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Sentence structure

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  • 1. Sentence Structure
  • 2. Word order Most English sentences (clauses) conform to the SVO word order. This means that the Subject comes before the Verb, which comes before the Object.Examples:  I (S) bought (V) a new computer (O).  She (S) doesnt like (V) dogs (O).  Why did you (S) do (V) that (O)?
  • 3.  Arrange the words to make SVO sentences. like / I / you → French / I / speak → hates / pigeons / he → they / song / a / sing → sell / flowers / we → you / see / me / can → buy / milk / he / wants to → feed / you / my / cat / can → sister / has / my / a dog → must / the book / read / you →
  • 4.  A direct object will follow verb. Direct objects can be nouns, pronouns, phrases, or clauses. SUBJECT + VERB + what? or who? = DIRECT OBJECTZippy, Maurice = subjects; played = verb. Zippy and Maurice played what?Soccer = direct object.
  • 5.  An indirect object precedes the direct object and tells to whom or for whom the action of the verb is done and who is receiving the direct object. There must be a direct object to have an indirect object. Indirect objects are usually found with verbs of giving or communicating like give, bring, tell, show, take, or offer. An indirect object is always a noun or pronoun which is not part of a prepositional phrase.
  • 6.  1. If the indirect object comes first in a sentence, there is no preposition. They gave Harold a new car. Mrs. Jones offered the girls a cake. My grandma always wishes me a good luck. 2. If it comes second, a preposition must be used. They gave a new car to Harold. Mrs Jones offered a cake to the girls. My grandma always wishes a good luck to me.
  • 7.  3. If the direct object is a pronoun (it, this ... ), it comes first and we must use a preposition. Compare the difference in the following examples. I bought it for my sister. Can you send it to him? Ill get it for you as soon as I can. (Not: I bought my sister it. Can you send him it? Ill get you it as soon as I can.)
  • 8. Rewrite the complete sentences correctly. He wrote to Dan a letter. They gave a lot of presents Simon. This picture is so nice. - Can you show to me? I have brought for your sister this book. Please, will you pass me it? Im looking forward to your reply. Write me soon. Grandma, could you read me? Dont smoke anymore. Will you promise to me?
  • 9.  He wrote to Dan a letter. Right: He wrote Dan a letter. / He wrote a letter to Dan. They gave a lot of presents Simon. Right: They gave Simon a lot of presents. / They gave a lot of presents to Simon. This picture is so nice. - Can you show to me? ?Right: Can you show me / Can you show it to me I have brought for your sister this book. Right: I have brought this book for your sister. Please, will you pass me it? ?Right: Please, will you pass it to me Im looking forward to your reply. Write me soon. Right: Write to me soon. Grandma, could you read me? ?Right: Grandma, could you read to me Dont smoke anymore. Will you promise to me? ?Right: Will you promise me / Will you promise it to me
  • 10. How do you vary sentence structure? You will want to use a variety of sentence structures in your writing. There are three types of sentences we will study in this lesson: - Simple Sentence - Compound Sentence - Complex Sentence
  • 11. The Simple Sentence A simple sentence has one independent clause (one subject and a verb): I live in San Francisco.Subject Verb
  • 12. Compound SentenceA compound sentence contains twoindependent clauses that are joinedtogether.She works in the city, but she lives in the suburbs. Independent Independent Clause Clause
  • 13. Compound SentenceYou can make a compound sentenceby joining two logically relatedindependent clauses by using… - a semicolon - a coordinating conjunction - a transition
  • 14. Using a Semicolon Independent Clause ; Independent ClauseI love living in the city ; there are so many things to do. Independent Independent Clause Clause
  • 15. Using a Coordinating ConjunctionIndependent Clause ,coordinating conjunction Independent ClauseHe couldn’t watch the show , so he decided to tape it. Independent Independent Clause Clause
  • 16. Coordinating Conjunctions Logical Relationship Coordinating ConjunctionAddition AndContrast But, yetChoice Or, norCause ForResult So
  • 17. FANBOYSAnother way to remember these is…  For  F  And  A  Nor  N  But  B  Or  O  Yet  Y  So  S
  • 18. CAUTION!Do NOT use a comma every time you usethe words and, or, but, nor, for, so, yet.Use a comma only when the coordinatingconjunction joins two independent clauses. Simple Sentence The necklace was beautiful but expensive. Independent No comma- not an Clause independent clause
  • 19. Using a TransitionIndependent Clause ; transition , Independent ClauseI love San Francisco ; however, I hate the traffic. Independent Independent Clause Clause Click here to see lists of transitions.
  • 20. Complex Sentences A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. John cannot set up his typewriter Independent Clause because the wall has no outlet.Subordinating Dependent Clause Conjunction
  • 21. Example- Complex Sentence A complex sentence contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause. She will go to school in the city Independent Clause until she finds a job.Subordinating Dependent Clause Conjunction
  • 22. Complex Sentences Use a comma after a dependent clause if it begins the sentence.When I first moved to the city, Subordinating Use a comma if Conjunction the dependent clause is the first part of the sentence.I was afraid to drive the steep and narrow streets. Independent Clause
  • 23. Relationship TransitionAddition Moreover Furthermore In addition besidesContrast However On the contrary In contrast On the other handResult or Effect Consequently Accordingly Thus Hence Therefore As a resultReinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In fact
  • 24. Relationship TransitionExemplification For example For instance In particularTime Meanwhile (at the same time) Subsequently (after) Thereafter (after)Reinforcement/Emphasis Indeed In factExemplification For example For instance In particular
  • 25. Two Paragraphs Read the paragraphs below. Choose theparagraph that is more effective. I love living in the city. I have a wonderful view of the entire city. I have an apartment. I can see the Golden Gate Bridge. I can see many cargo ships pass under the bridge each day. I like the restaurants in San Francisco. I can find wonderful food from just about every country. I don’t like the traffic in the city.
  • 26.  I love living in the city of San Francisco. I have a wonderful view of the entire city from my apartment window. In addition, I can see the Golden Gate Bridge under which many cargo ships pass each day. I also like San Francisco because I can find wonderful restaurants with food from just about every country; however, I don’t like the traffic in the city.

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