Olivia: Hi, my name is Olivia and I just graduated from high school. I visited my doctor today and was given the bad news that I seem to be developing Diabetes. I do not know anything about Diabetes except that I can’t eat too much sugar anymore. My doctor tried to explain it to me but I just could not concentrate on what was being said. Can you help me to learn more about this condition?
Librarian: Sure, I can help you. I am also sorry to hear you received the bad news but after I help you to find the information, it may not seem as bad as it sounds.
Olivia: Why do you say that?
Librarian: If you think about it, we all should be exercising and eating right, anyway. Diabetes is a disease that requires us to watch what we eat and to get as much activity as possible to prevent being overweight. But that is not all there is to the disease or condition. Do you know how to use the internet and have access to a computer at home? If not, you know you are welcome to use the ones here in the library.
Olivia: Yes, I know how to use the internet. You know, ever since I started high school, my activity has been decreasing, especially since were no longer required to take physical education classes after 9 th grade. Furthermore, I do sit a lot when using my computer.
Librarian: Along with the brochures found in your local clinic and the books found in our library, many resources about Diabetes can be found on the internet. Let us see if we can find a mixture of these resources and discuss some of them while you are here. You can review the other resources at your leisure, at home. We can start out with five, then if you need more information. You can return anytime and any librarian here can help you.
Librarian : Since you know nothing about Diabetes, let us start with some basic statistics. The government is a great place to start for information about diseases because you are not alone. It is really easy find, first you go to your computer then log on to CDC.gov/Diabetes, this leads you directly to the subject. Besides the wealth of information it provides, you can start with the Data and Trends section. You can also enter your email address to receive updates about Diabetes.
L: As you can see, we went to the CDC.gov/Diabetes section and found this journal called Diabetes Care. We also noted there were many articles to choose from. Just from these examples you can only imagine the countless number of information available on Diabetes. So feel free to go back in your spare time to review some of these materials. By the way, did you know there was more than one type of Diabetes? The types of Diabetes are labeled as Type 1 and Type 2.
Olivia: Maybe, the doctor was trying to tell me but I could not concentrate on what was being said.
L: Let me tell you a little bit about both using another resource. Remember the CDC.gov web site lead us to the American Diabetes Association. This gives you a complete breakdown of Diabetes in African American Youth like yourself.
L: This is what the American Diabetes Association had to say about Type 1 Diabetes.
O: You said it was called Juvenile or Insulin Dependent Diabetes. I was prescribed a medication called Metformin. I don’t need Insulin at this time.
L: That is good news because as you research more about Diabetes, you will find out what is needed to treat Type 2 Diabetes. Don’t forget to discuss these finding with your healthcare professional. The Web site even has a section for “Recently Diagnosed” patients and like the CDC, you can give them your email address to keep updated.
L: Next, you can find more supplemental information about Diabetes at the Cochrane Library found online. Some of the information is free and some is pay-per-view.
O: You mentioned that some of the books around here can help me, can you tell me about one for now?
L: Yes, I will do that right now.
L: We have many books but the ones that help to break down a subject are the For Dummies book series. It is not looked at as an insult but as a way to help everyone understand a subject. We can reference the series on Amazon.com which is known for its easy to use search box, finding needed books and subjects. Amazon.com is a good segway into the free web which is what most of us are used too. You may know Google because it is the most popular search engine but they have many search engines to choose from, such as Dogpile.com.
L: You have just been given many resources to help you understand Diabetes. If you need to get more resources and information, especially about Type 2 Diabetes, you can always come back here to the library for more help. Anyone of our librarians, including me, will always be glad to help you find what you are looking for.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC.gov) Statistics about Diabetes
According to the Web site, “CDC's Division of Diabetes Translation translates diabetes research into daily practice to understand the impact of the disease, influence health outcomes, and improve access to quality health care” (CDC, 2010).
The Centers for Disease Control is very trustworthy because they are government funded and use scientific research. This adds to their accuracy and authority on the subject. There is no room for bias because they use the facts presented. This information is valuable because it gives great detail about Diabetes including where more reliable information can be found on this and other subjects. McKinney (2010) confirms how detailed the CDC can be on a subject and uses them as reference for her article. The journal she writes for is among the many journals who rely on the CDC for information to stay current with information. Coverage of the materials can be slow at times because they have to wait on the data presented (Huber, 2004. pp. 274-275).
McKinney, M. (2010). Gaining control. Modern Healthcare , 40 (22), 8-9. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database November 6, 2010.
