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A power point presentation on diabetes I did for class.

A power point presentation on diabetes I did for class.

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  • Since we have to be careful about the information we provide to children or adolescents, we decided to choose an eighteen year old, African-American female because she is still too young to have had type 2 diabetes (technically) but old enough to get information without consent from a parent. She became inactive after she was not required to take PE anymore in school and after graduating from high school. She needs information because when she went to her doctor by herself for the first time, labs were taken and she was given the bad news that her A1C, blood sugar and cholesterol are all elevated. We also selected this age because of increased frequency among adolescents. In the last two decades, type 2 diabetes, formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, has been reported among U.S. children and adolescents with increasing frequency. But do we really know that she has Type 2 Diabetes and not Type 1? The librarian continues to ask the patron more questions.
  • Olivia does not know anything about Diabetes, so a little background information will be given to the patron.
  • Librarian : Since you know nothing about Diabetes, let us start with some basic statistics. The government is a great place to start for information about diseases because you are not alone. It is really easy find, first you go to your computer then log on to CDC.gov/Diabetes, this leads you directly to the subject. Besides the wealth of information it provides, you can start with the Data and Trends section. You can also enter your email address to receive updates about Diabetes.
  • L: As you can see, we went to the CDC.gov/Diabetes section and found this journal called Diabetes Care. We also noted there were many articles to choose from. Just from these examples you can only imagine the countless number of information available on Diabetes. So feel free to go back in your spare time to review some of these materials. By the way, did you know there was more than one type of Diabetes? The types of Diabetes are labeled as Type 1 and Type 2. Olivia: Maybe, the doctor was trying to tell me but I could not concentrate on what was being said. L: Let me tell you a little bit about both using another resource. Remember the CDC.gov web site lead us to the American Diabetes Association. This gives you a complete breakdown of Diabetes in African American Youth like yourself.
  • L: This is what the American Diabetes Association had to say about Type 1 Diabetes. O: You said it was called Juvenile or Insulin Dependent Diabetes. I was prescribed a medication called Metformin. I don’t need Insulin at this time. L: That is good news because as you research more about Diabetes, you will find out what is needed to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Don’t forget to discuss these finding with your healthcare professional. The Web site even has a section for “Recently Diagnosed” patients and like the CDC, you can give them your email address to keep updated.
  • L: Next, you can find more supplemental information about Diabetes at the Cochrane Library found online. Some of the information is free and some is pay-per-view. O: You mentioned that some of the books around here can help me, can you tell me about one for now? L: Yes, I will do that right now.
  • L: We have many books but the ones that help to break down a subject are the For Dummies book series. It is not looked at as an insult but as a way to help everyone understand a subject. We can reference the series on Amazon.com which is known for its easy to use search box, finding needed books and subjects. Amazon.com is a good segway into the free web which is what most of us are used too. You may know Google because it is the most popular search engine but they have many search engines to choose from, such as Dogpile.com.
  • L: You have just been given many resources to help you understand Diabetes. If you need to know more resources and information, especially about Type 2 Diabetes, you can always come back here to the library for more help. Any of our librarians, including me, will always be glad to help you find what you are looking for.
  • Sensitive: I am doing an ongoing dialogue in the notes. I have been sensitive by saying how sorry I am to hear her news, sympathizing with her. Culturally Appropriated: Because I am not telling her that she eats only junk food or ethnic foods like fried chicken, pork, etc. Just presenting the facts about diet and exercise in the information presented. Avoiding Providing Medical Advice: Continue to avoid medical advice by referring her to her health care professional and encourage her to do research for herself to learn about the information.

My Diabetes ppt My Diabetes ppt Presentation Transcript

  • Diabetes by Debra Gibbs & Martti Myllynen LIS 5937 – Professor Shereff
    • Olivia Smithson is a :
      • Age: 18 years old
      • Marital Status: Single
      • Gender: Woman
      • Race: African-American
      • Educational Level: High School (Newly Graduated)
      • Lives in a middle-class home with parents and two brothers
      • Has a part-time job
      • Lives in the Suburbs of Florida
  • A Dialogue About Diabetes
    • Olivia: Hi, my name is Olivia and I just graduated from high school. I visited my doctor today and was given the bad news that I seem to be developing Diabetes. I do not know anything about Diabetes except that I can’t eat too much sugar anymore. My doctor tried to explain it to me but I just could not concentrate on what was being said. Can you help me to learn more about this condition?
    • Librarian: Sure, I can help you. I am also sorry to hear you received the bad news but after I help you to find the information, it may not seem as bad as it sounds.
    • Olivia: Why do you say that?
    • Librarian: If you think about it, we all should be exercising and eating right, anyway. Diabetes is a disease that requires us to watch what we eat and to get as much activity as possible to prevent being overweight. But that is not all there is to the disease or condition. Do you know how to use the internet and have access to a computer at home? If not, you know you are welcome to use the ones here in the library.
