Particulate Matter and Filtration  in Healthcare Presented by: Wane A. Baker, P.E., CIH Division Manager, Indoor Air Quali...
<ul><li>AGENDA </li></ul><ul><li>What is particulate matter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Aerosols :  airborne solid and liquid particles </li></ul><ul><li>Size expressed in ...
Particulate Matter and Filtration
<ul><li>Definitions  (cont’) </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate matter: ‘ fine’  solid or liquid particles </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Particulate Matter and Filtration <ul><li>Sources include mechanical reduction (grinding), wind erosion, combustion (wildf...
 
<ul><li>Definitions  (cont’) </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalable: <100 μm  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the mass fraction  inhaled throug...
 
 
<ul><li>Health effects </li></ul><ul><li>Allergies, asthma, bronchitis, HP, COPD, pneumoconiosis, carcinogens, metal fume ...
<ul><li>Health effects  (cont’) </li></ul><ul><li>Particle surfaces adsorb VOCs, oxidants  </li></ul><ul><li>Effective at ...
<ul><li>Controlling particulate levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid generating them; source control  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A filter is not (just) a screen or a sieve! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulat...
 
(Sieving) (Inertial)
<ul><li>Filtration  (cont’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion   (cont’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic theory of gas...
 
<ul><li>Rating air filters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrestance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass of standard test dust remo...
Particulate Matter and Filtration
<ul><li>ASHRAE Std 52.1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrestance – ‘nuff said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADSE  (Atmospheric dust s...
Particulate Matter and Filtration
<ul><li>ASHRAE Std 52.2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MERV  (Minimum efficiency reporting value) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests ...
 
IEST: Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology
<ul><li>HEPA:  high-efficiency particulate air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed >50 years ago for control of radioactive pa...
<ul><li>ULPA:  ultra-low-penetration air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition:  99.999% efficient at the  “most-penetrating pa...
Particulate Matter and Filtration <ul><li>Filter Selection in Healthcare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of guidance/require...
 
 
 
 
Particulate Matter and Filtration
 
Particulate Matter and Filtration Thank you! Wane A. Baker, P.E., CIH Division Manager, Indoor Air Quality Michaels Engine...
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Particles &amp; Filtration; Healthcare Construction Certification

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  • WHEA Chapter VI May 16, 2007 © 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc.
  • WHEA Chapter VI May 16, 2007 © 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc.
  • Particles &amp; Filtration; Healthcare Construction Certification

