Design Toolbox — teaching design, its processes & methods

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‘Design Toolbox’ was a 3-week design class that examined a practical understanding of design, its process and methods through inputs, hands-on sessions and small assignments.

Taught at University of Applied Sciences Potsdam, Germany in October 2013.

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Design Toolbox — teaching design, its processes & methods

  1. 1. Jentsch • Jordan Design Toolbox practical understanding of design, its process and methods for
  2. 2. Hello Note: These is both the edited slide deck as well as the documentation of a 3-week design class from October 2013
  3. 3. tell What is design?
  4. 4. tell What is design? Or what is it not?
  5. 5. defined “ Design is not for philosophy it’s for life. ” — Issey Miyake, Fashion Designer
  6. 6. defined “ To design is to devise courses of action aimed at changing existing situations into preferred ones — Herbert Simon, nobel laureate ”
  7. 7. defined “ To design is to plan, to order, to relate and to control. — Emil Ruder, Swiss typographer ”
  8. 8. model Design ladder for evaluating design maturity Stage 3: Design as strategy Design forms a part of the organisation’s strategy Stage 2: Design as process Design is a part of product development and other processes Stage 1: Design as styling Design is used for improving the appearance of products or services Stage 0: No design Design plays no role in product or service development — B. De Mozota (2003): The Economic Effects of Design, 2003; Design Creates Value, 2007); Icons: Olivier Guin
  9. 9. model Relationships between a design function and the larger supported organisation Separate Design as external resource — S. Junginger (2012) Peripheral Design as part of the organisation Central Design at the core of the organisation Integrated Design integral to all aspects of the organisation
  10. 10. model Stratification of Design (Thinking) Large Scale Systems Policy Design Systems Design Environment Public Service Infrastructure Level of Complexity Systems & Behaviour Urban Planning Service Design Architecture SMEs Strategic Design Culture Artefact & Experience Engineering Interaction Design Human Computer Interaction User Experience Anthropological Design Human Centred Design Artefact Product Interior Fashion Jewellery — S. Di Russo (2013): http://ithinkidesign.wordpress.com/2013/03/26/design-wars/ Graphic Web & New Media
  11. 11. model Stratification of Design (Thinking) Artefact Example: car2go’s Smarts Fashion Graphic Interior Jewellery Product Web & New Media — Photo: Daimler AG (2012)
  12. 12. model Stratification of Design (Thinking) Artefact & Experience Example: car2go’s mobile app Anthropological Design Engineering Interaction Design Human Centred Design Human Computer Interaction User Experience
  13. 13. model Stratification of Design (Thinking) Systems & Behaviour Example: car2go’s car access system Architecture Culture Service Design SMEs Strategic Design Urban Planning — Photo: Daimler AG (2012)
  14. 14. model Stratification of Design (Thinking) Large Scale Systems Example: Dedicated parking spaces for car sharing in Berlin Environment Policy Design Public Service Infrastructure Systems Design
  15. 15. defined “ Design is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities of objects, processes, services, and their systems in whole life cycles. ” — The International Council Societies of Industrial Design (icsid) — Icsid (2006): Definition of Design. http://www.icsid.org/about/about/articles31.htm
  16. 16. find Collect 1 example: • artefact • artefact and experience • systems and behaviour • large scale systems
  17. 17. outcome
  18. 18. tell What’s the role of the designer?