    • Olivia: Yes, I know how to use the internet. You know, ever since I started high school, my activity has been decreasing, especially since were no longer required to take physical education classes after 9 th grade. Furthermore, I do sit a lot when using my computer.
    • The Dialogue continues
    • Librarian: Along with the brochures found in your local clinic and the books found in our library, many resources about Diabetes can be found on the internet. Let us see if we can find a mixture of these resources and discuss some of them while you are here. You can review the other resources at your leisure, at home. We can start out with five, then if you need more information. You can return anytime and any librarian here can help you.
    • Librarian : Since you know nothing about Diabetes, let us start with some basic statistics. The government is a great place to start for information about diseases because you are not alone. It is really easy find, first you go to your computer then log on to CDC.gov/Diabetes, this leads you directly to the subject. Besides the wealth of information it provides, you can start with the Data and Trends section. You can also enter your email address to receive updates about Diabetes.
    • L: As you can see, we went to the CDC.gov/Diabetes section and found this journal called Diabetes Care. We also noted there were many articles to choose from. Just from these examples you can only imagine the countless number of information available on Diabetes. So feel free to go back in your spare time to review some of these materials. By the way, did you know there was more than one type of Diabetes? The types of Diabetes are labeled as Type 1 and Type 2.
    • Olivia: Maybe, the doctor was trying to tell me but I could not concentrate on what was being said.
    • L: Let me tell you a little bit about both using another resource. Remember the CDC.gov web site lead us to the American Diabetes Association. This gives you a complete breakdown of Diabetes in African American Youth like yourself.
  • The Dialogue continues
    • L: This is what the American Diabetes Association had to say about Type 1 Diabetes.
    • O: You said it was called Juvenile or Insulin Dependent Diabetes. I was prescribed a medication called Metformin. I don’t need Insulin at this time.
    • L: That is good news because as you research more about Diabetes, you will find out what is needed to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Don’t forget to discuss these finding with your healthcare professional. The Web site even has a section for “Recently Diagnosed” patients and like the CDC, you can give them your email address to keep updated.
    • L: Next, you can find more supplemental information about Diabetes at the Cochrane Library found online. Some of the information is free and some is pay-per-view.
    • O: You mentioned that some of the books around here can help me, can you tell me about one for now?
    • L: Yes, I will do that right now.
    • L: We have many books but the ones that help to break down a subject are the For Dummies book series. It is not looked at as an insult but as a way to help everyone understand a subject. We can reference the series on Amazon.com which is known for its easy to use search box, finding needed books and subjects. Amazon.com is a good segway into the free web which is what most of us are used too. You may know Google because it is the most popular search engine but they have many search engines to choose from, such as Dogpile.com.
    • The Dialogue continues
    • L: You have just been given many resources to help you understand Diabetes. If you need to get more resources and information, especially about Type 2 Diabetes, you can always come back here to the library for more help. Anyone of our librarians, including me, will always be glad to help you find what you are looking for.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC.gov) Statistics about Diabetes
    • According to the Web site, “CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation translates diabetes research into daily practice to understand the impact of the disease, influence health outcomes, and improve access to quality health care” (CDC, 2010).
    • The Centers for Disease Control is very trustworthy because they are government funded and use scientific research. This adds to their accuracy and authority on the subject. There is no room for bias because they use the facts presented. This information is valuable because it gives great detail about Diabetes including where more reliable information can be found on this and other subjects. McKinney (2010) confirms how detailed the CDC can be on a subject and uses them as reference for her article. The journal she writes for is among the many journals who rely on the CDC for information to stay current with information. Coverage of the materials can be slow at times because they have to wait on the data presented (Huber, 2004. pp. 274-275).
    • McKinney, M. (2010). Gaining control. Modern Healthcare , 40 (22), 8-9. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database November 6, 2010.
    • Huber, J., Boorkman J. A, & Blackwell, J. (2004). I ntroduction to Reference Sources in the Health Sciences. 5th Ed. New York: Neil Schuman Publishers.
  • American Diabetes Association
    • Mayer-Davis, E, J., et. al. (March 2009). Diabetes in African American Youth Prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Diabetes Care vol. 32 no. Supplement 2, S112-S122. doi: 10.2337/dc09-S203
    • This is just one of the articles the American Diabetes Association had to offer. Being an association means “an organization of persons having a common interest” (Merriam-Webster). The association is very important to the cause of helping to educate everyone about Diabetes, it published a cookbook with the American Dietetic Association and has a Complete Guide to Diabetes (Rees, 2003, p. 138). Not only does it have lots of online resources but it also provides much more information in print (Rees, 2003, pp. 190-191. When the subject of Diabetes comes up, the Diabetes Association is in the forefront.
    • Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/association
    • Rees, A. (2003). Consumer Health Information Source Book. 7th Ed. Westport:
    • Greenwood Press Publishers.
  • American Diabetes Association Type 1 Diabetes
    • Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, and was previously known as juvenile diabetes or [insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus]. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin (ADA, 2010).
    • Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. Only 5-10% of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. With the help of insulin therapy and other treatments, even young children with type 1 diabetes can learn to manage their condition and live long, healthy, happy lives (ADA, 2010).
    • In general, except for age and insulin therapy in Type 1, both Types of Diabetes have similar treatments. Type 2 will be explained later.
  • Type 1 Diabetes Warning Signs and Symptoms
    • Type 1 Diabetes a.k.a. Juvenile or Insulin Dependent
    • An Autoimmune Disease (Body turns against self, destroys islet (beta) cells in pancreas)
    • Frequent Urination
    • Increased Thirst
    • Increased Hunger
    • Weight loss
    • Weakness or Fatigue
    • The signs and symptoms are similar in type 1 and type 2 except for body weight, glucose levels and severity of onset because type 2s onset is more gradual than type 1. Gestational Diabetes is a third type of Diabetes when a woman is pregnant. There are also other reasons for diabetes as discussed in this and other books (see resources provided).
    • Rubin , A. L. (2006). Diabetes For Dummies (Pocket Edition). Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
    • Touchette, N., et al (2005). The American Diabetes Association complete guide to diabetes. 4 th Edition. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association.
  • The Cochrane Library The Cochrane Collaboration
    • All residents can access The Cochrane Library for free at the state's Wyoming Libraries Database libraries which include public, community college and medical libraries thanks to funding provided by Wyoming State Legislature's Joint Labor, Health and Social Services Committee (Cochrane Library, 2010).
    • Good for supplemental information.
    • Tutorials on how to use the library.
    • Not all of the information is free to everyone.
    • Web site includes, “Plain language summary” [This is a great feature of the Cochrane Library to explain information to the layperson].
  • The Cochrane Library The Cochrane Collaboration
    • The Cochrane Library and Cochrane Collaboration home page states, “Independent high-quality evidence for health care decision making” and t he Cochrane Library is a collection of six databases that contain different types of high-quality, independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making, and a seventh database that provides information about groups in The Cochrane Collaboration (Cochrane, 2010). Like the CDC, there is little room for bias because medical articles are based on facts from clinical trials. A detailed article by White (2002) explains in-depth the goal of the library is to give consumers “evidence-based” medical information. Most people searching online for relevant and credible medical information usually come across information that was not reliable. The database was originally intended for medical professionals but is now trying to help consumers seeking health information. There are also different sections for each kind of patron such as patients, practitioners, etc. White (2002) uses many references to vouch for accuracy, authority, and coverage of the Web site.
    • Retrieved from www.cochrane.org
    • White, P. J. (2002). Evidence-based medicine for consumers: A role for the Cochrane Collaboration. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 90 (2), 218-222.
  • Diabetes For Dummies
    • Rubin , A. L. (2006). Diabetes For Dummies (Pocket Edition). Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
    • This book is one of the many print materials available for people with Diabetes. The author, Rubin, is a medical doctor and has 26 results and a 3 page bibliography of these books on Amazon.com. His credentials add to the accuracy and authority of his books. Due to the fact that this disease is so popular, there are so many books on the subject in libraries and bookstores everywhere. Rader (2004) discussed sensitivity issues about the “Dummy” name and had this to say, “None of the other selections were as well organized, simplified, and easily understood as the Dummies book” (p. 8-9). Dr. Rubin also has his own Web site to help people with Diabetes and other medical problems at www.drrubin.com.
    • Rader, R. (2004). Sensitivity for Dummies. The Exceptional Parent , 34 (6), 8-9. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database on November 11, 2010.
  • Dogpile.com (Free Web)
    • Not every health information found on the Free Web is reliable because information retrieval is not a perfect science (Taylor, 2009, pp. 170-171). Search engines such as Dogpile.com gather information from different records that are made available to them from different sources (Taylor, 2009, pp. 398-399). Analyzing the search performed when Diabetes was entered in the search box brought up a mixture of different sources. Some were credible like the American Diabetes Association (discussed earlier), others were more bias because they were advertising a product (pharmaceuticals, diabetic monitoring equipment, etc), and with Web sites like Wikipedia, sources are still questionable because it is common knowledge that the information can be modified by anyone. The Accuracy, Authority, Bias, Currency and Coverage varies from Web site to Web site. This resource provides the most reliable information and misinformation.
    • Taylor, A. G. & Joudrey, D.N. (2009). The organization of information. 3rd ed. Englewood: Libraries Unlimited.
  • Why these Resources? Debra Gibbs
    • CDC.gov – Chosen for the statistics to show Olivia she is not alone when it come to having Diabetes.
