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Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
Early lap assessment tools
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Early lap assessment tools

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  • 1. Assessment Tools 1EARLY CHILDHOODASSESSMENT TOOLS
  • 2. Assessment Tools 2Early Childhood Assessment ProgramDocument prepared by:Walkiria OliverFlorida International UniversityMiami, FloridaNOTE: Factors such as (a childs) anxiety, lack of motivation, fatigue, and/or examiner inexperienceor failure to establish rapport may invalidate a childs test scores. Individual users mayhave different experiences.The information contained herein was based on resources available from the publishers ofthe assessments and/or drawn from the examiners manuals or other sources. For the sake ofbrevity, all the individuals responsible for developing (e.g., authors) and reviewing theseinstruments were not individually quoted herein. The readers are advised to consult therespective publisher directly.AP and FIU, jointly and individually, make no claims as to the rights of ownership of thesethese instruments and AP and FIU, jointly and individually, shall not be liable for any errorsand/or omissions. The information provided in the following pages is subject to changes,errors, omissions, and/or modifications - without prior notification.
  • 3. Assessment Tools 3Table of ContentsForeword ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. iIntroduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4Overview of Early Childhood Tools: Tables of Explanatory Analyses ………………………………………………………………...7Using Assessment to Inform Teaching or to Identify Special Needs ………………………………………………………………..20Spanish Versions of Instruments Reviewed …………………………………………………………………………………………...22Summary of Assessment Tools ..................…………………………………………………………………………………………… 23Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA®) …………………………………………………………….. 24Ages and Stages Questionnaires-2ndSecond Edition (ASQ-II) …………………………………………………………………27Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) …………………………………………………………………30Basic Early Assessment of Reading (BEAR) ………………………………………………………………………………………32Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz™ ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..33Battelle Developmental Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2) ……………………………………………………………………………35Behavior Assessment System for Children - Second Edition (BASC-2) ……………………………………………………......37Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests- Normative Update (BVAT-NU) …………………………………………………………………...42Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E) ……………………………………………………………………………..44Bracken Basic Concept Scale– Third Edition: Receptive (BBCS–3:R) …………………………………………………………46Bracken Basic Concept Scale -Revised (BBCS-R) …………………………………………………………………………...… 48Brigance® Preschool Screen I ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….52Brigance K & 1 Screen II …………………………………………………………………………………………………………......54Child Observation Record Second Edition (COR-2) ………………………………………………………………………………56CELF® Preschool, Second Edition (CELF® Preschool-2) ……………………………………………………………………….58Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum Assessment …………………………………………………………………61Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-R) ……………………………………………………………………………..62Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning Third Edition (DIAL-3) ………………………………………….....64Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) ………………………………………………………………………………….66Differential Ability Scales (DAS) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….68Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (E-LAP) …………………………………………………………………………………..70Early Screening Inventory Kindergarten (ESI-K) ………………………………………………………………………................72Early Screening Inventory Preschool (ESI-P) ……………………………………………………………………………………. 74Early Screening Profile (ESP) …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76FirstSTEp: Screening Test for Evaluating Preschoolers ……………………………………………………………………….. 78Kaufman Survey of Early Academic and Language Skills (K-SEALS) ……………………………………………………….. 80Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Third Edition (LAP-D) ………………………………………………………….. 83Learning Accomplishment Profile Screens (3 yr-old, 4 yr-old, 5 yr-old) ………………………………………………………. 85Learning Accomplishment Profile Third Edition (LAP 3) - formerly LAP-R ………………………………………………….....87Miller Assessments for Preschoolers (MAP) …………………………………………………………………………………….. 89NEPSY® …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…90Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood (Early SB5) ………………………………………………………….. 92Test of Mathematics Ability - Third Edition (TEMA-3) …………………………………………………………………………… 94Test of Early Reading Ability - Third Edition (TERA-3) …………………………………………………………………………. 96Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scale of Intelligence - Third Edition (WPPSI™-III) …………………………………………. 98Woodcock-Johnson® III (WJ-III) Tests of Achievement ……………………………………………………………………… 101Woodcock-Johnson® III (WJ-III) Tests of Cognitive Abilities ………………………………………………………….............104Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-Revised (WMLS-R) …………………………………………………………………… 107Work Sampling System 4th Edition (WSS-4) …………………………………………………………………………………….110Appendix A – Coding Scheme Used in Tables ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 113Appendix B – References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
