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12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now

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Mobile usability guidelines for content strategists, presented at Intelligent Content 2012

Mobile usability guidelines for content strategists, presented at Intelligent Content 2012


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  • Shipments of tablets and eReaders up 90% quarter-to-quarter, in Q2, at 13.6 Million.
  • Mobile app revenue to grow 40.7% from 2010 to $11.8 Billion in 2015, 98 Billion downloads18 billion apps downloaded from the Apple App Store, over a billion per month
  • It is twice as difficult to read content on a mobile device. Nielsen asserts that this is due to the small screen size. Users cannot see the entire page to scan through text. Attention is diverted by the need to navigate, scroll, remember what was seen, and re-find the original location on the page. These distractions reduce reading comprehension. To work around this, Noah Iliinsky recommends design techniques that help users understand the hierarchy of information on the screen. First identify the critical content, and then visually emphasize it by making it “bigger, bolder, brighter, more detailed, or called out with circles, arrows, or labels.” Likewise, de-emphasize less relevant content “with less intense colors, lighter line weight, or lack of detail.”Another issue is the wide variation in display sizes for mobile devices. To ensure that content displays appropriately, Joe Welinske suggests using variables for the height and width of the display. For example, include a viewport tag in the <head> section of HTML files, and specify viewport metadata such as width, height, initial scale, minimum and maximum scale, and user-scalability.  Key requirement for user assistance: Ensure that navigation controls for documentation are usable, and that user assistance displays correctly on mobile screens.
  • A Nielsen Research survey in July, 2011 found that the most popular mobile applications are, in descending order, games, weather, social networking, maps/navigation/search, music, news, entertainment, video/movies, shopping/retail, dining/restaurant, sport, productivity, communication, food/drink, travel, health, education/learning, and household/personal/car.
  • improves usabilityBest practice: Provide a separate mobile sitedetect a user’s device, and automatically direct mobile devices to the mobile site. Designer Luke Wroblewski takes it one step further, and advocates for a “mobile-first design process to improve user experience on all platforms.”Another best practice is to provide a link from the full site to the mobile site, and from the mobile site back to the full site. Nielsen recommends the link labels “Mobile Site” and “Full Site.” In addition, mobile users are impatient with slow download times, so it is important to reduce the size and number of graphics and screenshots.A final recommendation is to optimize the site for the browsers and browser versions used by target users. As the W3C points out, mobile browsers often differ markedly from desktop browsers. For prototypes, designers can use the Firefox Mobile Emulator or the Safari browser’s developer mode, which enables it to simulate different browsers. For the final web site, test on a wide range of actual mobile devices, browsers, and browser versions.
  • improves usabilityBest practice: Provide a separate mobile sitedetect a user’s device, and automatically direct mobile devices to the mobile site. Designer Luke Wroblewski takes it one step further, and advocates for a “mobile-first design process to improve user experience on all platforms.”Another best practice is to provide a link from the full site to the mobile site, and from the mobile site back to the full site. Nielsen recommends the link labels “Mobile Site” and “Full Site.” In addition, mobile users are impatient with slow download times, so it is important to reduce the size and number of graphics and screenshots.A final recommendation is to optimize the site for the browsers and browser versions used by target users. As the W3C points out, mobile browsers often differ markedly from desktop browsers. For prototypes, designers can use the Firefox Mobile Emulator or the Safari browser’s developer mode, which enables it to simulate different browsers. For the final web site, test on a wide range of actual mobile devices, browsers, and browser versions.
  • Mobile controls and input mechanisms present challenges. To improve usability:Place touch controls so that users can easily use their thumb to press the most common controls. Design applications so they can be used in either hand. For tap-intensive applications, such as a scientific calculator, provide an option for a right-handed or left-handed interface.Use appropriate size and spacing for touch control elements, to be sure users can tap them with their fingers. Vendors do not have a unified definition for the tappable area. Apple’s iOS Human Interface Guidelines recommends making targets “fingertip-size,” defined as “44 x 44 points,” the size of the virtual keys on the iPhone calculator. Microsoft defines the tap region as 9.12mm or 38 x 38 pixels. Google recommends a virtual measure called “density-independent pixels (dp),” which enables the region to scale to different screen sizes.For documentation, ensure that the most critical controls are usable, such as those used to acquire, store, and select content, and to read, search, and navigate. The most important input mechanisms are bookmarking, highlighting, and adding and sharing notes. For touch device instructions, use appropriate verbs, such as swipe, flick, tap, and pinch.