    • American Diabetes Association provides a complete guide to learning about Diabetes. It has been around for a while and has proven itself. According to their Web site, “The American Diabetes Association was founded by 28 physicians in 1940 - not even 20 years after the discovery of insulin changed diabetes from a fatal diagnosis to a manageable disease” (ADA, 2010).
    • After reading an article by P. J. White, I felt the Cochrane Library would provide great supplemental information about Diabetes. This is an example of paid database that also provides some free information to the public. They use “evidence-based medicine” to educate consumers.
    • Diabetes For Dummies (Pocket Guide) – Like I told Olivia. It is not meant to be an insult. The article by R. Rader explained how he felt about giving someone a book with this title. But it all worked out in the end. We are all dummies when we don’t know about a subject. There are many other books in with similar ideas to help with easy explanations like “The Everything Series”, “The Idiot’s Guide”, etc.
    • Since we were able to use the free web, I chose Dogpile.com because my brother told me about it years ago and it seems to be equal to Google when searching for information. Google is the obvious choice so I told Olivia about Dogpile.com to give her a choice and to educate her about more than just one search engine.
  • CINAHL Database
    • Although this is a very informative database, it seems more geared to medical professionals and students seeking to become medical professionals. From the description of the database below, it was not suitable for the 18 year old, newly diagnosed patron. When she learns to navigate the free web and possibly plan to go to college, this would be a great database for her to get more information about Diabetes. It‘s credible. Here are examples of what the Web site had to offer. Since Diabetes is such a popular disease and subject, most of the resources we came across were reliable.
    • Faulkner, M., Fritschi, C., Quinn, L., & Hepworth, J. (2010). Cardiovascular risks in adolescents with diabetes from vulnerable populations. Home Health Care Management & Practice , 22 (2), 123-130. doi:10.1177/1084822309343944.
    • (2010). Cinnamon protects against diabetes. Better Nutrition , 72 (11), 12. Retrieved from CINAHL database.
    • The CINAHL® Database
    • CINAHL® provides indexing for nearly 3,000 journals from the fields of nursing and allied health. The database contains more than 2.2 million records dating back to 1981. Offering complete coverage of English-language nursing journals and publications from the National League for Nursing and the American Nurses’ Association, CINAHL covers nursing, biomedicine, health sciences librarianship, alternative/complementary medicine, consumer health and 17 allied health disciplines. In addition, this database offers access to health care books, nursing dissertations, selected conference proceedings, standards of practice, educational software, audiovisuals and book chapters. Searchable cited references for more than 1,290 journals are also included. Full-text material includes more than 70 journals plus legal cases, clinical innovations, critical paths, drug records, research instruments and clinical trials.
  • How would you communicate the information?
    • Sensitive:
    • I am doing an ongoing dialogue in the notes. I have been sensitive by saying how sorry I am to hear her news, sympathizing with her. Maybe even empathizing, because I have the same problem.
  • How would you . . .
    • Culturally Appropriated:
    • Because I am not telling her that she eats only junk food or ethnic foods like fried chicken, pork, etc. Just presenting the facts about diet and exercise in the information presented.
  • How would you . . .
    • Avoid Providing Medical Advice:
    • Continue to avoid medical advice by referring her to her health care professional and encourage her to do research for herself to learn about the information.
  • Type 2 Diabetes
    • Type 2 diabetes is a disease that affects how your body metabolizes sugar. The bodies of people with this condition do not produce enough insulin or use it properly. According to KidsHealth:      Glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of
    • supplying energy (this is called insulin resistance). This causes
    • the blood sugar level to rise, making the pancreas produce
    • even more insulin. Eventually, the pancreas can wear
    • out from working overtime to produce extra insulin and may
    • no longer be able to produce enough insulin      to keep blood sugar levels normal. (KidsHealth, 2009, para. 3)
    • KidsHealth. (2009). Parents: Type 2 diabetes: What is it. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/endocrine/type2.html
    • Type 2 diabetes is associated with
    • Age 45 or older.
    • Being overweight.
    • Inactivity.
    • The families history of diabetes.
    • Race.
    • Gestational diabetes.
    • Impaired glucose tolerance.
    • Type 2 diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed in children and adolescents.
    • Symptoms
    • Increased thirst, frequent urination, increased hunger, extreme fatigue, blurred
    • vision, slow healing cuts, slow healing bruises, recurring infections (skin, gum or
    • bladder), numbness in the hands or feet, and weight loss.
    • Tests
    • Random blood sugar test.
    • Fasting blood sugar test.
    • Oral glucose tolerance test.
    • If  the results are negative, a Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.
    • Treatment
    • Monitoring your blood sugar levels
    • Follow a diet plan
    • Exercise
    • Oral medication
    • If blood sugar levels are still high with a healthy diet, regular exercise and taking medication, then insulin injections will be needed.
    •  
    • Conditions
    • Heart disease.