    1. 1. Particulate Matter and Filtration in Healthcare Presented by: Wane A. Baker, P.E., CIH Division Manager, Indoor Air Quality MICHAELS ENGINEERING INC. Email: wab@MichaelsEngineering.com 608/785-1900 Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    2. 2. <ul><li>AGENDA </li></ul><ul><li>What is particulate matter? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Controlling particulate levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four mechanisms of filtration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter selection in healthcare </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    3. 3. <ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Aerosols : airborne solid and liquid particles </li></ul><ul><li>Size expressed in microns = micrometers ( µm ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Aerodynamic diameter ” = same behavior in air as a spherical particle of unit density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For particles of aerodynamic diameter less than 0.5 μm, the “ particle diffusion diameter ” should be used instead </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Size range: generally from 0.005 – 100 microns </li></ul><ul><li>Comparisons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>diameter human hair: 60-70 microns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smallest visible: 20-30 microns </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    4. 4. Particulate Matter and Filtration
    5. 5. <ul><li>Definitions (cont’) </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate matter: ‘ fine’ solid or liquid particles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, less than 30 µm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composed of dust, smoke, fume, mist, fibers </li></ul><ul><li>EPA vs. industrial hygiene classifications </li></ul><ul><li>Total particulate, PM 10 , PM 2.5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coarse, fine, ultrafine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhalable, thoracic, respirable </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    6. 6. Particulate Matter and Filtration <ul><li>Sources include mechanical reduction (grinding), wind erosion, combustion (wildfires, I.C. engines, boilers), skin flakes, paper dust, insect parts, natural and synthetic fibers, industrial processes, smog, copiers and printers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People emit large numbers of particles: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>400,000 per minute sitting at a desk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45,000,000 per minute during exercise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fine and ultra-fine can be reduced by avoiding vehicle emissions and other combustion devices, source capture at printers, copiers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A portion of UFP may pass through HEPA filters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion a function of velocity [later section…] </li></ul></ul>Healthcare Construction Certification Program © 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc.
    7. 8. <ul><li>Definitions (cont’) </li></ul><ul><li>Inhalable: <100 μm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the mass fraction inhaled through the nose and mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles larger than 30 μm unlikely to enter nasal passages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thoracic: <10 μm (PM 10 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the mass fraction penetrating beyond the larynx </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respirable: <2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the mass fraction penetrating to the unciliated airways </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IH definition: < 4.0 microns (d 50 cut-point) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ultrafine particles (UFP): <0.1 micron </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.1 micron = 100 nm (“ nano particles ”) </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    8. 11. <ul><li>Health effects </li></ul><ul><li>Allergies, asthma, bronchitis, HP, COPD, pneumoconiosis, carcinogens, metal fume fever, infections, systemic toxicants </li></ul><ul><li>A statistically significant increase in morbidity and mortality associated with fine PM in ambient air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mean increase in death rate from cardiovascular and respiratory causes was found to be 0.68% for each 10  g/m 3 increase in PM 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( New England Journal of Medicine , Vol 343, No 24, Dec. 14, 2000) </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    9. 12. <ul><li>Health effects (cont’) </li></ul><ul><li>Particle surfaces adsorb VOCs, oxidants </li></ul><ul><li>Effective at delivering organics, toxics to lung tissues </li></ul><ul><li>UFP believed to overwhelm cleaning mechanism in alveoli, damage epithelial cells, cause inflammation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases potential for bronchitis, asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diesel particulate: an area of intense research effort </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., “Health Assessment Document for Diesel Engine Exhaust”, EPA/600/8-90/057F, May 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In healthcare, bioaerosols are a specific concern </li></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    10. 13. <ul><li>Controlling particulate levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid generating them; source control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical separations and pressure differentials between sources and sensitive populations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be very effective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be monitored, recorded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    11. 14. <ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A filter is not (just) a screen or a sieve! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate removal by four mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sieving / Straining </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impingement / Inertial impaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particles > 0.5 µm; a function of velocity, fiber size </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particles > 0.5 µm; relatively insensitive to velocity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particles < 0.2 µm; sensitive to velocity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    12. 16. (Sieving) (Inertial)
    13. 17. <ul><li>Filtration (cont’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diffusion (cont’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kinetic theory of gases  Brownian motion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At room temperature, average speed of gas molecules is ~500 m/s (100,000 ft/min; 1120 mph) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But there are ~ 10 12 collisions per second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Net result: movement of about 1 cm per second </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also electrostatic forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Viscous impingement coatings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce particle bounce, subsequent release </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    14. 19. <ul><li>Rating air filters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrestance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass of standard test dust removed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric dust spot efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum efficiency reporting value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HEPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High-efficiency particulate air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ULPA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ultra-low-penetration air </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    15. 20. Particulate Matter and Filtration
    16. 21. <ul><li>ASHRAE Std 52.1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrestance – ‘nuff said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADSE (Atmospheric dust spot efficiency) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Essentially measures ability to reduce soiling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on light transmission through spot of dust on HEPA filter paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses ambient particulate; soot discolors filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively independent of local aerosol </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    17. 22. Particulate Matter and Filtration
    18. 23. <ul><li>ASHRAE Std 52.2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MERV (Minimum efficiency reporting value) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests filters over 12 particle size ranges, from 0.3 µm to 10 µm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test aerosol is potassium chloride (KCl) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Successive loading with SAE Arizona road dust, carbon black, cotton linters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on minimum efficiency at each size range in six loading curves </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    19. 25. IEST: Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology
    20. 26. <ul><li>HEPA: high-efficiency particulate air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed >50 years ago for control of radioactive particles during the Manhattan project </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: 99.97% at 0.3 µm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institute of Environmental Sciences (IES) definition: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;a throw-away extended-media dry-type filter in a rigid frame, having minimum particle-collection efficiency of 99.97% for 0.3 µm thermally-generated dioctyl phthalate (DOP) particles … and a maximum clean-filter pressure drop of ... 1.0 in w.g. when tested at rated air flow capacity.&quot; </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    21. 27. <ul><li>ULPA: ultra-low-penetration air </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: 99.999% efficient at the “most-penetrating particle size” and at the specified media velocity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Previous work had calculated that the most-penetrating size particle for a HEPA filter was 0.3 µm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of the laser photometer dust particle counter provided evidence that the most-penetrating size is less than 0.3 µm , and depends not only on the filter media but also on the velocity of air through it. </li></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc. Particulate Matter and Filtration Healthcare Construction Certification Program
    22. 28. Particulate Matter and Filtration <ul><li>Filter Selection in Healthcare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of guidance/requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006 AIA “Guidelines for Design and Construction of Health Care Facilities” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASHRAE/ASHE Proposed Standard 170P: “Ventilation for Health Care Facilities” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45-day Public Review from September 22, 2006 to November 6, 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc.
    23. 33. Particulate Matter and Filtration
    24. 35. Particulate Matter and Filtration Thank you! Wane A. Baker, P.E., CIH Division Manager, Indoor Air Quality Michaels Engineering Inc. 608/785-1900 Email: [email_address] Website: www.MichaelsEngineering.com Questions? © 2007 Michaels Engineering Inc.

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