  • Determine the Target Mobile DeviceDesign for and leverage the mobile platform:SmartphonesTabletseReaders, KindleTouch devices vs. non-touchOS: Android, iOS, Blackberry, Windows…Browsers, versionsMobile designer Josh Clark notes that smartphones are held in one hand and used while on the go, so users have limited dexterity and a shorter attention span. In contrast, tablets are held with two hands while users are seated. This encourages “a more leisurely and contemplative mindset, with longer sessions and more attention … so applications should reflect that calmer mindset.” The ergonomics of the device are also important. Clark observes that users typically hold smartphones from the bottom, with their thumb positioned at the bottom corner at the base of the phone. In contrast, they hold tablets from the top, usually with two hands, with the thumbs positioned at the top corners. Locate the controls where they are easiest to reach.  Key requirement for user assistance: Design user assistance for the devices used by the target audience, including touch devices if applicable.
  • It is twice as difficult to read content on a mobile device. Nielsen asserts that this is due to the small screen size. Users cannot see the entire page to scan through text. Attention is diverted by the need to navigate, scroll, remember what was seen, and re-find the original location on the page. These distractions reduce reading comprehension. To work around this, Noah Iliinsky recommends design techniques that help users understand the hierarchy of information on the screen. First identify the critical content, and then visually emphasize it by making it “bigger, bolder, brighter, more detailed, or called out with circles, arrows, or labels.” Likewise, de-emphasize less relevant content “with less intense colors, lighter line weight, or lack of detail.”Another issue is the wide variation in display sizes for mobile devices. To ensure that content displays appropriately, Joe Welinske suggests using variables for the height and width of the display. For example, include a viewport tag in the <head> section of HTML files, and specify viewport metadata such as width, height, initial scale, minimum and maximum scale, and user-scalability.  Key requirement for user assistance: Ensure that navigation controls for documentation are usable, and that user assistance displays correctly on mobile screens.
  • Because mobile devices are portable, users carry them throughout the day. This introduces the risk that devices inadvertently turn on and perform tasks accidentally. For example, a smartphone jostled against other items in a handbag can accidentally make a call. To guard against this, implement “awkward controls” for certain key tasks. Because these controls are a little more difficult, they require more attention and minimize inadvertent actions. As designer Josh Clark puts it, “Awkward isn’t always bad…By requiring awkward or challenging gestures at well placed points of your interface, you can protect against miserable mishaps.” Examples of this design technique include the slide-to-unlock control used by Android and Apple, and Apple’s slide controls to answer, power off, and delete. Apple and Android also provide confirmation screens for key actions, such as deleting. For example, to shut down the device, Android requires a long press on a hardware button and then an affirmative response to a confirmation message. Another example of this type of a control is a multi-tap combination, such as Apple’s triple-tap with three fingers to turn the screen curtain on or off. Another technique for preventing errors is an Undo mechanism. To maximize screen space, include Undo buttons only for certain risky actions. For example, Google Gmail displays an Undo control for 5 seconds after users click Send. Key requirement for user assistance: To guard against inadvertent actions on mobile devices, implement “awkward” user interface controls when necessary, and provide an undo mechanism for critical tasks, such as deleting.
  • To get feedback early in the development cycle, Joe Welinske recommends testing with simulators. For example, for Android, test with the emulator in the Android SDK (Software Development Kit) available on the Android Developer’s Site (http://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html). For Apple iOS, test designs with the Interface Builder’s Simulator. Josh Clark recommends building rapid prototypes with HTML and CSS, and creating mockups with Keynote, Photoshop, or other tools. For example, Keynotopia (http://keynotopia.com/) provides helpful stencils of controls for iPad, iPhone, and Android. Key requirement for user assistance: Create a prototype, and validate it to confirm usability.