    • Blood vessel disease.
    • Nerve damage (tingling/burning).
    • Eye damage (cataracts).
    • Kidney damage (kidney failure).
    • Skin conditions (infections).
    • Prevention
    • Being at a healthy weight.
    • Eating healthy foods.
    • Getting regular exercise .
    • Limiting your intake of fast foods and sugar.
  • Dialogue Continues
    • Olivia: I came in to the library earlier today to get information on diabetes and another librarian gave me some information on Type 1 diabetes. I would also like some information on Type 2 diabetes.
    • Librarian: What kind of information are you looking for?
    • Olivia: I am looking for information on causes, symptoms, treatments, etc.
    • Librarian: Do you have access to the internet?
    • Olivia: Yes, I have a personal computer.
    • Librarian: Are you comfortable using the internet to search for information?
    • Olivia: I am familiar with surfing the web, but I am not familiar with searching for information that I know would be an authoritative source. I would also prefer most the information be from the internet so that I have easy access to it.
  • Dialogue Continues
    • Librarian: What information have you gathered so far on Type 2 diabetes?
    • Olivia: None to date.
    • Librarian: Is there a particular age range you are looking for concerning this topic?
    • Olivia: Around eighteen years of age.
    • Librarian: O.K. I have found some websites and other resources that I can recommend for you to consider.
    • Florida Diabetes Prevention and Control Program was created in 1997. It is
    • part of the Florida Department of Health, which was established in 1889. They are funded
    • by the State of Florida and have a website at
    • http:// www.doh.state.fl.us/Family/DCP/index.html . The site can also be accessed
    • through the following address http:// www.floridadiabetes.org / . The information at this
    • website should be accurate and authoritative as the Florida Department of Health, which
    • is a state agency, created the site. The information here is also credible, as the website was
    • “ designed for use by professionals in the medical field who are interested in the Diabetes
    • Prevention and Control Program” (Florida Diabetes Prevention and Control Program,
    • n.d., para. 1). The information is easy enough for the public to understand as well. No
    • biased statements are contained in the information as only facts are provided. The
    • coverage of information is basic, but provides the essential information so that it is not
    • overwhelming. Information one will find at this site includes a definition of Type 2
    • diabetes, symptoms, treatment, complications, prevention, other diabetic resources such as
    • web links to diabetic organizations, statistics about diabetes in Florida, and tips for
    • controlling diabetes. 
    • Florida Diabetes Prevention and Control Program. (n.d.). Information for health care
    •      professionals. Retrieved from  http:// www.doh.state.fl.us/Family/DCP/proinfo.html
    • The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine is a Gale Cengage Learning Database. It is available as an E-
    • Book through the Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale Cengage is well known as it “is a world
    • leader in e-research and educational publishing for libraries, schools and businesses” (Gale Cengage
    • Learning, n.d., para. 1). The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine is a credible source as “the content is
    • excellent” (Huber, Boorkman, & Blackwell, 2008, p. 226). The information also contains no bias
    • statements and it is coming from an authoritative source, as it is written by medical specialists. The
    • information is fairly current as the books were published in the last couple of years. The coverage of
    • Type 2 diabetes in The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine is limited, although users have access to other
    • Gale encyclopedia E-Books. The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine contains a definition, a description
    • that provides statistics on how many people have the disorder in the United States, causes,
    • symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, prognosis (complications), prevention, key terms, and other
    • resources.
    • Gale Cengage Learning. (n.d.). About gale. Retrieved from
    •      http:// www.gale.cengage.com /about/
    • Huber, J. T., Boorkman, J. A., & Blackwell, J. (5th ed.). (2008). Introduction to reference
    •      sources in the health sciences. New York, NY: Neal-Schuman Publishers, Inc.
    • KidsHealth.org is a well known website as it “is the most-visited site on the Web for
    • information about health, behavior, and development from before birth through the teen
    • years” (KidsHealth, 2010, para. 1). KidsHealth.org receives over 500,000 visits per day and
    • to date has had over 1 billion visits. The information provided is credible as they have
    • received several awards such as best health site on the web and the International Pirelli
    • Award for best educational media for students. The site is highly valuable as it was created
    • by Nemours, which is “one of the nation’s leading pediatric health systems, dedicated to
    • advancing higher standards in children’s health” (Nemours, 2009, para. 1). The
    • information in this site is an authoritative source as “all KidsHealth articles, animations,
    • games, and other content go through a rigorous medical review by pediatricians and other medical
    • experts” (KidsHealth, 2010, para. 4). This information is reviewed repeatedly to make sure the
    • information is current and correct. It is also signed and dated to let the user know when it was
    • reviewed and by who. The coverage of Type 2 diabetes is moderate, with articles addressing what
    • Type 2 diabetes is, how it is treated, risks of getting Type 2 diabetes, complications, treatments such
    • as medications, definitions, and dieting.
