Marta Meireles da Silva Gil yMar Roquette Domínguez 2ºB
- Energy definition- Types of energy- Energy sources- Renewable energy sources- Non-renewable energy sources- Types of power stations- Wind turbines created water from thin air.
Energy is the capacity of an object of doing a workIt is measured in joules or calories
MECHANICAL ENERGYKINETIC ENERGYIt is the energy that objects have when theyre in motionPOTENTIAL ENERGYIt is the energy that objects have when theyre movedfrom their stable positions of equilibrium.
ELECTRICAL ENERGYThe energy associated with an electrical current. It makes electrically powered machines work when theyre connectedto a supply of electricity.
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGYTransported by electromagnetic waves, such as radio, television or X-ray waves. Luminous energy is a type of electromagnetic energy generated by sun or artificial lights.
SOUND ENERGYAssociated with waves that are transmited through vibrations
CHEMICAL ENERGYStored in substances. It can be released or absorbed during chemical processes
NUCLEAR ENERGYContained in nuclei of atoms. It is released during nuclear reactions.
THERMAL CALORIFIC ENERGYComes from the vibration of particles in matter. Temperature measures the thermal energy of an object.
Energy sources are natural resources that provide different forms of energy. This is transformed for specific uses.
Renewable energy comes from unlimited natural resources.Renewable energy comes from unlimited natural resources.
HYDRAULIC ENERGYProduction:1. When the water is released from the dam and falls, its po- tential energy is transformed into kinetic energy.2. The kinetic energy moves mechanical elements called tur- bines which rotate an alternator.3. The alternator transforms kinetic energy into electricity.Transformation:-In hydroelectric power stationsnear rivers with a lot of water.-In hydroelectric power stationsnear rivers in valleys with highslopes to contain the water.
HYDRAULIC ENERGYAdvantages:-Its cheap-Its clean-Its non-pollutingDisadvantages:-Building power stations is veryexpensive-Reservoirs can cover a lot ofproductive land and even destroy villages.-Reservoirs can spoil the landscape and affect the animal and plant life in the area.-If a dam breaks, theres a risk of a catastrophe.
SOLAR ENERGYProduction and transformation:-To produce hot water by using flat solar thermal collector.-To generate electrical energy using solar panels.-To produce electrical energy in heliostat fields.Advantages:-Its clean.-Big power station are notneeded.-Its unlimited.Disadvantages:-Its a variable source of energy-Solar panels are still quiteexpensive for general use.
WIND ENERGYProduction and transformation: Wind energy is produced by the ef- fect of radiation on the atmosphere. When wind energy causes the blades of wind turbine to move, the winds kinetic energy is converted into electricity.Advantages:-Its unlimited and non-polluting.-The cost of building andmaintaining a wind farm is low.Disadvantages:-Its a variable source of energy.-Wind turbines are a hazard forbird.-Wind turbines produce noisepollution.
MARINE ENERGYTypes:-Tidal energy: can be extracted from the tides.-Waves energy: is obtained from the movement of sea waves.-Ocean thermal: is producedfrom the difference intemperature between thesurface of the sea and thedeep sea.
GEOTHERMAL ENERGYDefinition: Comes from the surface of the sea and the earths crust.-In temperatures below 150ºC, it produces heat.-In temperatures above 150ºC, it produces electricity.
BIOMASSDefinition: It is produced from plant remains, forest and agricultural waste. It is used to produce electricity and for transformation into fuels.
Non-renewable energysources come from naturalresources that are limited.They will eventually run outif we continue to use themRegeneration rate is very slowbecause they need millionsof years to form.
NUCLEAR ENERGYDefinition: Nuclear energy is stored in the nuclei of atoms and this released in the nuclear reaction.Types:-Nuclear fusion: when two lightnucleus joined to form a heavierone.-Nuclear fission: when a heavynucleus is split into two lighternuclei
COALDefinition:It was formed from the remains of fossilised plants.Extraction:-Open-cast mines: when the coal is closeto the surface, soil is removed toexpose it.-Underground: when the coal is burieddeep on the ground, mines have to bemake to mined the coal.Transport:-By sea: in enormous ships-By land: usually by train-By road: only for local transport
COALUses for energy-Nowadays: to generate electricity-In the past: For street lighting As a domestic fuelOther uses-Coke: uses in the steal industry-Pitch and tar: used in makingroads, lubricating oils, plastics.
