The face of terrorism 2013


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The face of terrorism 2013

  1. 1. ATLANTIAN BS Martin Brown AIIRSM, Dip PI, BBATerrorism – The act of creating Mass Fear, Harm, Alarm and Distress in the nameof an ideology that only empowers individuals wishing to dominate others through fearand violence, whilst encouraging the criminally minded & violent psychopaths to engagein anti social behaviour in the name of a cause, with the belief of having a legitimate cause through attacking purely civilian targets and endangering non combatants (MJB)
  2. 2. Terrorism - UK Definition• There is currently NO universally accepted definition of terrorism• However each nation has a legal definitionUK – “Terrorism” Means the use or threat of action were;a) It involves serious violence against a person, involves serious damage to property, endangers a persons life (other than that of the person committing the action), creates serious risk to Health & Safety of the Public, or section of the public, or is designed seriously to interfere with or seriously to disrupt an electronic system;b) It is designed to influence the government, or an international government organisation, or to intimidate the public or a section of the public and;c) Is made for the purpose of advancing a political, religious, radical or ideological cause Section 1 of the Terrorism Act 2000
  3. 3. Terrorism – A Criminal Act• The United Nations Definition "Criminal acts intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public”• The UK has adopted the perspective that terrorism is a Criminal Act and can be defined in an English Court of Law that will stand up to the scrutiny of European Law and the Human Rights Act 1998 under legitimate use of National laws such as the Terrorism Act 2006 and the Counter Terrorism Act 2008• The United States of America has not signed up to the Human Rights Act 1998 nor to other European Laws, but also basses its perspective of terrorism on a violation of it’s State and Federal Laws, whilst gaining legitimacy for these Laws on compliance with United Nations definitions• Islamic States operating under Sharia Law defines terrorism as any Act against a legitimately elected Government/State "waging war against God and society" (hirabah and fasad-fel-arz, uniquely known as moharebeh/mofsed-e-filarz in Iran: armed robbery, terrorism, armed violence)Hudud crimes are crimes whose penalties were laid down by the Quran, andare considered to be "claims against God".
  4. 4. Why is Terrorism difficult to define?• Armed Conflict will always involve civilian casualties no matter how good the weaponry or the motives of both sides• There will always be a military rationale for a pre-emptive strike on a civilian target – This maybe any target presumed to aid the opposing forces in continuing it’s armed conflict such as an Ammunitions Factory, Heavy Water Plant, Power Station and or Main Supply Route (MSR) or simply to initiate an early surrender of the enemy 1. Dresden - Germany WW2 2. Hiroshima & Nagasaki – Japan WW2 3. London - England WW2 4. Pearl Harbour USA WW2• Strategic Targets are often Populated by civilians.• Civilians often mount resistance operations against invading forces, therefore these defensive actions can not be termed universally as terrorist activity irrespective of the legitimacy of the invading forces
  5. 5. Two Faces of TerrorismReligion Politics IdeologyIndividual Gain Power Group Gain
  6. 6. Religious – Political - Ideological• Religious - Based on a false belief that their actions or deeds are based on a divine request/order or right to wage war or to punish other members of the Human Race for failing to believe in their system of Religious identity* The problem here is that it is inconceivable that any Supreme Being (God) wouldwish mere Humans to kill innocent Men, Women and Children*• Political – This is far easier to understand and is divided into two main categories;a. Personal Political Gain – Individuals obtaining Personal Power, Wealth and PublicFavour through threats of Violence and Intimidationb. National Political Gain – Party/Group Change in Political Power, wealth and PublicFavour – Where groups join together to further their aims outside of aDemocratic/Official process again using Violence, Intimidation & Fear• Ideological – Is an organized collection of ideas to change the current order.Understanding the context of a particular ideology will assist in combating thejustifications offered by these terrorists – These can be new, old or a mixture of allthree, as can be seen within Russian/Chinese Communism mutating into KoreanCommunism with a distinct hardening of Ideological belief (This not an indication that NorthKorea is a terrorist state but demonstrates how ideology changes)
  7. 7. Individual – Power – Group Gain• Individual – Where the individual is the main recipient of the gain, from the actions/deeds of themselves or others working on the orders of the Individual, these persons generally have magnetic, inspirational or Prophetic personalities or may have substantial resources available to entice the criminally and greed motivated follower• Power – These individuals are generally self proclaimed leaders, seekers of adulation, feel powerless, weak, or scared inside. They seek control or power over others because it makes them feel safe or less fearful. Sometimes their fear is based in reality, because theyre poor, victimised or physically weak and maybe a result of up bringing through parental fear• Group – Generally coming from a religious or criminal stand point using paragraphs from the Bible or Quran that fit their personal group identity and enforcing these unrealistic views on others through fear and ignorance and from a criminal stand point creating the Robin Hood effect or the Mafia Effect of power through fear, intimidation, violence and financial loss and their personal gain
  8. 8. Classification of TerrorismExtremism & Terrorism comes in many forms and from varying sourcesincluding domestic terrorism within democratic societies. To counter thethreat it is often classified into seven distinct groups• Political• Religious• Ideological• Nationalist• State Sponsored• Single Issue• Lone Wolf