    • KidsHealth.org. (2010). About kidshealth. Retrieved from
    •      http:// kidshealth.org/parent/kh_misc/about.html
    • Nemours. (2009). About Nemours. Retrieved from http:// www.nemours.org/about.html
    • Mayo Clinic is a well known organization as it’s:      health information Web site, MayoClinic.com, was identified as consumers' number      one-ranked health site in a recent Web site credibility research study. Experts
    • ranked MayoClinic.com number two of the 10 health information sites analyzed,
    • second only to the National Institutes of Health site. (Mayo Clinic, 2007, para. 32) Mayo Clinic is also very credible in the subject area of diabetes as according to one American news magazine, Mayo Clinic was “ranked #1 in Diabetes” (Comarow, 2010, para. 2). The articles are written by their physicians, so the information is coming from an authoritative source and they contain no biased statements, only facts. The information from the website is also current as the articles range in date from 2 years ago to this current month. Mayo Clinic provides a moderate amount of information on Type 2 diabetes. Articles provided information such as a definition, symptoms, causes, risk factors, complications, tests, diagnosis, treatments, drugs, coping, support, and prevention. The information found here can assist the user in controlling Type 2 diabetes by recommending a healthier lifestyle and/or medications and insulin if more than a healthier lifestyle is needed.
    • Comarow, A. (2010, July). U.S. news best hospitals. U.S news and world report.
    •      Retrieved from http://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals/rankings/diabetes-and-endocrine-disorder
    • Mayo Clinic. (2007). Mayo clinic 2002 highlights. Retrieved from
    •      http://www.mayoclinic.org/tradition-heritage/highlights-2002.html
    • Metzger, B. E. (2007). American Medical Association guide to living with diabetes :
    • preventing and treating type 2 diabetes : essential information you and your family need to
    • know. Hoboken, N. J.: John Wiley & Sons.
    • This book is a credible source, as the American Medical Association is the publisher and they are a
    • “ professional organization of physicians in the United States” (Rees, 2003, p. 81). The author Boyd
    • Metzger is also an authoritative figure on diabetes as he is a medical doctor who specializes in
    • Endocrinology and metabolism. He provides no biased opinions in this book and covers a wealth of
    • information that is essential and easy to understand. This book covers Type 2 diabetes,
    • such as what it is, risk factors, prevention through nutrition and exercise, diagnosing and
    • treatment, and Type 2 diabetes in children. It is full of charts and illustrations to help the
    • reader understand what is being explained. The information is still current having been published
    • only a couple years ago.
    • Rees, A. M. (2003). Consumer health information source book. Westport, CT:
    •      Greenwood Press.
    • Why these resources?
    • I identified my sources by referring to the book “Introduction to Reference Sources” in the Health
    • Sciences. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine had entries for a variety of diseases and disorders
    • containing definitions, causes, symptoms, treatments, prevention and other information. This
    • information provides the basics of Type 2 diabetes and should be a sufficient starting point for
    • finding out about a disease or disorder. The book American Medical Association guide to living with
    • diabetes : preventing and treating type 2 diabetes : essential information you and your family need to
    • know by Boyd Metzger was also listed in “Intro to Reference Sources” being referred to as an
    • excellent reference source. I skimmed through the book and found it contained the information I
    • was looking for. I also used the Consumer Health information source book to select other resources
    • that I used such as KidsHealth.org and Mayoclinic.com. There were other valuable resources on
    • diabetes, such as the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse (NDIC), and the National
    • Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. What led me to select Kidshealth and
    • Mayo Clinic was that they were held with high regard with consumers and their credibility as
    • KidsHealth received several awards such as best health site on the web and Mayo Clinic was “ranked
    • #1 in Diabetes” (Comarow, 2010, para. 2).
    • Comarow, A. (2010, July). U.S. news best hospitals. U.S news and world report.
    • Retrieved from http:// health.usnews.com /best-hospitals/rankings/diabetes-and - endocrine-disorders
    • KidsHealth.org. (2010). About kidshealth. Retrieved from
    •      http://kidshealth.org/parent/kh_misc/about.html
    • Rees, A. M. (2003). Consumer health information source book. Westport, CT:
    •      Greenwood Press.
    • Wikipedia
    • Wikipedia is an inaccurate source. One concern that lead me to believe this,
    • was the fact that there was an “edit” option on the webpage that allows
    • anyone to edit the information on this wiki. People can anonymously add
    • content which lowers the credibility of the site as what is added may not be
    • correct. One article I read states that in Wikipedia “13 percent of the articles contain
    • mistakes” (Chesney, 2006, para. 1). There is a lot of valuable information on type 2
    • diabetes, as credible sources were referenced, such as the American Diabetes Association,
    • the Center for Disease Control, the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse
    • (NDIC), the New England Journal of Medicine, the European Journal of Endocrinology
    • and many more. Even though credible resources are used, the site can be edited at anytime
    • with incorrect information. With that in mind, I would not recommend this site as a
    • credible source to refer to for information on diabetes.