  • 4. Assessment Tools 4Early Childhood Assessment ProgramOn behalf of the Early Learning Coalition of Miami-Dade/Monroe (ELCMDM) Countiesand, as part of the planning for the 2007 Assessment Task Force being sponsored by ELCMDM,the Early Childhood Assessment Program (AP) located at Florida International University (FIU),University Campus, researched numerous assessments instruments which were developed forpreschool children. The attached document entitled Early Childhood Tools evidences the resultsof this research.Due to the comprehensiveness of said results, the list of possible instruments to bereviewed by the Assessment Task Force was narrowed down according to specific criteria, andthe instruments were rated based on a categorical matrix system. The assessment tools wereeither accepted or eliminated for inclusion in the final list of possible candidates of tools to bereviewed by the Assessment Task Force. (The AP staff’s expertise is in School Psychology,specializing in Early Childhood Assessments, thus they are fully qualified to make the originalselection on behalf of ELCMDM.)Only thirteen (13) instruments from the original list met the final criteria from the matrix.Each criterion was used for these purposes as follows:I. LanguageApproximately twenty-five (25) instruments from the original list which had some typeof Spanish version; of these thirty (30), only thirteen (13) instruments also met additionalcriteria. Thus, having a Spanish version became the first criteria when rating the instruments.Language is of utmost importance in selecting instruments to appropriately serve the Miami-Dade County population where many children are second-language learners (e.g., Spanish beingthe dominant language).II. PsychometricsNorm-referenced instruments with good psychometric properties were preferred (e.g.,those with concurrent validity, predictive validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retestreliability correlations of, at least, above .70, preferably in the .80’s and .90’s.). Criterion-referenced instruments were expected to have lower psychometric properties, but preferentialtreatment was given to those that approached the .70 cut-off point. However, it is important toremember that with authentic-based assessments such as portfolios and teacher-rating scales, thecut-off scores in the field can be as low as .45 and still prove to be effective tools.III. Translated/AdaptationsThis criteria pertained to whether the Spanish version of the instrument was a literaltranslation from the English language (e.g., not desirable) or a true adaptation (e.g., desirable)where ideas and basic concepts are expressed in native patterns and colloquialisms.
  • 5. Assessment Tools 5Unfortunately, few of the instruments either a) were adaptations from English into Spanish or b)had information on whether they were translated or adapted into Spanish from English.IV. Spanish-Speaking NormsThis category has to do with whether, or not, the normative data was gathered from aSpanish-speaking population. For the purposes of making a determination on the selection ofinstruments, preferential treatment (or weigh) was given to the Spanish version of instrumentswhich were standardized on this type of sample of children. Unfortunately, only three (3)instruments met these criteria.V. Reporting System (Friendly Recommendations)The fifth category of the matrix was tools with parent/teacher-friendly reporting systems.This category was critical because sometimes instruments which are child-friendly fail to provideusefulness to the parent or teacher. Given a) the young age of our preschool population and b)the current trend to work with the child before any referral can be made, the instruments withuseful reporting systems were preferred over others.VI. Date PublishedThe cut-off date of publication was 1990. Instruments that were developed before thistime, though perhaps reviewed, were not even considered for the original list. The more recentinstruments were preferred because since their norming samples were more current, they weregenerally more representative of the populations being tested today.VII. Examiner CharacteristicsThis criterion was based on the examiner minimum qualifications as prescribed by thetest publishers. The final eleven (11) instruments had examiner qualifications which ranged fromthat of a broad continuum (e.g., professional to paraprofessional) to being very narrow andspecific in focus (e.g., licensed school psychologists only). There was no predeterminedpreference; the decision depended on the instrument.VIII. AdministrationThis category had a specific cut-off point; specifically, +/-thirty minutes. Assessmentswith administration times less than thirty minutes - most of which were screeners - were givenfavorable ratings in the matrix; those with times over the thirty minutes were not given favorableratings, unless the other criteria could justify doing so. Keeping this in mind, few tools withadministration times over thirty minutes were able to meet criteria. The rationale for establishingthis low cut-off point was to meet the intentions of the ELCMDM for 2007; in other words, toreduce the assessment time in order to increase the time in which to implement interventions.