  19. 19. outcome
  20. 20. outcome
  21. 21. model The expanding role of the designer over history Pre-industrial society: design-craftsperson Industrial revolution: separation of making and styling 1960s: Designers work in multi-disciplinary teams 1970s: Designers as “end-user expert”, Papanek’s book 1980s: Design & business innovation, design management 1990s: Experience and brand, the internet — L. Tan (2009): Seven ‘new’ roles designers are playing in public life: http://imagination.lancaster.ac.uk/downloads/_assets/dpc2009/presentations/Lauren_Tan_DPC2009.pdf
  22. 22. model Designer’s roles in a design team Investigator Catalyst Communicator Manager Artist — Northumbria University (2009): Designer’s Roles in a Design Team: http://www.designcollaboration.org/resources/roles/designer-roles.php
  23. 23. model Seven ‘new’ roles of designers Designer as co-creator Designer as researcher Designer as communicator Designer entrepreneur Designer as capability builder Designer as facilitator Designer as strategist — L. Tan (2009): Seven ‘new’ roles designers are playing in public life: http://imagination.lancaster.ac.uk/downloads/_assets/dpc2009/presentations/Lauren_Tan_DPC2009.pdf
  24. 24. tell How do design processes look?
  25. 25. model Design process (after Tim Brennan) ? $ — Dubberly Design Office (2004): How do you design? – A compendium of Models, http://www.dubberly.com/articles/how-do-you-design.html
  26. 26. br ie f c re on vi ce ew pt f re eas vi ib ew ili ty model The ‘double diamond’ design process model Discover Define Develop — Design Council (2005): The Design Process, http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/designprocess Deliver
  27. 27. model Design process model by Alice Agogino Define Prototype Evaluate — Dubberly Design Office (2004): How do you design? – A compendium of Models, http://www.dubberly.com/articles/how-do-you-design.html
  28. 28. model Design Thinking Process Model by HPI School of Design Thinking Understand Observe Point of View Ideate Prototype Test — HPI School of Design Thinking (2007): Kernelemente, http://www.hpi.uni-potsdam.de/d_school/designthinking/kernelemente.html
  29. 29. model Characteristics of design thinking processes User-centred Iterative Collaborative designing for human beings and their needs in steps towards a solution that solves the problem working with others – from design & other disciplines
  30. 30. model Design process archetype: Analysis, Synthesis (after Koberg and Bagnall) Process Input Analysis Synthesis Output — Dubberly Design Office (2004): How do you design? – A compendium of Models, http://www.dubberly.com/articles/how-do-you-design.html
  31. 31. model Rational Unified Process (after Phillippe Kruchten) Phases Inception Elaboration Construction Major Milestone Internal Release External Release Transition Iterations Business Modelling Requirements Analysis & Design Implementation Test Deployment Configuration & change management Project management — Dubberly Design Office (2004): How do you design? – A compendium of Models, http://www.dubberly.com/articles/how-do-you-design.html
  32. 32. Proposal ADD Definition to ADA Alpha ADB Beta D re ec le isi as o e nt pu o bl ic l D re ec le isi as o e nt as o Be ta ha y D de ec ve isi lo on p t an o A lp D de ec fi isi ne o n model Product Delivery Process in Nokia’s HERE organisation ADR Release
  33. 33. interview Ask an established designer about her / his design process
  34. 34. how-to Ideas for interview questions What’s your role as a designer? What’s your ideal design process? What’s your actual design process? …
  35. 35. how-to Interview for empathy Ask why. Never say “usually” when asking a question. Encourage stories. Look for inconsistencies. Pay attention to nonverbal cues. Don’t be afraid of silence. Don’t suggest answers to your questions. Ask questions neutrally. Don’t ask binary questions. Only ten words to a question. Only ask one question at a time, one person at a time. Make sure you’re prepared to capture. — d.school (2010): bootcamp bootleg, http://dschool.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/03/BootcampBootleg2010v2SLIM.pdf
  36. 36. tell How was your interview? What did your learn from your interviewee? What is her / his role as designer? How much do our discussed process models match her / his working reality?
  37. 37. outcome
  38. 38. outcome
  39. 39. outcome
  40. 40. define Who do you design for?
  41. 41. examples Unconventional results with usercentred design processes SitOrSquad Vitra Chairless NG Explorer is an app that helps you find clean restrooms in an unfamiliar area reinvents seating in Indian style with a special belt contains focussed maps and place recommendations for each neighbourhood of a city
  42. 42. analyse Investigate the given photographs from a person’s day of her/his life. What do these tell you? Who is this person?