PETROLEUMDefinition: It is formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that have been descomposed because of bacterial action.Extraction:1. A well is drilled on land or underthe sea. The platform built in thesea is called an oil rig.2. The petroleum is extracted usingpumps or sometimes the naturalpressure makes it rise.3. The extracted petroleum containssalt water, rock, mud and gas, so itsthen purified.
PETROLEUMStorage: its stored in containersTransport:-Oil tankers: they are specialisedships designed for intercontinentaltransports.-Oil pipers: they are enormoussteel pipers.Transformation/Uses:-Liquid fuels gases/Fuel.-Liquid fuels/Heat engines and aeroplanes.-Fuel oil/In thermal power stations to produce electricity or heating-Light components/Lubricant, for making creams-Heavy components/To make things waterproof or for asphalt
NATURAL GASDefinition: It is a mixture of gases made from decom- posed plants and animals.Extraction: It is expensive to extract. Its extracted by drilling.Uses: Gas for fuel is usedin industry and homes toproduce thermal energyand in thermal power stationsto obtain electrical energy.
NATURAL GASStorage and transport:1. Natural gas is transportedfrom gas fields by gas pipelinesto a liquefaction plant.2. The gas is transform intoliquid to reduce its volume.3. Its transported in LNGcarriers which are speciallydesigned ships.4. When it reach its destination, its returned to gaseous state, and its transported again by pipelines.
HYDRAULIC POWER STATIONIn a hydraulic power station it is used the water power to generates electricity.In general, these plants take advantage of the gravita- tional potential energy that have the water of a naturalbed of a river because of a irregularity on the land.The water in his fallis passed to a turbinewhich transmitsthe power to a generatorwhere it is transformedinto electrical energy.
NUCLEAR POWER STATIONOperation: Nuclear power plants operate by producing nuclear reactions creating the heat necessary to produce electrcity. This heat-generating process from the nucleus of an atom is known as fission.Components: A nuclear powerplant consists of several vitalcomponents necessary to fullyexecute its operations, includingthe control rods, shielding andreactor core.-Nuclear reactor: A nuclearreactor operates within a nuclear power plant to mine uranium and create nuclear fuel.
THERMAL POWER STATIONA thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passesthrough the turbine, the steam iscondensed in a condenser andrecycled to where it was heated.The greatest variation in the designof thermal power stations is due tothe different fuel sources. Someprefer to use the term energy centrebecause such facilities convert forms ofheat energy into electricity. Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power.
EOLIC POWER STATIONA wind farm is a group of wind turbines in the same location used to produce electric power. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual wind turbines, and cover an extended area of hundreds of square miles, but the land between theturbines may be used foragricultural or otherpurposes. A wind farm mayalso be located offshore.
SOLAR POWER STATIONSolar power stations are form by solar cells.The solar cell is the basic building block of solar photovoltaic. The cell can be considered as a two terminal device which conducts like a diode in the dark and generates a photo- voltage when charged by the sun. Usually it is a thin slice of semiconductor materialof around 100 cm2 in area. Thesurface is treated to reactas little visible light as possibleand appears dark blue or black.A pattern of metal contacts isimprinted on the surface tomake electrical contact.
SOLAR POWER STATIONWhen charged by the sun, this basic unit generates a dc photovoltage of 0.5 to 1 volt and, in short cir- cuit, a photo-current of some tens of milliamps per cm . Although the current is 2reasonable, the voltage istoo small for most applications.To produce useful dc voltages,the cells are connectedtogether in series andencapsulated into modules.
I thing that it will be a good idea to made this wind turbines, because nowadays there are lot of people who does not have water and water is necessary for live. But I also thing that these people in the world that doesnt have water are also the poorest people so they need help in order to put one of thesewind turbinesin their villages.
So as a conclusion I will wanted to say that before doing this wind turbines people must know them and help with some money to the villages that need these wind turbines.
By:Marta Meireles da Silva GilMar Roquette Domínguez2ºB