  • Mobile vendors offer a variety of accessibility solutions. Apple’s Accessibility Programming Guide provides guidelines for VoiceControl, Speech Synthesis, and VoiceOver. The gesture-based VoiceOver screenreader provides accessible support in 21 languages. Screen magnification and white-on-black (reverse video) provide better contrast for low vision users. Apple also provides accessible touch controls, and Braille displays are supported on iPad, iPhone 4, and iPhone 3GS. Google’s accessible design guidelines are provided on the Android Developer web site. Google recommends testing with an accessibility service such as TalkBack, which comes preinstalled on many Android-powered devices and is available at no charge from the Android Market (https://market.android.com/).  Key requirement for user assistance: Build in accessibility features for mobile user assistance, and validate effectiveness by testing with assistive technology.
  • http://smusale.tripod.com/writing/wireless_primer.pdfMany translators have limited experience with user assistance for mobile devices, so it is important to get agreements with vendors early in the project. Translation issues includeLanguage-specific special charactersText truncation and dialog box resizingLine- and word-wrappingAbbreviated translationsLocalized screenshots of controls and the user interfaceThe need to reduce file size for icons and screenshotsIn “Localizing for Mobile Devices: A Primer,” Shailendra Musale advises that documentation must be small and compact, since file size is multiplied by the number of languages. Get agreement from translation vendors onFile size, which must be small due to limited disk space and memory on mobile devicesFile formats for localizable resourcesFile-naming conventionsError message translationTranslation for installers or setup applicationsThe language for content developmentThe language for gestures Key requirement for user assistance: If the application is translated, ensure that translation vendors address mobile translation issues.
  • Transcript

    • 1. 12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement NowMarta RauchIntelligent Content 2012 @martarauch Marta Rauch +Marta Rauch
    • 2. Key Takeaway: What Well Cover It’s about the content. If you are involved with intelligent • Mobile is the new PC content, you can contribute to mobile usability • 12 key mobile usability guidelines • Mobile resources Detailed information is in my STC Intercom article: Twelve Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement NowMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 2
    • 3. Mobile is the New PC 3
    • 4. Why Should I Care?Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 4
    • 5. The Megatrend of the 21st Century As big as the shift to radio, TV, or Internet In 2010 and 2011, smartphones sold more than PCs The number of mobile- connected devices will exceed the world’s population in 2012Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 5
    • 6. Mobile is Big Business Over a billion apps per month downloaded from the Apple App Store as of October, 2011 In March 2012, Apple will hit 25 billion downloads Mobile app revenue to grow from $10.2 B in 2010 to $100 Billion in 2015Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 6
    • 7. 12 Key Mobile UsabilityGuidelines 7
    • 8. 1. Understand Your Mobile Users Who, What, When, Where, and Why mobile Do a task analysis: • What mobile tasks do users need to perform? • What is the context (environment)? • What do users want to do? Create mobile personas Build use cases that include the mobile contextMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 8
    • 9. Who are your mobile users? What are their mobile tasks? What environment are they in?Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 9
    • 10. What types ofdevices do theyuse?Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 10
    • 11. Do the tasks involve a lot of reading?Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 11
    • 12. Do the tasks involve a lot of data entry?Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 12
    • 13. Most Frequent Mobile Tasks 1. Games 2. Weather 3. Social networking 4. Maps, navigation, search 5. Music 6. News 7. Entertainment 8. Video, movies 9. Shopping, retail 10. Dining, restaurant 11. Sport 12. Productivity 13. Communication 14. Food, drink 15. Travel 16. Health 17. Education, learning 18. Household, personal, car http://www.nngroup.com/Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 13
    • 14. Most Frequent Android App Downloads Top 10 Android app download categories for the 1 billionth download: 1. Games 2. Entertainment 3. Tools 4. Communication 5. Productivity 6. Personalization 7. Music & Audio 8. Social 9. Media & Video 10. Travel & Local Via +Android on Google+, 12/2011 https://plus.google.com/u/ 0/104629412415657030658#104629412415657030658/aboutMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 14
