey & Analysis Presented by Marvyn A. Mahle, December 8, 2010 for TSL 679,...
What Is Reading? ... <ul><li>Reading is a  receptive  language process...a psycholinguistic process that starts with a lin...
What Is Reading? Cont'd... <ul><li>A reader's brain uses five distinct processes to understand the letters, words, symbols...
What Is Reading? Cont'd... <ul><li>Confirmation – Reader must verify that what was predicted is actually what is encounter...
What Is Reading? Cont'd... <ul><li>Termination – The brain terminates the reading process when the reading task is complet...
Reading Models... <ul><li>Rumelhart (1977)  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information perceived by reader's eyes goes ...
RUMELHART MODEL Grapheme  Input  VIS* Feature extraction device Pattern Synthesizer Orthographic  Knowledge Lexical  Knowl...
Reading Models... <ul><li>Stanovich (1980)  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A synthesis of both bottom-up and top-down m...
Reading Models... <ul><li>LaBerge & Samuels (1974)  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading is essentially information p...
Reading Models... <ul><li>Refinements of Psycholinguistic Models  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading is “psycholing...
Reading Models... <ul><li>Coady's Model of an ESL Reader (1979) </li></ul>Conceptual Abilities Background Knowledge Proces...
Reading Models... <ul><li>Schema Theory Model  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text, by itself, does not carry meaning. ...
Reading Models... <ul><li>Short Circuit Hypothesis (Clarke, 1980)  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a reader has limit...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Phonics & Phonemic Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonics is th...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ELLs are at a disad...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use visuals when in...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Pre-Reading Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point out titles an...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Reading Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral: </li></ul></ul></ul></...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Reading Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silent: </li></ul></ul></ul>...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Emphasizing Comprehension  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading for Gis...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Emphasizing Comprehension  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading for Mai...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Sources of Reading Material </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental ...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Sources of Reading Material </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld print...
Components of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Sources of Reading Material </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Pri...
Assessing Effectiveness of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Wh-Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who, what, where, wh...
Assessing Effectiveness of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Short Response/Essay </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student must...
Assessing Effectiveness of  ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Vocabulary Development  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often tes...
Sample Reading Lesson: ESL Beginner Level... <ul><li>Aesop's  The Frogs and the Well </li></ul><ul><li>Simple text </li></...
Sample Reading Lesson: ESL Intermediate Level... <ul><li>Reading food labels </li></ul><ul><li>More complex text </li></ul...
Sample Reading Lesson: ESL Advanced Level... <ul><li>Understanding Newspaper Headlines </li></ul><ul><li>Complex, authenti...
Conclusions & Recommendations... <ul><li>Be aware of students' background knowledge and how they may use that knowledge to...
Conclusions & Recommendations... <ul><li>To lower affective filter and maintain motivation, match assessment tools to leve...
References Anderson, R. C. (1977). The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. In R.  C. Anderson, Spiro, R. J....
References Richardson, J.S., & Morgan, R.F. (2005). Writing to learn in the content areas.  Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Survey methods of_teaching_esl_reading

2,556

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
2,556
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
154
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Survey methods of_teaching_esl_reading

  1. 1. Methods of Teaching Reading to ELLs * : A Survey & Analysis Presented by Marvyn A. Mahle, December 8, 2010 for TSL 679, Special Projects in TESOL Dr. Soonhyang Kim, Advisor * English Language Learners
  2. 2. What Is Reading? ... <ul><li>Reading is a receptive language process...a psycholinguistic process that starts with a linguistic surface representation encoded by a writer and ends with meaning which the reader constructs...The writer encodes thought as language and the reader decodes language to thought. (Goodman, 1975) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What Is Reading? Cont'd... <ul><li>A reader's brain uses five distinct processes to understand the letters, words, symbols before his/her eyes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition – the reader sees a graphic display and recognizes it as written language and starts reading. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction – the reader anticipates words and phrases to come, based on his/her vocabulary and previous reading experiences. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. What Is Reading? Cont'd... <ul><li>Confirmation – Reader must verify that what was predicted is actually what is encountered. This takes place virtually instantaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Correction – If a predicted word or phrase is not encountered in the text stream, the brain must momentarily stop and process the unexpected input. </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Is Reading? Cont'd... <ul><li>Termination – The brain terminates the reading process when the reading task is complete. This happens when... </li></ul><ul><li>the end of the text stream is reached. </li></ul><ul><li>the reader is distracted or bored. </li></ul><ul><li>the reader cannot understand the passage. (Goodman, 1975) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reading Models... <ul><li>Rumelhart (1977) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information perceived by reader's eyes goes the to the VIS (Visual Information Store) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaningful items are extracted by the Feature Extraction Device </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Pattern Synthesizer creates the most probable interpretation of the letters/symbols being read, using the reader's current knowledge of syntax, semantics, grammar, and vocabulary. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. RUMELHART MODEL Grapheme Input VIS* Feature extraction device Pattern Synthesizer Orthographic Knowledge Lexical Knowledge Syntactical Knowledge Semantic Knowledge Model of probable interpretation *Visual Information Store