Huber, J., Boorkman J. A, & Blackwell, J. (2004). I ntroduction to Reference Sources in the Health Sciences. 5th Ed. New York: Neil Schuman Publishers.
Mayer-Davis, E, J., et. al. (March 2009). Diabetes in African American Youth Prevalence, incidence, and clinical characteristics: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Diabetes Care vol. 32 no. Supplement 2, S112-S122. doi: 10.2337/dc09-S203
This is just one of the articles the American Diabetes Association had to offer. Being an association means “an organization of persons having a common interest” (Merriam-Webster). The association is very important to the cause of helping to educate everyone about Diabetes, it published a cookbook with the American Dietetic Association and has a Complete Guide to Diabetes (Rees, 2003, p. 138). Not only does it have lots of online resources but it also provides much more information in print (Rees, 2003, pp. 190-191. When the subject of Diabetes comes up, the Diabetes Association is in the forefront.
Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/association
Rees, A. (2003). Consumer Health Information Source Book. 7th Ed. Westport:
Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, and was previously known as juvenile diabetes or [insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus]. In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin (ADA, 2010).
Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. Only 5-10% of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. With the help of insulin therapy and other treatments, even young children with type 1 diabetes can learn to manage their condition and live long, healthy, happy lives (ADA, 2010).
In general, except for age and insulin therapy in Type 1, both Types of Diabetes have similar treatments. Type 2 will be explained later.
Type 1 Diabetes a.k.a. Juvenile or Insulin Dependent
An Autoimmune Disease (Body turns against self, destroys islet (beta) cells in pancreas)
Weakness or Fatigue
The signs and symptoms are similar in type 1 and type 2 except for body weight, glucose levels and severity of onset because type 2s onset is more gradual than type 1. Gestational Diabetes is a third type of Diabetes when a woman is pregnant. There are also other reasons for diabetes as discussed in this and other books (see resources provided).
Rubin , A. L. (2006). Diabetes For Dummies (Pocket Edition). Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Touchette, N., et al (2005). The American Diabetes Association complete guide to diabetes. 4 th Edition. Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association.
The Cochrane Library The Cochrane Collaboration
All residents can access The Cochrane Library for free at the state's Wyoming Libraries Database libraries which include public, community college and medical libraries thanks to funding provided by Wyoming State Legislature's Joint Labor, Health and Social Services Committee (Cochrane Library, 2010).
Good for supplemental information.
Tutorials on how to use the library.
Not all of the information is free to everyone.
Web site includes, “Plain language summary” [This is a great feature of the Cochrane Library to explain information to the layperson].
The Cochrane Library The Cochrane Collaboration
The Cochrane Library and Cochrane Collaboration home page states, “Independent high-quality evidence for health care decision making” and t he Cochrane Library is a collection of six databases that contain different types of high-quality, independent evidence to inform healthcare decision-making, and a seventh database that provides information about groups in The Cochrane Collaboration (Cochrane, 2010). Like the CDC, there is little room for bias because medical articles are based on facts from clinical trials. A detailed article by White (2002) explains in-depth the goal of the library is to give consumers “evidence-based” medical information. Most people searching online for relevant and credible medical information usually come across information that was not reliable. The database was originally intended for medical professionals but is now trying to help consumers seeking health information. There are also different sections for each kind of patron such as patients, practitioners, etc. White (2002) uses many references to vouch for accuracy, authority, and coverage of the Web site.
Retrieved from www.cochrane.org
White, P. J. (2002). Evidence-based medicine for consumers: A role for the Cochrane Collaboration. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 90 (2), 218-222.
Rubin , A. L. (2006). Diabetes For Dummies (Pocket Edition). Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
This book is one of the many print materials available for people with Diabetes. The author, Rubin, is a medical doctor and has 26 results and a 3 page bibliography of these books on Amazon.com. His credentials add to the accuracy and authority of his books. Due to the fact that this disease is so popular, there are so many books on the subject in libraries and bookstores everywhere. Rader (2004) discussed sensitivity issues about the “Dummy” name and had this to say, “None of the other selections were as well organized, simplified, and easily understood as the Dummies book” (p. 8-9). Dr. Rubin also has his own Web site to help people with Diabetes and other medical problems at www.drrubin.com.
Rader, R. (2004). Sensitivity for Dummies. The Exceptional Parent , 34 (6), 8-9. Retrieved from OmniFile Full Text Mega database on November 11, 2010.