    • Chesney, T. (2006). An empirical examination of Wikipedia’s credibility. First Monday, 11, 11. Retrieved from  http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1413/1331
    • How would you communicate the information?
    • I found a book and a database that you can access from the libraries catalog, as well as 3
    • websites that are free. They all contain the information that you were looking for such as
    • causes, symptoms, treatments, and other essential information. They are also very reliable
    • sources as the information you will find here was created by medical specialists. The first
    • website is the Florida Diabetes Prevention and Control Program. It can be accessed
    • through the following address http:// www.floridadiabetes.org / . On the homepage of this
    • website click on “what is diabetes” and you will see a definition of Type 2 diabetes,
    • symptoms, treatment, complications, prevention, other diabetic resources such as web
    • links to diabetic organizations, statistics about diabetes in Florida, and tips for controlling
    • diabetes. KidsHealth.org is another authoritative website that has articles addressing what
    • Type 2 diabetes is, how it is treated, risks of getting Type 2 diabetes, complications,
    • treatments such as medications, definitions, and dieting. Another website to look for
    • information is Mayoclinic.com . The information on this site was written by their
    • physicians. It also provides for as a definition, symptoms, causes, risk factors,
    • complications, preparing for your appointment, tests and diagnosis, treatments and drugs,
    • coping and support, and prevention. You will also find tabs that provide videos, slide
    • shows, questions from the public, and physicians answers.
    • How would you communicate the information? Continued
    • Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine is a Gale Cengage Learning Database. It is available as an
    • E-Book through the Gale Virtual Reference Library. The information here is limited,
    • although you do have access to other Gale encyclopedia E-Books. A book in the library
    • that I can suggest for you to read is the “American Medical Association guide to living
    • with diabetes : preventing and treating type 2 diabetes : essential information you and your
    • family need to know”, authored by Boyd Metzger. The author is a medical doctor who
    • specializes in Endocrinology and metabolism, so the information provided in this book is
    • very accurate. In this book he discusses Type 2 diabetes, such as what it is, risk factors,
    • prevention through nutrition and exercise, diagnosing and treatment, and Type 2 diabetes
    • in children.
    • How would you communicate the information? Continued
    • Sensitive
    • I believe that I am being sensitive to her education level by not
    • overwhelming her with too much verbal information, only pointing her to
    • resources.
    • How would you communicate the information? Continued
    • Culturally appropriate
    • I have communicated in a culturally appropriate by providing facts on
    • diabetes as a whole as opposed to providing facts just for her
    • minority group.
    • How would you communicate the information? Continued
    • Avoid providing medical advice
    • I believe that I have communicated this information in a way that is
    • avoiding providing medical advice as I am only presenting the resources to
    • Olivia and not suggesting a diagnosis or recommending any health
    • professionals and procedures.
  • A Plan for the Community
    • We can hold a seminar to be held at the library on prevention, just like clinics do. We can bring in medical professionals, have a health fair or a dietitian could give a speech on the importance of diet.
  • A Plan for the Community Continued
    • For support the library could create a diabetes support group that meets
    • at the library regularly. They could also create an online community with
    • blogs so diabetic groups could discuss certain topics within diabetes.
    • For advocacy the library could have a display on diabetes for a month
    • providing a definition, symptoms, causes, risk factors, complications, tests
    • and diagnosis, treatments, prevention, it‘s rising rates and provide web
    • addresses to organizations that have advocacy forms that can be filled out
    • online such as the American Diabetes Association “Advocacy Take Action”
    • link. http://www.diabetes.org/advocate/take-action/federal-action.html
  • A Plan for the Community Continued
    • Additional sources: maybe consider adding notable diabetes organization links
    • to the libraries online health directory, creating pamphlets with diabetic
    • information, the web address of notable diabetes organizations, and
    • other notable books. Organizations and information sites may include the
    • American Association of Diabetes Educators, American Diabetes Association,
    • Diabetes Action Research and Education Foundation, National Institute of
    • Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Juvenile Diabetes Research
    • Foundation, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Dietetic
    • Association, CDC Diabetes & Public Health Resource, National Diabetes
    • Education Program (NDEP), Diabetes Research Institute, National Institutes of
    • Health, American Heart Association (AHA), and the American Podiatric Medical
    • Association (APMA).
