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  • 1. Trends and issues in instructional design and technology
    Gaming and learning
    Martha Rice
    ITED 501—Instructional Technology Foundations
    Texas A&M Texarkana
  • 2. Serious Gaming…
    includes educational video games, simulations, and virtual worlds
    presents real world problems
    is NOT simply drills or questions to answer
    keeps with theories of Constructivism
    creates intensive learning opportunities
    bases learning on sound pedagogy
  • 3. Games help students learn to…
    • link abstractions with concrete learning
    • 4. make mental models
    • 5. work together
    • 6. make decisions and accept consequences
    • 7. study smarter
    • 8. strategize
    • 9. solve problems
    • 10. think critically
    • 11. recognize patterns and visual cues
  • Virtual Worlds and Simulations:
    Expansive interactive environments and complex resources allow learners to make and test hypotheses.
    Simplified microcosm teaches learners about more complex real world.
    Learners can experience working as an expert in the field.
    Learners can experiment, especially with what would be prohibitively expensive or dangerous in real life.
    Not widely used in k-12 education yet.
  • 12. Creating Motivation
    Digital natives like video games.
    Learning occurs in places where learners feel safe and able to take risks.
    Serious games are engaging and interesting.
    Learners earn rewards for learning.
    Problems are hard enough to challenge, but easy enough to conquer.
    Players begin to feel ownership of their learning through the game.
    Video games teach complex skills through scaffolding process.
    Students can collaborate to solve challenges.
  • 13. Personalized learning
    Serious games can inspire learners when traditional classroom instruction fails.
    Games can be adapted to appropriate skill and mastery levels; most games adapt themselves according to player inputs.
    Games reward players for what they do right, recognizing players’ strengths.
    Games use multiple senses, learning methods.
    Games are nonlinear so students can move from one skill area to another, avoiding frustration.
  • 14. Risks and rewards
    Video game players expect to fail before they can succeed in mastering a task.
    Serious games provide positive experiences in failure, in contrast to negative feelings that come with failure in traditional face-to-face education.
    Because failure is acceptable in serious gaming, serious gaming creates a risk-free environment for students, and creates a stronger learning experience.
  • 15. Reflection and Feedback
    Video games provide learners with instant feedback about their decisions and actions.
    Serious games allow learners time to stop and think about problems.
    Serious games that build in reflection after the task are actually more effective than teacher-led feedback.
    Serious games encourage learners to think about what they think they know.
  • 16. Proven results:
    Military simulations: real expertise and fewer mistakes in reality
    K-12 education: better standardized scores
    Higher retention of active learning
    Health care simulations: quality professional development
    Business: high-level training that can be accessed anywhere, anytime
  • 17. Suggestions for k-12
    Teachers should use serious gaming to tap into digital learners’ natural interests, not dwell on 19th century learning methodology.
    Serious gaming is worth the time investment, and is not counter-productive to assessment goals.
    Continued use of serious gaming across curricula helps standardize terminology and educational experience and measuring students’ growth.
    Curriculum modules should be created for use with popular consumer games.
  • 18. Resources
    An, Y.J., & Bonk, C.J. (2009, May/June). Finding that SPECIAL PLACE: designing digital game-based learning environments. Tech Trends, 53(3)
    Driscoll, M.P. (2005). Psychology of learning for instruction. Boston: Pearson.
    Federation of American Scientists. (2006). Summit on educational games: harnessing the power of video games for learning. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/gamesummit/Resources/Summit%20on%20Educational%20Games.pdf
    Kelly, H. (2005). Games, cookies, and the future of education. Issues in Science and Technology, Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/gamesummit/Resources/issues in SnThenry kelly.pdf
    Kelton, A.J. (2008, September/October). Virtual Worlds? "Outlook Good". Educause, 43(5), Retrieved from www.educause.edu
    Lamb, A., & Johnson, L. (2010). Beyond Googling: Applying Google Tools to Inquiry-based Learning. Teacher Librarian, 37(4), 83. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=f5h&AN=50300803&site=ehost-live
    Mansour, S., & El-Said, M. (2009). Multi-Players Role- Playing Educational Serious Games: A Link between Fun and Learning. International Journal of Learning, 15(11), 229-239. Retrieved from Education Research Complete database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ehh&AN=40825465&site=ehost-live
    Osterweil, S., Austin, A.C., Drzaic, K., & Roy, D. (2006). Unifying education and game in educational games. Comparitive Media Studies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA. Retrieved from http://labyrinth.thinkport.org/www/library/papers/mit_june2006.pdf
    Reese, D. (2007). First Steps and beyond: Serious Games as Preparation for Future Learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 16(3), 283-300. Retrieved from ERIC database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ776071&site=ehost-live
    A review of recent games and simulation research. (2006). The Center For Technology In Education, Johns Hopkins, Columbia, MD. Retrieved from http://labyrinth.thinkport.org/www/library/papers/cte_november2006.pdf
    Schollmeyer, J. (2006). Games get serious. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 62(4), 34-39. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=21722477&site=ehost-live
    Squire, K. (2008). Video Game-Based Learning: An Emerging Paradigm for Instruction. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 21(2), 7-36. Retrieved from ERIC database. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ823843&site=ehost-live
    Ulicsak, M., & Wright, M. (2010). Games in education: serious games. Bristol, Futurelab. Retrieved from http://www.futurelab.org.uk