Not every health information found on the Free Web is reliable because information retrieval is not a perfect science (Taylor, 2009, pp. 170-171). Search engines such as Dogpile.com gather information from different records that are made available to them from different sources (Taylor, 2009, pp. 398-399). Analyzing the search performed when Diabetes was entered in the search box brought up a mixture of different sources. Some were credible like the American Diabetes Association (discussed earlier), others were more bias because they were advertising a product (pharmaceuticals, diabetic monitoring equipment, etc), and with Web sites like Wikipedia, sources are still questionable because it is common knowledge that the information can be modified by anyone. The Accuracy, Authority, Bias, Currency and Coverage varies from Web site to Web site. This resource provides the most reliable information and misinformation.
Taylor, A. G. & Joudrey, D.N. (2009). The organization of information. 3rd ed. Englewood: Libraries Unlimited.
CDC.gov – Chosen for the statistics to show Olivia she is not alone when it come to having Diabetes.
American Diabetes Association provides a complete guide to learning about Diabetes. It has been around for a while and has proven itself. According to their Web site, “The American Diabetes Association was founded by 28 physicians in 1940 - not even 20 years after the discovery of insulin changed diabetes from a fatal diagnosis to a manageable disease” (ADA, 2010).
After reading an article by P. J. White, I felt the Cochrane Library would provide great supplemental information about Diabetes. This is an example of paid database that also provides some free information to the public. They use “evidence-based medicine” to educate consumers.
Diabetes For Dummies (Pocket Guide) – Like I told Olivia. It is not meant to be an insult. The article by R. Rader explained how he felt about giving someone a book with this title. But it all worked out in the end. We are all dummies when we don’t know about a subject. There are many other books in with similar ideas to help with easy explanations like “The Everything Series”, “The Idiot’s Guide”, etc.
Since we were able to use the free web, I chose Dogpile.com because my brother told me about it years ago and it seems to be equal to Google when searching for information. Google is the obvious choice so I told Olivia about Dogpile.com to give her a choice and to educate her about more than just one search engine.
Although this is a very informative database, it seems more geared to medical professionals and students seeking to become medical professionals. From the description of the database below, it was not suitable for the 18 year old, newly diagnosed patron. When she learns to navigate the free web and possibly plan to go to college, this would be a great database for her to get more information about Diabetes. It‘s credible. Here are examples of what the Web site had to offer. Since Diabetes is such a popular disease and subject, most of the resources we came across were reliable.
Faulkner, M., Fritschi, C., Quinn, L., & Hepworth, J. (2010). Cardiovascular risks in adolescents with diabetes from vulnerable populations. Home Health Care Management & Practice , 22 (2), 123-130. doi:10.1177/1084822309343944.
(2010). Cinnamon protects against diabetes. Better Nutrition , 72 (11), 12. Retrieved from CINAHL database.
CINAHL® provides indexing for nearly 3,000 journals from the fields of nursing and allied health. The database contains more than 2.2 million records dating back to 1981. Offering complete coverage of English-language nursing journals and publications from the National League for Nursing and the American Nurses’ Association, CINAHL covers nursing, biomedicine, health sciences librarianship, alternative/complementary medicine, consumer health and 17 allied health disciplines. In addition, this database offers access to health care books, nursing dissertations, selected conference proceedings, standards of practice, educational software, audiovisuals and book chapters. Searchable cited references for more than 1,290 journals are also included. Full-text material includes more than 70 journals plus legal cases, clinical innovations, critical paths, drug records, research instruments and clinical trials.
Type 2 diabetes is a disease that affects how your body metabolizes sugar. The bodies of people with this condition do not produce enough insulin or use it properly. According to KidsHealth: Glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of
supplying energy (this is called insulin resistance). This causes
the blood sugar level to rise, making the pancreas produce
even more insulin. Eventually, the pancreas can wear
out from working overtime to produce extra insulin and may
no longer be able to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal. (KidsHealth, 2009, para. 3)
KidsHealth. (2009). Parents: Type 2 diabetes: What is it. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/endocrine/type2.html
Olivia: I came in to the library earlier today to get information on diabetes and another librarian gave me some information on Type 1 diabetes. I would also like some information on Type 2 diabetes.
Librarian: What kind of information are you looking for?
Olivia: I am looking for information on causes, symptoms, treatments, etc.
Librarian: Do you have access to the internet?
Olivia: Yes, I have a personal computer.
Librarian: Are you comfortable using the internet to search for information?
Olivia: I am familiar with surfing the web, but I am not familiar with searching for information that I know would be an authoritative source. I would also prefer most the information be from the internet so that I have easy access to it.
