Implementation Of Ontological Business Transactions Using Demo And The Normalized Systems Approach (Op T Land, Ist, 16 Jul2012) Final

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In the enterprise world, the organization and IT domains have fundamentally different change drivers. The challenge of keeping the dynamic alignment between these domains in an agile way requires new …

In the enterprise world, the organization and IT domains have fundamentally different change drivers. The challenge of keeping the dynamic alignment between these domains in an agile way requires new theoretical Enterprise Engineering grounds as well as new tools and methods for professionals to act.
This presentation will report on very recent efforts to couple DEMO theory, with its fundamental organizational building blocks of transaction (“molecule”), coordination act (“atom”), actor, action rule, etc. with Normalized Systems theory, with its fundamental IT system building blocks of elements and cross-cutting concerns, to achieve and industrialize new levels of business-IT agile alignment.

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  • 1. Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized Systems approach Prof.dr. Martin Op t Land Innovation Alliance Developer at Capgemini Professor of Enterprise Engineering at the University of Antwerp Management SchoolPROGRAMA DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO PROFISSIONALANÚNCIO DE CONFERÊNCIA
16 DEJULHO, 18h00, Anfiteatro PA-3. IST, CAMPUS DAALAMEDA, LISBOA
  • 2. The idea in one sheet• organizations and IT have fundamentally different change drivers – only when using the right granularity in understanding organizations and IT, it will be possible to let them stay connected, while free to evolve• DEMO theory (well-established): organizational building blocks – transaction (“molecule”), coordination act (“atom”), actor, action rule, etc.• Normalized Systems (well-established): IT system building blocks – elements, cross-cutting concerns• research area: how to achieve and industrialize new levels of business-IT “loose coupling” between DEMO and NS building blocks? – we started working recently with implementation modeling for the well-known case EU-Rent Today we want to show you a sneak preview on work-in-progress Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 2
  • 3. Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized Systems approachContent• connecting DEMO to NS: organizational  ICT system granularity• introducing DEMO (if necessary)• what is Normalized Systems• the EU-Rent case – Construction Model – from Fact Model Eu-Rent to NS CRUDS-screens – derivation of mockups/screenflow/process flow from DEMO models• the Coordination world – uniqueness of a P-fact / proposition – measurability of the C-act time – organization dependencies• conclusions• future developments• next steps for you Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 3
  • 4. Lets introduce myself: Martin Op t Land• married Cobi Wattez; father (in law) of Norbert (22), Sifra x Thijs-Willem (24), Sjoerd (26)• Principal Consultant and Certified Enterprise Architect at Capgemini• >25 years active in mainly Banking and Public, e.g.• several educational affiliations – Professor Enterprise Engineering, Antwerp Management School (BE) – lecturing at Universiteit Antwerpen, TU Delft – lecturing DEMO Professional• finished PhD-research@TUDelft 2008 – PhD thesis Applying Architecture and Ontology to the Splitting and Allying of Enterprises – Summarized for managers in Instrument for fast and effective splitting of organizations (NL)• first book @ Springer (2009) – Enterprise Architecture: Creating Value by Informed Governance I like to advance enterprise agility by connecting organization granularity with ICT granularity Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 4
  • 5. Connecting DEMO to NS:bridging organizational with ICT system granularity• Normalized Systems can be built, taking common system requirements as a starting point (e.g., data model, mockup screens, use cases)• this already creates (ICT system requirements)≅ (NS system-change) – the 8 anticipated changes of NS are in terms of (ICT system requirements)• how to create (organization change)≅ (ICT system requirements)? – start with DEMO as a language for organizational essence at a moment – map DEMO systematically and coherently to • organizational implementation (assigning organizations/functionary types, separation of functions etc.) • ICT system requirements (mockup screens, screenflows, data model, etc.) – clarify (DEMO model)  (ICT system requirements)  (NS system-change)• to create such an industry strength mapping DEMO-NS, on going research is performed by UA, TU Delft and Capgemini – earlier work (e.g., patents, grants) by Huysmans, Krouwel, Op „t Land – today a sneak preview on work in progress … a “prototype” DEMO-NS Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 5