  • A Plan for the Community Continued
    • Treatment information and resources (see handout)
  • Diabetes
    • Additional Information Resources
    • American Association of Diabetes Educators
    • American Diabetes Association Diabetes Action Research and Education Foundation
    • National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
    • Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
    • American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
    • American Dietetic Association
    • CDC Diabetes & Public Health Resource
    • National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP)
    • Diabetes Research Institute
    • National Institutes of Health
    • American Heart Association (AHA)
    • American Podiatric Medical Association (APMA)
    • Treatment Information and
    • Resources
    • A seminar by
    • Debra Gibbs
    • And
    • Martti Myllynen
    The Library has a support group meeting every Thursday at 7:00 p.m. Call (352) 555-1212 for more information. The American Diabetes Association Advocacy Take Action link http://www.diabetes.org/advocate/take-action/federal-action.html
  • Warning Signs and Prevention
    • Warning Signs (Signs and Symptoms are similar in all Types)
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Fatigue or Unexplained Tiredness
    • Muscle Aches and Stiffness
    • Frequent Urination
    • Increase in Hunger
    • Increase in Thirst
    • Vision Problems
    • Fruity Smell on the Breath (from Acetone)
    • Discomfort in legs when walking
    • Numbness and Tingling in hands or feet
    • Chest Pain that comes on when you start to exert yourself
    • Cuts or Sores that stay infected or take long to heal
    • Prevention (Similar to Treating Diabetes)
    • 1) Get regular checkups w/labs – Monitor Glucose Levels
    • 2) Regular Exercise
    • 3) Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet
    • 4) Eating Healthy and Nutritious Foods
    • 5) Quit Smoking
    • 6) Type 1 Diabetes can not be prevented due to genetics.
    • The prevention and monitoring of Diabetes is important because it can affect eyesight along with different organs of the body such as your heart and kidneys.
    • Information retrieved from:
    • The ADA Complete Guide to Diabetes (4 th Edition)
    • Diabetes For Dummies (Pocket Edition) by Alan L. Rubin, MD
    • The Everything: The Health Guide to Diabetes (2 nd Edition) by Paula Ford-Martin with Ian Blumer, M.D.
    • Type1 Diabetes a.k.a. Juvenile or Insulin Dependent
    • An Autoimmune Disease (Body turns against self)
    • Frequent Urination
    • Increased Thirst
    • Increased Hunger
    • Weight loss
    • Weakness
    • The signs and symptoms are similar in type 1 and type 2 except for body weight, glucose levels and severity of onset because type 2s onset is more gradual than type 1. Gestational Diabetes is a third type of Diabetes when a woman is pregnant. (see resources provided below).
    • Type 2 Diabetes a.k.a Insulin Resistant
    • Fatigue
    • Blurred Vision
    • Slow Healing of skin, gum and urinary infections
    • Numbness of feet or legs
    • Heart Disease – Occurs much more in type 2s than non-diabetic population (Rubin, 2006, p. 34)
    • Before, Adults over 40 were at risk. Now, children and adolescents are at risk and rising. Many news sources have been reporting the increase of Type 2 Diabetes and it is expected to double in the coming years especially due to obesity.
    • Basic Treatment (See Your Healthcare Provider)
    • 1) Monitor Glucose Levels Regularly – per MD’s orders
    • 2) Lower Glucose Levels – Insulin or Oral Hypoglycemics
    • 3) Get Regular Exercise
    • 4) Eating Healthy and Nutritious Foods
    • 5) Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet
    • 6) Lower Blood Pressure
    • 7) Lower Cholesterol Level
  • Olivia Smithson
    • A Presentation by
    • Debra Gibbs
    • And
    • Martti Myllynen
    Diabetes
      • Age: 18 years old
      • Marital Status: Single
      • Gender: Woman
      • Race: African-American
      • Educational Level: High School
      • Lives in a middle-class home
      • Has a part-time job
      • Lives in the Suburbs of Florida
  • Debra Gibbs
    • Introduction
    • Demographics
    • A Dialogue About Diabetes
    • The Dialogue Continues
    • Resources with Brief Annotation
    • 1. CDC.gov
    • 2. American Diabetes Association
    • a. About Type 1 Diabetes
    • b. Type 1- Warning Signs/Symptoms
    • 3. Cochrane Library
    • 4. Print Resource – Diabetes for ..
    • 5. Dogpile.com – Free Web
    • Why These Resources?
    • Inappropriate Resources
    • How Would You Communicate?
    • XV. A Plan For The Community
    • XVI. Conclusion
    Martti Myllynen IX. Type 2 diabetes. X. Dialogue Continues XI. Resources with Brief Annotation 1) Florida Diabetes Prevention and Control Program. 2) Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine 3) KidsHealth.org 4) Mayoclinic.com 5) Print Resource – AMA guide to living with diabetes XII. Why These Resources? XIII. Inappropriate Resources XIV. How Would You Communicate? XV. A Plan For The Community
  • Conclusion O: Wow, you got me kind of excited about learning more about Diabetes , it just occurred to me, I might even try to expand my knowledge by applying for the nursing program. I can even aspire to become a Diabetic Nurse. All this information has gotten me motivated!!!!!!!!!!