  8. 8. Reading Models... <ul><li>Stanovich (1980) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A synthesis of both bottom-up and top-down models, attempts to explain how readers may compensate for reading deficiencies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a reader has little knowledge of a topic, he/she will not be able to make many predictions. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, if the reader can recognize words, he can still understand the text. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rolls Royce, Mercedes Benz, BMW, as well as other ____ of automobiles are favorites of the serious collector.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Reading Models... <ul><li>LaBerge & Samuels (1974) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading is essentially information processing, a mental process akin to that found in computers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With a skilled reader, this processing is very fluid and subconscious. The authors called it “automaticity.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, if a reader must focus a large amount of attention on decoding (e.g. a beginning reader), he has little mental power left to consider the meaning of the text...and his comprehension suffers. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Reading Models... <ul><li>Refinements of Psycholinguistic Models </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading is “psycholinguistic guessing game” in which “the reader reconstructs, as best he can, a message that has been encoded by a writer as a graphic display.” (Goodman, 1967) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coady (1979) refined this concept by concentrating on the interplay of a reader's conceptual abilities, processing strategies, and background knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Reading Models... <ul><li>Coady's Model of an ESL Reader (1979) </li></ul>Conceptual Abilities Background Knowledge Process Strategies
  12. 12. Reading Models... <ul><li>Schema Theory Model </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text, by itself, does not carry meaning. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Meaning can only be deduced by the interplay between the text and the reader's previously acquired knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Previously acquired knowledge is referred to as “schemata,” hence the term schema theory. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Every act of comprehension involves one's knowledge of the world as well.” (Anderson, et al 1977) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Reading Models... <ul><li>Short Circuit Hypothesis (Clarke, 1980) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If a reader has limited L2 proficiency, his/her ability to read and comprehend is “short circuited.” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This short circuit causes the reader to revert to poor reading strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarke suggests that there are no good or poor readers, only readers who – depending on the circumstances of the current reading task – will use good or poor reading strategies. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Phonics & Phonemic Awareness </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonics is the ability to recognize the sounds that letters and letter combinations represent in written language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phonemic awareness is the ability to recognize the sounds that occur in spoken language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In L1...if ELLs have had formal schooling in their native language, they may be familiar with phonics. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In L2...ELLs may be able to transfer the phonetic concept from L1. If not, English phonics will have to be taught explicitly. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ELLs are at a disadvantage compared with native speakers...need to play catch up, conscientiously . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In L1...emphasize cognates as much as possible; allow bilingual dictionaries, especially at beginner and intermediate levels. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In L2... </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teach vocabulary explicitly but not out of context. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take advantage of background knowledge. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use visuals when introducing new words and concepts. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vary the activities used to introduce and practice vocabulary.: word walls, flashcards, student-generated glossaries. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforce vocabulary first learned from print sources with relevant practice in spoken language. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Pre-Reading Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point out titles and subtitles of text passage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize illustrations, tables, and other graphics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce new vocabulary </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skim to deduce main idea </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give information on author </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use graphic organizer </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Reading Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links phonics with phonemic awareness </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can show how the rhythm of spoken language is reflected in the punctuation of written language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best used for beginner and intermediate levels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can help advanced level students improve presentation skills </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Reading Modes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Silent: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When performed in class, helps to reinforce the reading habit for students outside of class. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher should function as role model, referring to reading often and talking about what he/she has read. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should be performed over an extended period of time, i.e., entire semester or academic year. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allow students to pick own books or articles, with teacher approval. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Emphasizing Comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading for Gist- </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skimming the text in order to distill the overall arguments into 1-2 sentences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also an acronym: GIST = G enerating Interactions between S chemata & T ext (Richardson & Morgan, 2005) Student reads each paragraph, summarizes it into a sentence of 20 words or less. Repeats process for all subsequent paragraphs, then combines all paragraph summaries into a final, overall summary of 20 words or less. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Emphasizing Comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading for Main Idea – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intentionally more involved than reading for gist. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May involve re-reading(s). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize that main idea in a paragraph is often at its beginning or end. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize that main idea of a passage will be the sum its paragraphs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Sources of Reading Material </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Print – Printed/graphical images in the environment at large: </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large Scale Signs, Indoors & Outdoors – traffic signs, signs on buildings, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising billboards – static and electronic </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can also be smaller scale – labels with product information or operating directions, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Machine/device controls – automobile, TV remote control, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Sources of Reading Material </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Handheld printed material – textbooks, general interest books (fiction and non-fiction), magazines, newspapers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hand written material – letters, notes, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newsletters – for special interest topics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Components of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Sources of Reading Material </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Print – </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Static, non-interactive files (word processor read-only or pdf), may be online or local on a student's PC or other electronic device </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic, interactive files in html, pdf, or other format; most often online, available to large numbers of users </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can easily integrate graphics and video </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Assessing Effectiveness of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Wh-Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who, what, where, when, why, and how </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most basic, “news reporter”-type questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force student to search for specific details </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Multiple Choice Questions </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit number of alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower affective filter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Assessing Effectiveness of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Short Response/Essay </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student must consciously recall details of passage. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Links comprehension with recall and builds retelling and recasting skills. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sentence Completion/Fill In the Blank </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If item with blank is verbatim from passage, visual recall from original reading will assist student. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May assist in recall and use of synonyms. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Assessing Effectiveness of ESL Reading Instruction... <ul><li>Vocabulary Development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often tested with multiple choice or fill-in-the-blank </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Better tested in ways that force student to actively use newly learned words in context, e.g., provide list of words and ask students to compose short response using those words. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral Questions/Responses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like short written responses, force student to recall details and retell passage in own words. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforces phonemic awareness. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Sample Reading Lesson: ESL Beginner Level... <ul><li>Aesop's The Frogs and the Well </li></ul><ul><li>Simple text </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Tested with wh-questions and sentence completion </li></ul>
  29. 29. Sample Reading Lesson: ESL Intermediate Level... <ul><li>Reading food labels </li></ul><ul><li>More complex text </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Tested with multiple choice questions and vocabulary </li></ul>
  30. 30. Sample Reading Lesson: ESL Advanced Level... <ul><li>Understanding Newspaper Headlines </li></ul><ul><li>Complex, authentic text </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic organizer optional </li></ul><ul><li>Tested with multiple choice questions, short response/essay, and oral recasting </li></ul>
  31. 31. Conclusions & Recommendations... <ul><li>Be aware of students' background knowledge and how they may use that knowledge to develop schemata to interpret what they read. </li></ul><ul><li>Stay attuned to students' frustration levels with a given text...strive to create as much automaticity as possible. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Conclusions & Recommendations... <ul><li>To lower affective filter and maintain motivation, match assessment tools to level of text. </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of cultural outlooks that may interfere with students' abilities to properly interpret texts. </li></ul>
  33. 33. References Anderson, R. C. (1977). The notion of schemata and the educational enterprise. In R. C. Anderson, Spiro, R. J., & Monatague,W. E. (Eds). In Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge . 415-431. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum. Clarke, M.A. (1980). The short circuit hypothesis of ESL reading – or when language competence interferes with reading performance. Modern Language Journal , 64, 203-209. Coady, J. (1979). A psycholinguistic model of the ESL reader. In Reading in a second language , Ronald Mackay, Bruce Barkman, and R.R. Jordan (Eds.), 5-12, Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House. Goodman, K. (1967). Reading: A psycholinguistic guessing game. Journal of the Reading Specialist . 6:4, 126-135. LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive Psychology , 6, 193-323.
  34. 34. References Richardson, J.S., & Morgan, R.F. (2005). Writing to learn in the content areas. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Rumelhart, D. E. (1977). Toward an interactive model for reading. In W. Otto (Ed.), Reading Problems . Boston, MA:Addison-Wesley Stanovich, K. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency. Reading Research Quarterly , 16, 32-71.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×