  • 6. DEMOs core-theory• Operation Axiom – The people in an organization (subjects) perform two kinds of acts: production acts or P- acts and coordination acts or C-acts. fact• Transaction Axiom requested request promise – C-acts and P-acts always occur in particular patterns (OER) O-phase desired fact new fact promised• Composition Axiom fact E-phase fact – Transactions (which bring about new facts in reality) accepted produced customer producer R-phase are related to each other in one of two possible ways: accept state fact • a transaction is enclosed in another transaction; stated • a transaction is self-activating.• Distinction Axiom – three distinct human abilities play a role in the operation of actors, called performa, informa and forma.• Organization Theorem – an enterprise is a layered nesting of three homogeneous aspect systems: the B- organization (from Business), the I-organization (from Intellect) and the D- organization (from Documents) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 6
  • 7. A DEMO-transaction consists of coordination and production acts, in which facts are created coordination production here production facts are createdhere coordination Kinds of coordination actsfacts are created success “problems” discourse T1 request quit revoke promise decline refuse state stop allow accept reject Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 7
  • 8. DEMO’s distinction axiom Coordination Human Productionas performer as addressee ability ontological action expose evoke (decide, judge, manufacture,commitment commitment performa observe) infological action express fact educe fact (remember, recall, reproduce, (formulate) (interpret) deduce, reason, compute, informa etc.) perceive datalogical actionutter sentence sentence (store, transmit, copy,(speak, write) (listen, read) destroy, etc.) forma Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 8
  • 9. A DEMO model of a B-organizationconsists of 4 aspect models Actor A07 inspects facts from transactions T01 S01: S01 system border Construction Model A07 T07 actor A07 B- transaction T07 organization CM A00 A01 actor A00 T01 actor A01 I- organization Process Model PM SM State Model transaction T01 A00 is initiator of T01 A01 is executor of T01 D- organization AM Action ModelUsing DEMO´s CM is already a great help in reducing complexity and focusing attention Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 9
  • 10. Several real-life cases suggest significantbenefits of DEMO in governing transformationswhere Effort ReturnROOD 5 weeks for CM, well-underpinned re-allocation of ½ day GDS responsibilities (5,000)VISI standard DEMO- rapid design of civil construction training project organizationsSSC Securities weeks for CM common language for organizational and ICT-splitNATO weeks for CM basis for Overarching Architecture, including use cases and SOARijkswaterstaat (RWS) 175 man-days application portfolio rationalization ½ yr proposal, 49% saved (130 apps, used by 300 staff in 6 regions)RWS-Deltares several 10s of organization-split proposal + items for man-days contractingAFKL Cargo 65 man-days in neutral language, agreement upon 6 weeks design and migration issues Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 10
  • 11. Example: EU-Rent, modeled in DEMO (CM) Construction personal B- data APB02 B- APB01 EU-Rent data Model EU-Rent B-CA01 B-A01 B-CA02 B-T01 B-T03 rental start rental car pick-up starter driver renter B-T04 car drop-off B-A02 B-T02 rental B- rental end APB01 ender B-CA03 B-T05 EU-Rent payer data rental payment Transaction kind Transaction result Transaction B-T01 rental start B-R01 [rental] has been started Result B-T02 B-T03 rental end car pick-up B-R02 B-R03 [rental] has been ended the car of [rental] has been picked-up Table B-T04 car drop-off B-R04 the car of [rental] has been dropped-off B-T05 rental payment B-R05 [rental] has been paid Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 11
  • 12. What is Normalized Systems (NS)?Content Benefits• Normalized Systems (NS) = • productivity improvement in systems that can be changed development without combinatorial effects – factor 2-3 has been proven realistic – one type of anticipated change will • maintenance improvement even only propagate in one module better, because NS = top quality – a given maintenance action on an software NS-system costs (even formally) proven exactly as much impact now, “Our insight in what software quality or two years later (when the NS- comprises is changed to such an extent system is, say, five times as large that we can no longer imagine to and complex) develop good software without• NS theory and tools developed by Normalized Systems.” (5 well-seasoned University of Antwerp (UA) developers of Capgemini, 2011) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 12