  43. 43. outcome
  44. 44. outcome
  45. 45. outcome
  46. 46. methods Methods to learn about your user Cultural Probes Shadowing Customer Journey Map User & expert interviews Self-testing Personal network research Explorative research Quantitive studies
  47. 47. method Persona: defining a point a view • captures goals, motivations & behaviours • behavioural pattern as base (instead of demographics) • combined in archetypes (primary, secondary) • details personal goals and motivations • includes a picture, quote and a short biography • mentions age, sex, occupation, hobbies, likes & dislikes • foundation of scenarios etc. — D. Saffer (2009): Designing for interaction
  48. 48. methods Flows, mapping What are people doing when?
  49. 49. methods Time- and context-based tools Blueprints for analysis and planning of offer User journeys to identify moments of delights & pain points Scenario to prototype potential usage
  50. 50. d r aw Scenario map What would a day in the life of your persona look like?
  51. 51. d r aw Scenario map on the topic of News and their consumption for one of the following personas
  52. 52. meet Paul, 39 — Photo: Nokia (2013)
  53. 53. meet Paul, 39 “ I rely on the radio to keep me in the loop ” Paul is an account executive from Leeds who commutes two-hours by car to work in Manchester. He likes listening to news on the radio, but does not actively seek it out or make any real effort. He uses the mobile internet a lot on his Android, both while at work and out and about. But mostly it’s for News and Sport. He reads the Financial Times, the Sun, Metro and the Evening Standard.
  54. 54. meet Paul, 39 Social Goals Family Bonding Being part of the gang LOW HIGH Escapism Mobile End Goals, Motivations, Needs Attitudes towards technology Enabling Exciting Alienating Being in the know Identity Social Networking Complex / Overwhelming HIGH Lifestyle Internet activities Time spent online LOW LOW HIGH Entertainment Background Info Topic Discovery Deep Knowledge Context Curiosity of the unknown Identify the unknown LOW HIGH
  55. 55. meet Sarah, 27 — Photo: Nokia (2013)
  56. 56. meet Sarah, 27 “ I always have to know what’s happening out there ” Sarah works in a department store. She identifies herself with the lifestyle and culture of RnB and pop. That involves music, movies, fashion and celebrities. On weekends she is usually out and about, going to clubs or parties to meet with her friends. Sarah is social active. She tends to strive for social recognition. The mobile is playing a big role in her life. But more to keep up to date with her friends, for gossip on the move or shopping things, rather than for serious news consumption.
  57. 57. meet Sarah, 27 Social Goals Family Bonding Being part of the gang LOW HIGH Escapism Mobile End Goals, Motivations, Needs Attitudes towards technology Enabling Exciting Alienating Being in the know Identity Social Networking Complex / Overwhelming HIGH Lifestyle Internet activities Time spent online LOW LOW HIGH Entertainment Background Info Topic Discovery Deep Knowledge Context Curiosity of the unknown Identify the unknown LOW HIGH
  58. 58. br ie f c re on vi ce ew pt f re eas vi ib ew ili ty overview Methods within the design process model Discover Define Develop — Design Council (2005): The Design Process, http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/designprocess Deliver
  59. 59. show Scenario map How does a day in the life of your persona look? What news and topics, which content is s/he consuming? With whom is s/he communicating and through which media? In which situations and when?
  60. 60. outcome
  61. 61. PHASE DATE DAY TIME detail Example of a scenario map IMAGINE TIME NARRATIVE NAME PLACE - INITIATE - - TOUCHPOINTS TRADITIONAL Title Map (paper) Handwritten Printed material GOAL Laptop / Desktop DIGITAL Tablet Satnav In-car computer App PHONE Lumia Model: Message - - - Voice Web PHYSICAL - Signage Displays Automated terminal Tickets In person PEOPLE Colleagues - Static PLACES In-transit EMOTION INSIGHTS - Situation - Question - NEEDS
  62. 62. define What’s the problem?