  9. 9. Political & Religious• Acting upon orders of a higher or divine authority• Believe their actions are vindicated and morally justifiable of any wrong doing whilst carrying out orders in the pursuit of Religious or Political Objectives• Misguided sense of Loyalty• Use of Inhumane methodology• Extremely subversive through mass media• Control of information that fits their particular version of events• Appearance of openness and transparency through stage managed or directed events• Allegiances to criminal leaders/bosses• Brain washing techniques and systematic psychological abuse through repetitious activities
  10. 10. Ideological• Groups seeking to change social, political and economic systems of an entire State or Nation• These extremists or Terrorists are extremely violent and Zealous• Extreme Right or Left Wing political views• Objectives of these groups are very high & plan for large scale change• Extremely well organised often supported from behind the scenes by political or Religious figures who may have vested interest in such change• Bring about Social Revolutions through inspiring youth, poor and the disaffected by promising unrealistic social reform• Generally begins within universities and spreads to poverty stricken areas through young graduates seeking cheaper accommodation• Attracts criminality to fund campaigns through drug/weapon dealing
  11. 11. Nationalism• Generally criminally orientated – Criminals use Nationalism to vindicate their use criminality to gain funds• Generated by social disaffection within national regulations relating to immigration or the removal of rights from localised communities• Restoration of National Identity• Present a blame culture for their lack of standing or work• Unrealistic belief in a long protracted claim a. Argentine claim to The Falkland Islands b. Irish Republican Army (IRA) Restoration of North/South Ireland c. Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) Independent Basque Homeland d. Kashmir militancy, Hizbul Mujahideen – Independence of Kashmir & Jammu
  12. 12. State Sponsored Terrorism• State sponsored terrorism supports activists, terrorist and criminal activity to undermine the political systems of the host nation• These activities can be supported by training insurgents/Spies/Terrorists Locally, Nationally or Internationally• State Sponsored Terrorism is often conducted in third world or neighbouring countries to fulfil their operational activities without implicating the supporting Nation therefore giving them plausible deniability• Disassociation from political wings or parties enables States to act normally on the World platform whilst manipulating world opinion and Local activity to suit their needs• Western Nations have interfered with the Political systems and parties of other nations for years resulting in the break down of the former Soviet Union and the current problems in Afghanistan – due in part to the excessive training of Mujahideen soldiers in the fight against communism• Dependant on your point of view, the West is as guilty of State sponsored Terrorism as any other Nation on Earth, even if it did not intend the outcomes we currently have
  13. 13. Single Issue & Extremism• The focus for Single Issue is a particular policy or activity by the incumbent Political Party or Government• This can be demonstrated through the activities of Green Peace, Animal Liberation Front and other such groups that require changes in Political Policy to ban experiments on Animals or to prevent perceived world disasters (Rain Forest Destruction)• Their aim is not to change the entire Political system but the parts that they see as illegal, morally wrong or other wise necessary• Extremism has many faces and can disrupt and erode even solid democratic societies (Realised during the build up to WW2 and rise of Nazism; resulting in the Deaths of Millions) and the partition of Nations• Radicalisation is on par with extremism and requires monitoring for criminality, subversion and terrorist infiltration
  14. 14. Lone Wolf• Singular individuals acting separately from any groups or affiliations• Often with visions of grandeur, believing they are apart of, or the head of a larger organisation• A true Lone wolf works without help or incitement from external sources invariably acting originally on impulse prior to planning and becomes extremely dangerous if their first assault is successful• Lone Wolf psychopath – detailed military style planning often engaging in a fantasy life with them acting as the saviour of mankind or the avenging angel doing Gods work or purely acting on vengeance like the recent Police Officer in the USA• Extremely if not impossible to plan against or to identify using intelligence gathering unless, tipped off, caught operationally planning or completing a dry run• Lone Bomber (Person Bourne Device) In built up area’s as seen in Israel, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq
  15. 15. Premeditated, Indiscriminate &Breaching Human Rights• An Act of planning to maximise the Deaths, casualties and to increase the fear amongst the general population, that is calculated to cause maximum Harm, Alarm and Distress across the entire nation and world if big enough which was the intent on the Twin Towers (7/11)• All Western Nations went to a Critical Alert (Terrorist Attack Warning) creating planetary wide fear• The Loss of Life during the Twin Towers attack was one of the single greatest losses in the History of modern Terrorism activity• The Madrid Train Attack in 2004 claimed 191 lives and 1,800 injuries with victims coming from 17 countries neither of these attacks made any consideration for innocent women, the Old or Children breaching Human Rights indiscriminately• These activities where designed to intimidate, frighten and distress nations into actions that would increase the pressure on Governments• Being Indiscriminate means the terrorist cells gain a higher operational success rate and a vast array of targets to choose from
  16. 16. Terrorist MotivationsThe Full course is available from AtlantianBusiness SolutionsRestrictions ApplyFormation of Terror CellsIntelligence Gathering & ModulesHostile ReconnaissanceModus Operandi of Prescribed