  • 13. Background: NS under the hood –4 Principles, 5 Elements, 8-10 cross-cutting concerns X-cutting 4 Principles 5 Elements Structuur concerns  SoC: Separation of Concerns  Data …  DVT: Data Version Transparency  Action Remote Persist  AVT: Action Version Transparency  Workflow  SoS: Separation of State  Connector GUI Encaps  Trigger Access Service … With NS, an Application = n instantiations of Elements, fully separated from each other ⇒ no Combinatorial Effects (CE), ex ante proven**Mannaert Herwig, Verelst Jan (2009). Normalized Systems: Re-creating Information Technology Based on Laws for Software Evolvability. Koppa Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 13
  • 14. EU-Rent caseDEMO Construction Model (part) EU-RentOrganization B-CA01 B-A01Construction B-T01Diagram rental rental start starter renter B-A02 B-T02Transaction rentalResult rental end enderTable Transaction kind Transaction result B-T01 rental start B-R01 [rental] has been started B-T02 rental end B-R02 [rental] has been ended Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 14
  • 15. EU-Rent caseDEMO Fact Model (part) RENTAL rental rate CAR contracted MONEY R per day GROUP B-R01 start date I TIME the car group of [rental] is [car group] contracted [rental] has end date I TIME been startedObject the contracted pick-up branchFact BRANCH of [rental] is [branch] the renter of [rental] is [person] PERSONDiagram the contracted drop-off branch DRIVER (*) the driver of [rental] is [person] of [rental] is [branch] DRIVING STARTED LICENSE RENTAL (*) the driver license of [person] is [driving license] Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 15
  • 16. From FM  table definition (spreadsheet) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 16
  • 17. From table definition  data descriptors• we built a formula, which produces NS Expander input from the table definition (previous slide)• this step will become unnecessary with the “Prime Radiant” Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 17
  • 18. EU-Rent CRUDS-screen (1) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 18
  • 19. EU-Rent CRUDS-screen (2) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 19
  • 20. EU-Rent CRUDS-screen (3) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 20
  • 21. Deriving mockups/screenflow/processflow from CM/FM/PM/AM**“Using Enterprise Ontology as a basis for Requirements for Cross-Organizationally Usable Applications” (Krouwel & Op „t Land, MCIS 2012) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 21
  • 22. Derivation of mockups/screenflow/process flow from CM/FM/PM/AM**“Using Enterprise Ontology as a basis for Requirements for Cross-Organizationally Usable Applications” (Krouwel & Op „t Land, MCIS 2012) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 22
  • 23. DEMO-NS prototype EU-RentMockup screen for B-T01 rental start Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 23
  • 24. DEMO-NS prototype EU-RentMockup screen for B-T01 rental start Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 24
  • 25. DEMO-NS prototype EU-RentMockup screen for B-T01 rental start Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 25
  • 26. DEMO-NS prototype EU-RentMockup screen for B-T01 rental start Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 26
  • 27. CRUDS-screen for rentalStart Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 27
  • 28. Uniqueness of a proposition / P-factduring a transaction / the C-acts Mirjam request John (rental mediumCar in period 15-20May2012 15/5/2012 10/5/2012 10/5/2012 Trans- (renter) starter) 14:34 14:40 performer intention addressee P-fact (requested) own intended (C-act type) proposition P-time C-time settlement time actionTransaction P01-proposition id transaction carGroup contractedStartDate contractedEndDate … P-time T01-022 P01-053 T01-023 mediumCar 15May2012 20May2012 15-05-2012 09:00 T01-023 P01-054 T01-023 economy 15May2012 20May2012 15-05-2012 09:00 propo- T03-005 P01-055 T01-023 economy 15May2012 20May2012 15-05-2012 08:30 sition C-fact id proposition intention requester addressee own C-time intended settlement time C01-00940 P01-053 request Mirjam John 10-05-2012 14:34 10-05-2012 14:40 C01-00941 P01-053 decline John Mirjam 10-05-2012 14:35 10-05-2012 14:45 C01-00944 P01-054 request Mirjam John 10-05-2012 14:40 10-05-2012 14:50 C01-00946 P01-054 promise John Mirjam 10-05-2012 14:42 15-05-2012 10:00 C01-01276 P01-055 state John Mirjam 15-05-2012 08:20 15-05-2012 08:30 C02-01288 P01-055 accept Mirjam John 15-05-2012 08:30 ---• propositions only can be created in the C-act kinds request and state; all other C-act kinds may only refer to existing propositions• a state may refer to an existing proposition, e.g., created during a request or an earlier C-fact state; a state may also create a new proposition• a revoke (formerly: “cancel”) never creates a new proposition, it always refers to an existing C-act, which in its turn refers to a underlying proposition As solution, we consider to create for the C-fact a separate component, reusable for all Transaction kinds / Production fact kinds Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 28