    • 15. 2. Define the Mobile Content Strategy• What your mobile customers want• Mobile tasks and context• How this will address their mobile needs• Align with competitors’ mobile offerings• An app or a mobile-friendly web site• Target mobile devices• Mobile architecture • Structure • User experience, interface • User assistance • Context-sensitivity • Accessibility• Resources, schedule, budget, tools, process, development, Content Management metadata and tagging, output formats, testing, translation, distribution, feedback, analytics, updates…Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 15
    • 16. 3. Adopt Mobile Style Guidelines Edit, Edit, Edit - Josh Clark, http://globalmoxie.com/Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 16
    • 17. Tips for Ruthless Editing Ask: • What is the primary purpose of this screen? • Will users know how to interact with it within three seconds? • Is the information too dense? What can be removed? - Rachel Hinman, http://rachelhinman.com/Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 17
    • 18. 4. Define Touch Gestures, Terminology A mobile must-read • Touch for touch devices • Press • Tap • Drag • Flick • Slide • Swipe • Pinch • Rotate • And others…plus multi-gesture combinations Touch Gesture Reference Guide: http://www.lukew.com/touch/TouchGestureGuide.pdfMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 18
    • 19. Adhere to OS Design Guidelines Example: the Back control iOS: Software Back control Android: Physical Back control at bottom of deviceMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 19
    • 20. 5. Develop Effective Mobile UI, User Assistance Examples: • Gestures • Labels: icons, buttons, tabs, lists (no tool tips or hover text) • Getting started, tour • Instructions, examples • Tips, overlays • Cautions • Confirmations • Error messages • Alternative textMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 20
    • 21. Examples: Welcome, Getting Started Tour Welcome Getting Started TourMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 21
    • 22. Examples: Instruction, Illustration, Progress Message Instruction Illustration Progress MessageMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 22
    • 23. Examples: Embedded, Tip, Overlay, Discoverable Embedded Tip Overlay DiscoverableFrom Theresa Neil’s Mobile Design Patterns. http://www.uxbooth.com/blog/mobile-design-patters/Look for her new book, Mobile Design Pattern Gallery Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 23
    • 24. 6. Make the Most of Small Screens Mobile content is twice as difficult to read What you can do: • Provide most important content first • Plan for partial attention • Make tasks obvious • Use design to focus on critical contentMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 24
    • 25. Provide a Mobile-friendly Website Which version of Responsive design the news would you rather view on or your phone? Separate mobile site Full Site Mobile Site Links: Mobile Site, Full Site Fast download Optimized for browsers used by target customersMarta Rauch, "Seven Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now." LavaCon, Copyright 2011. 25
    • 26. Responsive Design Jquery Mobile Framework, Todd Parker, Scott JehlMarta Rauch, "Seven Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now." LavaCon, Copyright 2011. 26
    • 27. Accommodate Different Displays Tip: The HTML viewport meta tag resizes content to fit the screen. Example: <meta name = "viewport" content = "width = device-width">Marta Rauch, "Seven Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now." LavaCon, Copyright 2011. 27
    • 28. 7. Provide Effective Mobile Controls • Usable labels • Intuitive gestures • Embedded hints • Tips as necessary • Orientation • HandednessMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 28
    • 29. Design the Tappable Area • Space between touch controls • Size: Plan for • Apple: fingertip-size, “44 x 44 points” changing orientation • Microsoft: 38 x 38 pixels • Google: density-independent pixels (dp), enables scalingMarta Rauch, "Seven Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now." LavaCon, Copyright 2011. 29
    • 30. Tablets and Consider Ergonomics eReaders held with two hands while seated Smartphones typically held in one hand while standingMarta Rauch, "Seven Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now." LavaCon, Copyright 2011. 30
    • 31. Minimize the Need to Type • Use auto-complete Spin dial to select and suggestions numbers • Provide error recovery • Include defaults • Compute field values • Ensure textbox fits screen • Allow for typos, abbreviations • Leverage mobile platform tools Use voice commandsMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 31