  63. 63. br ie f c re on vi ce ew pt f re eas vi ib ew ili ty overview Methods within the design process model Discover Define Develop — Design Council (2005): The Design Process, http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/designprocess Deliver
  64. 64. define Using a question format to set the challenge How might we + + user + insight ? need
  65. 65. define Using a question format to set the challenge user insight need How might we help Carmen, a business woman, who has a fear of flying to have a pleasant flight experience nevertheless?
  66. 66. define Using a question format to set the challenge user How might we help Carmen, a business woman, who has a fear of flying to have a pleasant flight experience nevertheless? insight need
  67. 67. examples Reverse engineered challenge questions user insight need SitOrSquad Vitra Chairless NG Explorer How might we help visitors in a city with dirty public toilets to find a clean one? How might we support outdoor friends who are on the move to comfortably sit somewhere outside for a longer time? How might we help travellers who are annoyed of huge maps and thick guides to discover the best spots in an urban area?
  68. 68. outcome
  69. 69. ideate What’s your answer to the challenge?
  70. 70. ideate Tips for better idea collection in brainstormings 100 × Go for quantity Keep it short Encourage wild ideas Defer judgment Build on the ideas of others One conversation at a time Stay on topic Be visual
  71. 71. outcome
  72. 72. outcome
  73. 73. outcome
  74. 74. prototype How to make your idea tangible?
  75. 75. prototype What does your idea look like? How does it get tangible? How does it feel using it?
  76. 76. prototype Benefits of making ideas tangible quickly Create a common understanding amongst co-designers Communicate an idea to clients and co-designers Test ideas with users Co-design with clients, users and fellow designers Social dimension of prototyping —K. Dribbisch, M. Großmann, M. Jordan, O. Scupin (2012): Bringing Ideas To Life: A Typology for Prototyping. in Touchpoint Vol. 4 No. 2
  77. 77. prototype Concept model
  78. 78. prototype Act out
  79. 79. prototype Storyboards
  80. 80. prototype Low-fi experience prototype
  81. 81. prototype Physical model
  82. 82. br ie f c re on vi ce ew pt f re eas vi ib ew ili ty overview Methods within the design process model HMW? Discover Define Develop — Design Council (2005): The Design Process, http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/designprocess Deliver
  83. 83. test How to know if it’s any good?
  84. 84. collect Get feedback on your prototype from: Fellow designers Clients — Icons: Okan Benn, Dmitriy Lagunov, Michael Rowe / The Noun Project Potential users
  85. 85. note Collect your feedback for the other group What’s good? — Icons: Jakob Schneider What to improve?
  86. 86. outcome
  87. 87. outcome
  88. 88. show First prototype What does your idea look like? How does it get tangible? How does it feel using it? How is it integrated in your persona’s life?
  89. 89. outcome
  90. 90. outcome
  91. 91. outcome
  92. 92. test Tips for evaluating ideas and prototypes with users test product prototype with its intended users correct wrong conclusions from discover stage to guide testing apply same rules as in discover phase don’t be defensive about your design or let others conduct testing don’t identify yourself as the product’s designer to avoid inhibiting testers iterate on findings (you seldom get it right the first time) — D. Saffer (2009): Designing for interaction — Icons: Nithin Viswanathan, Luis Prado, Benni, Jason Grube / The Noun Project
  93. 93. capture Tips for evaluating ideas and prototypes with users let user ‘speak out loud’ – and record it video tape usage of physical & interaction prototypes take notes of comments clarifying questions after completing test ? ask yourself ‘why’ to understand reasons for problems prioritise feedback by criticality, create action list
  94. 94. outcome
  95. 95. outcome
  96. 96. outcome
  97. 97. prototype Iterate your prototype according to your findings & based on your prioritisation. Document the whole project week appropriately in incom.
