View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
Trends and issues in instructional design and technology Gaming and learning Martha Rice ITED 501—Instructional Technology Foundations Texas A&M Texarkana
Serious Gaming… includes educational video games, simulations, and virtual worlds presents real world problems is NOT simply drills or questions to answer keeps with theories of Constructivism creates intensive learning opportunities bases learning on sound pedagogy
Virtual Worlds and Simulations: Expansive interactive environments and complex resources allow learners to make and test hypotheses. Simplified microcosm teaches learners about more complex real world. Learners can experience working as an expert in the field. Learners can experiment, especially with what would be prohibitively expensive or dangerous in real life. Not widely used in k-12 education yet.
Creating Motivation Digital natives like video games. Learning occurs in places where learners feel safe and able to take risks. Serious games are engaging and interesting. Learners earn rewards for learning. Problems are hard enough to challenge, but easy enough to conquer. Players begin to feel ownership of their learning through the game. Video games teach complex skills through scaffolding process. Students can collaborate to solve challenges.
Personalized learning Serious games can inspire learners when traditional classroom instruction fails. Games can be adapted to appropriate skill and mastery levels; most games adapt themselves according to player inputs. Games reward players for what they do right, recognizing players’ strengths. Games use multiple senses, learning methods. Games are nonlinear so students can move from one skill area to another, avoiding frustration.
Risks and rewards Video game players expect to fail before they can succeed in mastering a task. Serious games provide positive experiences in failure, in contrast to negative feelings that come with failure in traditional face-to-face education. Because failure is acceptable in serious gaming, serious gaming creates a risk-free environment for students, and creates a stronger learning experience.
Reflection and Feedback Video games provide learners with instant feedback about their decisions and actions. Serious games allow learners time to stop and think about problems. Serious games that build in reflection after the task are actually more effective than teacher-led feedback. Serious games encourage learners to think about what they think they know.
Proven results: Military simulations: real expertise and fewer mistakes in reality K-12 education: better standardized scores Higher retention of active learning Health care simulations: quality professional development Business: high-level training that can be accessed anywhere, anytime
Suggestions for k-12 Teachers should use serious gaming to tap into digital learners’ natural interests, not dwell on 19th century learning methodology. Serious gaming is worth the time investment, and is not counter-productive to assessment goals. Continued use of serious gaming across curricula helps standardize terminology and educational experience and measuring students’ growth. Curriculum modules should be created for use with popular consumer games.
Resources An, Y.J., & Bonk, C.J. (2009, May/June). Finding that SPECIAL PLACE: designing digital game-based learning environments. Tech Trends, 53(3) Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Pearson. Federation of American Scientists. (2006). Summit on educational games: harnessing the power of video games for learning. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/gamesummit/Resources/Summit%20on%20Educational%20Games.pdf Kelly, H. (2005). Games, cookies, and the future of education. Issues in Science and Technology, Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/gamesummit/Resources/issues in SnThenry kelly.pdf Kelton, A.J. (2008, September/October). Virtual Worlds? "Outlook Good". Educause, 43(5), Retrieved from www.educause.edu Lamb, A., & Johnson, L. (2010). Beyond Googling: Applying Google Tools to Inquiry-based Learning. Teacher Librarian, 37(4), 83. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=50300803&site=ehost-live Mansour, S., & El-Said, M. (2009). Multi-Players Role- Playing Educational Serious Games: A Link between Fun and Learning. International Journal of Learning, 15(11), 229-239. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=40825465&site=ehost-live Osterweil, S., Austin, A.C., Drzaic, K., & Roy, D. (2006). Unifying education and game in educational games. Comparitive Media Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved from http://labyrinth.thinkport.org/www/library/papers/mit_june2006.pdf Reese, D. (2007). First Steps and beyond: Serious Games as Preparation for Future Learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 16(3), 283-300. Retrieved from ERIC database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ776071&site=ehost-live A review of recent games and simulation research. (2006). The Center For Technology In Education, Johns Hopkins, Columbia, MD. Retrieved from http://labyrinth.thinkport.org/www/library/papers/cte_november2006.pdf Schollmeyer, J. (2006). Games get serious. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 62(4), 34-39. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=21722477&site=ehost-live Squire, K. (2008). Video Game-Based Learning: An Emerging Paradigm for Instruction. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(2), 7-36. Retrieved from ERIC database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ823843&site=ehost-live Ulicsak, M., & Wright, M. (2010). Games in education: serious games. Bristol, Futurelab. Retrieved from http://www.futurelab.org.uk