    • 32. Include Some Awkward Controls Prevent accidents with: • Tricky gestures: slide-to-unlock, answer, power off, delete • Confirmation screens Slide to • Undo unlockMarta Rauch, "Seven Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now." LavaCon, Copyright 2011. 32
    • 33. 8. Provide What They Need, When They Need It Progressive disclosure: • Main tasks on the first screen • Quick access to key tasksMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 33
    • 34. 9. Use Prototypes to Validate Mobile UX • Get early feedback • Use templates to create mobile mockups • Build rapid prototypes with sketches, PPT, HTML • Use simulators, emulators: • iOS Interface Builder • Android SDK Keynotopia templates http://keynotopia.com/Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 34
    • 35. Example: Android Template Mock up mobile messages http://worldinfo18.blogspot.com/2011/02/51-free-mobile-ui-web-ui-wireframe-kits.htmlMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 35
    • 36. Example: iPhone Template http://developer.yahoo.com/ypatterns/about/stencils/Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 36
    • 37. 10. Build In Mobile Accessibility Apple: Siri, VoiceControl, Speech Synthesis, VoiceOver Provide alternative Google: TalkBack accessibility service, text third-party apps such as Sonalight texting-by-voiceMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 37
    • 38. 11. Test on the Target Mobile Devices Mobile test considerations: • Early tests on emulators • Later tests in mobile environment • Mobile usability • Messages in all languages • Download speed • Third-party software, multiple browsers • As many actual devices as possible • Device labs (example: Device Anywhere)Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 38
    • 39. 12. Work with Mobile TranslatorsGet agreement on:• Language for gestures• Text truncation, resizing• Line- and word-wrapping• File size, format of icons, screenshots• File names• Localized icons, screenshots• Language-specific characters• Messages• Installers, setup Shailendra Musale, Localizing for Mobile Devices: A PrimerMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 39
    • 40. Summary: 12 Key Requirements for Mobile User Assistance 1. Know your mobile users and understand their mobile tasks 2. Define the mobile Content Strategy 3. Mobile style guidelines 4. Touch terminology 5. Effective UI, user assistance 6. Small screen usability 7. Intuitive controls 8. Progressive disclosure 9. Prototypes 10. Accessibility 11. Test on devices, in environment 12. Mobile translatorsMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 40
    • 41. Keep an Eye on Mobile Trends • Augmented reality • Artificial Intelligence • Image recognition • Biometrics • Sharing, location • Transactions • HTML5 • New interfaces: NUI, OUIMarta Rauch, "Seven Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now." LavaCon, Copyright 2011. 41
    • 42. Selected Mobile Resources• Twelve Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now, http://intercom.stc.org/2011/11/twelve-key-mobile-usability-guidelines-you-need-to-implement-now/• Developing User Assistance for Mobile Apps: http://www.writersua.com/mobile/book.htm• Tapworthy: Designing Great iPhone Apps: http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920001133.do• Mobile First: http://www.abookapart.com/products/mobile-first• Alertbox: http://www.useit.com/alertbox/mobile-writing.html• eBooks 101: http://www.ebooks101book.com/• Beautiful Visualization: http://shop.oreilly.com/product/0636920000617.do• Responsive Web Design: http://www.abookapart.com/products/responsive-web-design• Touch gesture reference guide: http://www.lukew.com/ff/entry.asp?1071• Stencils for iPhone, iPad, Android, Windows Phone 7: http://www.uistencils.com/• Mobile prototyping: http://rachelhinman.com/• Design patterns: http://www.uxbooth.com/blog/mobile-design-patters/ Mobile Design Pattern Gallery• Translation: http://smusale.tripod.com/writing/wireless_primer.pdf• Nielsen Norman Group seminars, articles, research: http://www.nngroup.com/• User Interface Engineering seminars, articles, podcasts: http://www.uie.com/Marta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 42
    • 43. What We Covered • Mobile is the new PC • 12 key mobile usability guidelines Key Takeaway: It’s about the • Mobile resources content. If you are involved with intelligent content, you can contribute to mobile usabilityMarta Rauch, “12 Key Mobile Usability Guidelines to Implement Now" Intelligent Content 2012. Copyright 2012. 43
    • 44. • Twitter: @martarauch Follow me! • LinkedIn: martarauch • Google+: Marta RauchMarta Rauch, "Providing Effective User Assistance for Mobile Devices",” IEEE PCS IPCC. Copyright 2011. 44