Review and bring literature on Oxine (SO2?). See article from IE Review. Bring samples of Imcoa, literature on Armaflex, Fosters.
1836 Tredgold: 4 CFM/person to purge CO2 and remove body moisture [jokingly- to keep kerosene lamps lit (forget the canary!)] 1865 Nightingale (misspelled above): during Crimean War, served at Barrack Hospital in Turkey [1854-1856] (England, France and Sardinia come to the aid of Turkey against Russia); similar observations regarding poorly -vs- well-ventilated hospitals during US Civil War 1895 Billings, MD: journal article “Ventilation and Heating”; 60 CFM if primary concern is the spread of disease (specifically, tuberculosis), 30 CFM adequate for comfort; and an ASHVE requirement (founded in 1894) “adopted the view that engineers were ready to accept the ideas of hygienists and physiologists” of 30 CFM/occ as the minimum ventilating rate. 1914 ASHVE: proposed model law called for 30 CFM/occ 1922 Adopted by 22 State bldg codes: 30 CFM/occ 1934 Lehmberg: at Harvard University, under contract from ASHVE; published in ASHVE Transactions 1935; first odor study: acceptable at 20 CFM/occ with lower temps, 30 CFM/occ required for higher temps 1936 Yaglou: Constantin Yaglou continued Lehmberg’s work, also at Harvard, and also sponsored by ASHVE Found that grade school children required more ventilation: 50% more ventilation required if children had gone 6.5 days without a bath and change of underwear; 33% more required for adults one week after a bath ASA 1946: American Standards Association Std A53.1 “Light and Ventilation” required 10 CFM/occ of exhaust for ventilation and removal of heat from lighting fixtures to reduce heating load during the cooling season ASA 1966: assigned responsibility for mechanical ventilation section to ASHRAE; resulting in Std 62 in 1973
IAQ and Ventilating Systems:
Common Findings -- A Baker’s Dozen
Fort Worth, Texas
Omni Fort Worth and Fort Worth Convention Center
February 25, 2009
Wane A. Baker, P.E., CIH
Division Manager, Indoor Air Quality
MICHAELS ENGINEERING INC.
“ Real Professionals. Real Solutions.” IAQA 12 th Annual Meeting & Indoor Air Expo IAQA 12th Annual Meeting & Indoor Air Expo, February 24-26, 2009, Fort Worth, Texas fasdjdflkjsa
Outdoor air must be supplied within the “capture zone” of each unit’s return air side
Lack of adequate humidity control
Equipment sensible heat ratio is high
Return air <60 degF will cause typical unit to shut down (trips out: low head)
Outdoor air must be pre-conditioned both in heating and cooling season!
11. Control of Outdoor Air in VAV Systems 980-RP: Techniques for Measuring and Controlling Minimum Outdoor Air Intake Rates in VAV Systems September 1997 - January 1999 The Regents of the University of Colorado Principal Investigator, Moncef Krarti TC 1.4 Control Theory and Application “ The objective of this research project is to . . . compare various techniques for measuring and controlling minimum outdoor air intake rates in VAV systems. Based on the results of these analyses, a set of guidelines will be provided to assess . . . each technique.” ASHRAE Research Project
11. Control of Outdoor Air in VAV Systems (Transactions #4369: 2000 Summer Meeting in Mpls.) “ Experimental Analysis of Measurement and Control Techniques of Outside Air Intake Rates in VAV Systems” Abstract: “…control strategies using the direct measurement of the outside airflow from an averaging pitot-tube array or an electronic thermal anemometer provided the best ventilation control.” Discussion: “In cases where there is not sufficient unobstructed OA duct length to ensure uniformity of airflow profiles, … a dedicated minimum OA duct is recommended.” ASHRAE 980-RP
12. Inadequate Filtration: Should I use Antimicrobial Filters? ( ASHRAE Journal , December 2000) “ Efficacy of Antimicrobial Filter Treatments” Three treatments were studied: “…an amine neutralized phosphoric ester, a quaternary ammonium compound, and an iodine compound.” Results: “Little or no difference existed in the numbers of xerophilic fungi eluted from the…treated and untreated filters…” And: “…new filters generally are a hostile environment for microbial growth whether treated with antimicrobial agent or not.” Conclusions: “…two of the three antimicrobials inhibited the growth of the test organisms on new filters at all ERHs tested; the third did not [Table 2].” And: “…all of the filters, except for one, did permit the growth of fungi after dust loading [Table 3].” ASHRAE 909-RP
12. Inadequate Filtration: Should I use Antimicrobial Filters? ( Indoor Environment Connections , November 1999) “ ASHRAE Study Shows Mixed Results for Antimicrobial Filters” Products identified: “Antimicrobial 1 is Sporax …Antimicrobial 2 is Intersept …Antimicrobial 3 is Aegis Microbe Shield …” Per Al Veeck, Chairman of the ASHRAE Project Monitoring Committee: “When you find filters with biological growth, it’s always due to a problem upstream in the system. If that problem were fixed, there would be no need for an antimicrobial filter . ” And: “… in hot, humid climates the use of an antimicrobial filter may prove beneficial as part of a holistic approach to IAQ.” ASHRAE 909-RP
“ Porous insulation near AHU drain pans and cooling coils, [and] in air supply ducts immediately downstream of the cooling coil plenum . . . is most likely to become a strong microbial amplification site.”
Ref.: Morey, P.R., and C.M. Williams. 1991. “Is Porous Insulation Inside an HVAC System Compatible with a Healthy Building?” In Healthy Buildings . Atlanta: ASHRAE (IAQ ‘91)