  98. 98. show Iterated prototype How has your prototype changed? What feedback was most valuable? What input was prioritised as most importan action points? How is your offer integrated into your persona’s life?
  99. 99. outcome
  100. 100. outcome
  101. 101. pitch Use the Elevator Pitch template to communicate your concept. Tell within two sentences: Who is your customer? What is her need? What is the offer’s key benefit and differentiator?
  102. 102. method Elevator Pitch for communicating your offer a foodie & chef at home For who has CONCEPT NAME that Unlike the TARGET CUSTOMER way too little time, yet loves cooking Kochhaus is a CUSTOMER NEED supermarket offers pre-compiled recipes MARKET CATEGORY . Kaisers, Perfetto or Proviant COMPETITION UNIQUE DIFFERENTIATOR Kochhaus offers all ingredients in 1 single shop w/o need running thru the city ONE KEY BENEFIT .
  103. 103. outcome
  104. 104. outcome
  105. 105. outcome
  106. 106. Sum-up
  107. 107. model Stratification of Design (Thinking) Large Scale Systems Policy Design Systems Design Environment Public Service Infrastructure Level of Complexity Systems & Behaviour Urban Planning Service Design Architecture SMEs Strategic Design Culture Artefact & Experience Engineering Interaction Design Human Computer Interaction User Experience Anthropological Design Human Centred Design Artefact Product Interior Fashion Jewellery — S. Di Russo (2013): http://ithinkidesign.wordpress.com/2013/03/26/design-wars/ Graphic Web & New Media
  108. 108. model Different roles of designers Designer as co-creator Investigator Designer as researcher Catalyst Designer as communicator Communicator Designer entrepreneur Designer as capability builder Manager Artist Designer as facilitator Designer as strategist — L. Tan (2009): Seven ‘new’ roles designers are playing in public life: http://imagination.lancaster.ac.uk/downloads/_assets/dpc2009/presentations/Lauren_Tan_DPC2009.pdf — Northumbria University (2009): Designer’s Roles in a Design Team: http://www.designcollaboration.org/resources/roles/designer-roles.php
  109. 109. model Design Thinking Process Model by HPI School of Design Thinking Understand Observe Point of View Ideate Prototype Test — HPI School of Design Thinking (2007): Kernelemente, http://www.hpi.uni-potsdam.de/d_school/designthinking/kernelemente.html
  110. 110. br ie f c re on vi ce ew pt f re eas vi ib ew ili ty overview Methods within the design process model HMW? Discover Define Develop — Design Council (2005): The Design Process, http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/designprocess Deliver
  111. 111. model Design’s contribution to value creation explore / conceive / prototype new futures prototype new integrated strategies imagine / prototype new brand directions improve / invent experiences reduce costs / reinvent processes improve functions & features — after Larry Keeley, Doblin
  112. 112. map How is it sustainable?
  113. 113. tool Business Model Canvas Key Partners Key Activities for Skype Value Propositions Key Resources Cost Structure — A. Osterwalder & Y. Pigneur (2010): Business Model Generation Customer Relationships Channels Revenue Streams Customer Segments
  114. 114. outcome
  115. 115. outcome
  116. 116. read Where to find out more?
  117. 117. Dan Saffer Designing for Interaction Bill Buxton Sketching User Experiences Bella Martin & Bruce Hannington Universal Methods of Design Michael Erlhoff & Tim Marshall Wörterbuch Design Vijay Kumar 101 Design Methods Jun'ichiro Tanizaki In Praise of Shadows
  118. 118. links Reading recommendations on the web Luke Wroblewski: The Nimble Process Johnny Holland: It’s all about interaction Dubberly Design Office Stanford dschool: Use our methods Design Methoden Finder Service Design Tools: Communication methods supporting processes Design Staff: helping startups designing great products — Icon: Monika Ciapala / The Noun Project
  119. 119. Thank you Hannes Jentsch @kaffeetrinken Martin Jordan @martin_jordan
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