  • 6. Assessment Tools 6IX. PurposeThis criteria was the most complicated to score. Principles and recommendations of theNational Educational Goals Panel (NEGP) were used to operationalize the purposes ofassessments - according to NEGP there are four: a) to support learning – P1, b) to screen forand/or identify special needs – P2, c) to meet program evaluation/monitoring objectives – P3, d)for high stakes accountability – P4. The original list was reviewed and scored in the matrix andthe respective sub-grouping was chosen in the case of each instrument – P1, P2, P3, or P4. Therewas no predetermined preference; the decision depended on the instrument. However, the NEGPis clear about the risks of combining assessment purposes. The AP staff followed theserecommendations when making final selection.X. SoftwareThis last criteria pertained to whether, or not, the tool had some type of computerprogram available, and if so, the extent to which the program would assist users (e.g., 1- just toenter data; 2- enter data & simple reporting system; 3- enter data, palm pilot program, plus alltypes of reports, including program evaluation, etc.). The instruments which had useful, bettersoftware were preferred, however, no tool was disqualified for poor or lack of software (e.g., thisis a variable that can always be added or improved).XI. Other ConsiderationsA. Type: Formal/ InformalThis criteria was relevant to the extent that it is a dichotomous variable (e.g., categorizingthe tool into an either/or sub-grouping). One sub-grouping is that of the formal assessments; thenorm-referenced tools fall in this category. The other sub-grouping is that of the informalassessments; the criterion-referenced tools fall in this category. There was no predeterminedpreference; the decision depended on the instrument.B. Type: Domains-Multi/ SingleThis, too, is a dichotomous variable which categorizes tools according to the number ofdomains – whether multiple (e.g., assesses a number of different concepts/content areas) orsingle (e.g., assesses just one concept/content area). There was no predetermined preference; thedecision depended on the instrument.XII. Summaries of Selected InstrumentsThe following tables summarize the relevant information on each of the thirteen (13) finalinstruments chosen by the AP staff for the 2007 Assessment Task Force to review. Appendix Aexplains the coding scheme used in tables.
  • 7. Assessment Tools 7Overview of Early Childhood Tools: Tables of Explanatory AnalysesAssessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitAges & Stages Questionnaires: Second Edition (ASQ-II) - 1999 Diane Bricker, & JaneSquires, with assistancefrom Linda Mounts,LaWanda Potter, RobertNickel, ElizabethTwombly, et alBrookes Publishing Co.Contact:By telephone, toll-free: 1-800-638-3775By FAX: 1-410-337-8539By e-mail:custserv@brookespublishing.com User’s Guide &(photocopiable)Questionnaires -$125.00 CD-ROM & User’sGuide - $125.00English and Spanishversions are soldseparatelyDomains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeMultiple: Communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, andpersonal-social (ea. domain is called a “questionnaire”)P2 – Identification of special needsSkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMultiple developmentalskills6–60 months Parent questionnaire Ongoing (used formonitoring purposes)10 to 15 minutes Self-report (parental)Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitParent self-report 30-item Parents observe their child and complete simplequestionnaires about their childs abilities (someactivities prescribed)Visual QuestionnaireMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseEvaluation and decision-making (parental)  Parents check the appropriate box Parents circle the appropriate itemnoneScoring:Scoring by professionals –Parental responses of most of the time, sometimes, and rarely/never are convertedto 10, 5, and 0. A high total score = problems; a low total score = that the child isconsidered to be competent (by parent completing questionnaires).Notes:Brookes Publishing offer ASQ Train-the-Trainer* programs with the test developers (orassociate) at the following approximate costs: 1 day: $2200–$3575; 2 days: $4400–$4675*These fees are based on groups of 20 participants. For larger or smaller groups, the fees willvary.