Mayo Clinic is a well known organization as it’s: health information Web site, MayoClinic.com, was identified as consumers' number one-ranked health site in a recent Web site credibility research study. Experts
ranked MayoClinic.com number two of the 10 health information sites analyzed,
second only to the National Institutes of Health site. (Mayo Clinic, 2007, para. 32) Mayo Clinic is also very credible in the subject area of diabetes as according to one American news magazine, Mayo Clinic was “ranked #1 in Diabetes” (Comarow, 2010, para. 2). The articles are written by their physicians, so the information is coming from an authoritative source and they contain no biased statements, only facts. The information from the website is also current as the articles range in date from 2 years ago to this current month. Mayo Clinic provides a moderate amount of information on Type 2 diabetes. Articles provided information such as a definition, symptoms, causes, risk factors, complications, tests, diagnosis, treatments, drugs, coping, support, and prevention. The information found here can assist the user in controlling Type 2 diabetes by recommending a healthier lifestyle and/or medications and insulin if more than a healthier lifestyle is needed.
Comarow, A. (2010, July). U.S. news best hospitals. U.S news and world report.
Retrieved from http://health.usnews.com/best-hospitals/rankings/diabetes-and-endocrine-disorder
Mayo Clinic. (2007). Mayo clinic 2002 highlights. Retrieved from
We can hold a seminar to be held at the library on prevention, just like clinics do. We can bring in medical professionals, have a health fair or a dietitian could give a speech on the importance of diet.
American Diabetes Association Diabetes Action Research and Education Foundation
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
American Dietetic Association
CDC Diabetes & Public Health Resource
National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP)
Diabetes Research Institute
National Institutes of Health
American Heart Association (AHA)
American Podiatric Medical Association (APMA)
Treatment Information and
A seminar by
The Library has a support group meeting every Thursday at 7:00 p.m. Call (352) 555-1212 for more information. The American Diabetes Association Advocacy Take Action link http://www.diabetes.org/advocate/take-action/federal-action.html
Warning Signs (Signs and Symptoms are similar in all Types)
Fatigue or Unexplained Tiredness
Muscle Aches and Stiffness
Increase in Hunger
Increase in Thirst
Fruity Smell on the Breath (from Acetone)
Discomfort in legs when walking
Numbness and Tingling in hands or feet
Chest Pain that comes on when you start to exert yourself
Cuts or Sores that stay infected or take long to heal
Prevention (Similar to Treating Diabetes)
1) Get regular checkups w/labs – Monitor Glucose Levels
2) Regular Exercise
3) Low-Fat/High-Fiber Diet
4) Eating Healthy and Nutritious Foods
5) Quit Smoking
6) Type 1 Diabetes can not be prevented due to genetics.
The prevention and monitoring of Diabetes is important because it can affect eyesight along with different organs of the body such as your heart and kidneys.
Information retrieved from:
The ADA Complete Guide to Diabetes (4 th Edition)
Diabetes For Dummies (Pocket Edition) by Alan L. Rubin, MD
The Everything: The Health Guide to Diabetes (2 nd Edition) by Paula Ford-Martin with Ian Blumer, M.D.
Type1 Diabetes a.k.a. Juvenile or Insulin Dependent
An Autoimmune Disease (Body turns against self)
The signs and symptoms are similar in type 1 and type 2 except for body weight, glucose levels and severity of onset because type 2s onset is more gradual than type 1. Gestational Diabetes is a third type of Diabetes when a woman is pregnant. (see resources provided below).
Type 2 Diabetes a.k.a Insulin Resistant
Slow Healing of skin, gum and urinary infections
Numbness of feet or legs
Heart Disease – Occurs much more in type 2s than non-diabetic population (Rubin, 2006, p. 34)
Before, Adults over 40 were at risk. Now, children and adolescents are at risk and rising. Many news sources have been reporting the increase of Type 2 Diabetes and it is expected to double in the coming years especially due to obesity.
Basic Treatment (See Your Healthcare Provider)
1) Monitor Glucose Levels Regularly – per MD’s orders
2) Lower Glucose Levels – Insulin or Oral Hypoglycemics
Martti Myllynen IX. Type 2 diabetes. X. Dialogue Continues XI. Resources with Brief Annotation 1) Florida Diabetes Prevention and Control Program. 2) Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine 3) KidsHealth.org 4) Mayoclinic.com 5) Print Resource – AMA guide to living with diabetes XII. Why These Resources? XIII. Inappropriate Resources XIV. How Would You Communicate? XV. A Plan For The Community
Conclusion O: Wow, you got me kind of excited about learning more about Diabetes , it just occurred to me, I might even try to expand my knowledge by applying for the nursing program. I can even aspire to become a Diabetic Nurse. All this information has gotten me motivated!!!!!!!!!!