  • 29. Applying DEMO’s Distinction axiom:C-act time?  sentTime, receivedTime Coordination Human Productionas performer as addressee ability09:00 social understanding 09:08 ontological action expose evoke (decide, judge, manufacture, commitment commitment performa observe) intellectual09:01 09:07 understanding infological action express fact educe fact (remember, recall, reproduce, (formulate) (interpret) deduce, reason, compute, informa etc.) significational09:02 09:05 understanding perceive datalogical actionutter sentence sentence (store, transmit, copy,(speak, write) (listen, read) destroy, etc.) 09:03 09:04 forma Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 29
  • 30. Fact Model C-world (to be finetuned yet) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 30
  • 31. Organizational dependencies• what happens when actor roles are combined/split across functionary types? – e.g., request is typed by renter on webpage himself – can this screen now be reused internally by EU-Rent? – process flow, mock-up screens, screenflow• what happens when order of working in workflow is changed?• how to implement separation of functions? Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 31
  • 32. ConclusionsNS-element connection with DEMOData • for P-world: trivially derivable from FM • for C-world: has to happen once; C-world models to be finetunedAction • DEMO action rules (AM)  actions in NS: possibly by using an external Business Rule Engine (BRE)Workflow • algorithm for state transitions is simple (rq  pm, dc, re(rq)) • how to deal with tacit C-acts from the PM? • per C-act kind: fixed criterion, per organization, depending on P-content (amount, type of product, etc.)Connector • GUI: from CM • screen fragment per information link + • standard buttons per C-act + save/cancel + • P-facts for rq/st + • standard decision explanations (decision, reason (-code)) • System interface: to be investigatedTrigger • to be investigated Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 32
  • 33. Future research & developmentdevelopments• include coordination as a Normalized Systems standard component• let end-user start work from a to-do list (DEMO: agenda) – standardized query, based upon • the authorization of a user (e.g. “may handle T01-rq”) • the status of the corresponding C-fact banks (e.g., C01-requested, but not yet – promised, -declined or -revoked) • difference between intended settlement time Now (grace-time?) – refreshable to-do list (push/pull)• add richer data types: dimension / unity / granularity – what should be specified in OFD, what in an implementation dependent model? – domain specific datatypes?questions/discussion• the workflows can be highly standardized, using this approach; how will end-users experience this? Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 33
  • 34. Are you interested in intrinsically durable IT-systems, derived from models of the essence of anorganization?• read “Using Enterprise Ontology as a basis for Requirements for Cross- Organizationally Usable Applications” (Krouwel & Op „t Land, MCIS 2012) – send me an email, and I will send it to you• read material on DEMO – what DEMO is The Deep Structure of Business Processes (Dietz, 2006, Communications of the ACM) – the DEMO-3 Way of Working , showing the EU-Rent model + how to make it – how to use DEMO Benefits of Enterprise Ontology in Governing Complex Enterprise Transformations (Op t Land & Dietz, EEWC-2012)• read material on Normalized Systems – the Wikipedia page on Normalized Systems – the book “Normalized Systems: Re-creating Information Technology Based on Laws for Software Evolvability” (Herwig Mannaert & Jan Verelst, Koppa, 2009)• follow the 5-day course DEMO Professional – as part of a post-graduate course Enterprise Engineering at INESC/IST (PT) – as part of the Master in Enterprise & IT Architecture (TU Delft – NL, University Antwerp – BE) Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 34
  • 35. Any other questions? Wish you the very best in your efforts for research or its application! That it may contribute to better and durable solutions for you and your organizations Thanks for your attention! Martin.OptLand@capgemini.com Implementation of Ontological Business Transactions using DEMO and the Normalized July 16th, 2012 Systems approach ©2012 Martin Op t Land 35