  • 8. Assessment Tools 8Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitAges & Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) - 2002 Jane Squires, DianeBricker, & ElizabethTwombly, with assistancefrom Suzanne Yockelson,Maura Schoen Davis, &Younghee KimBrookes Publishing Co.Contact:By telephone, toll-free: 1-800-638-3775By FAX: 1-410-337-8539By e-mail:custserv@brookespublishing.com User’s Guide &(photocopiable)Questionnaires -$199 CD-ROM & User’sGuide - $199.00English and Spanishversions are soldseparatelyDomains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeSingle: Personal-social (self-regulation, compliance, communication, adaptivefunctioning, autonomy, affect, and interaction with people)P2 – Identification of special needsSkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDSocial-emotional 6–60 months Parent questionnaire Ongoing (used formonitoring purposes)10 to 15 minutes Self-report (parental)Item Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitParent self-report 32-item Parents are asked to respond to questions about theirchild’s social-emotional behaviors.Visual QuestionnaireMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseEvaluation and decision-making (parental)  Parents check the appropriate box Parents circle the appropriate itemnoneScoring:Scoring by professionals –Parental responses of most of the time, sometimes, and rarely/never are convertedto 10, 5, and 0. A high total score = problems; a low total score = that the child isconsidered to be competent by the parent completing the questionnaire.Notes:Brookes Publishing offer ASQ: SE Train-the-Trainer* programs at the following approximatecosts: 1 day: $1200–$19502 days: $1950–$2475*These fees are based on groups of 20 participants. For larger or smaller groups, the fees willvary.
  • 9. Assessment Tools 9Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitBattelle Developmental Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-2) Jean Newborg The Riverside PublishingCompany Kit w/manipulatives -$867.50 Complete kit plussoftware - $ 1,076.50 Screener Kit only –$171.50Domains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeMulti: Personal-Social, Adaptive, Motor, Communication & Cognitive P1 – Support learning; P2 – Identification of special needs; P3 – Programevaluation/monitoring trends; and P4 – AccountabilitySkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMultiple developmentalskillsBirth to 8.0 years Individual Periodical  Full BDI-2: 1 to 2 hrs. BDI-2 Screener: 10 to30 minutesOn-demand responseItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitOral-Directed Varies Auditory Visual and mixed MultipleMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseChild performance and oral responseScoring: Hand scored or scored w/optional scoring software: the BDI-2 ScoringPro®software. Also available is the BDI-2S Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) application -Palm® Solution - which includes both English and Spanish versions.Notes:
  • 10. Assessment Tools 10Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitBrigance® Early Preschool Screen II (Ages 2 - 2 ½) - 2005Brigance® Preschool Screen II (Ages 3 – 4) – 2005Albert H. Brigance Curriculum Associates®,Inc.Corporate HeadquartersP.O. Box 2001North Billerica, MA01862-9914info CAinc.comUSA & Canada:Tel. (800) 225-0248Fax (800) 366-1158Order Desk: USA x – 432Product Info: x - 62Brigance® Manual withBuilding Blocks * Early PreschoolScreen II - $110.00 Preschool Screen II -$110.00Brigance® ScreensScoring Software II withTechnical Report Manual -$117.95NOTE: *data sheets soldseparatelyDomains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeMulti: Fine and gross motor skills, receptive and expressive language, self-help skills,and social-emotional domains; assesses reading and math at older agesP1 – Support learning and P2 – Identification of special needsSkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMultiple developmentalskillsAge 2.0 to 4.0 Individual Periodical 10 to 15 minutes On-demand responseItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitOral-Directed 44 skills Multi: Including personal data responses, block building,identifying objects by pointing, matching colors, namingobjects from pictures, adding plural s’s and –ing endings,etc.Auditory, Visual andmixedMultipleMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseMulti: Including recall, performance, identification, etc. Multiple Responses Child performance and oral responseScoring: Correct responses are given credit based on examiner’s professional judgmentplus directions in manual – either 1, 2 or 3 points.Notes: Also available are Class Summary Folders, Spanish Directions Booklets, andother Brigance® relevant materials
  • 11. Assessment Tools 11Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitChild Observation Record, Second Edition (COR-2) - 2002 High/Scope EducationalResearch FoundationTel. 1-800-40-PRESSpress@highscope.org Preschool ChildObservation Record(COR), SecondEdition - $174.95 Preschool ChildObservation Record(COR) for CD-ROM,Second Edition -$199.95 (includes oneuser license)Domains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeMulti: Initiative, Social Relations, Creative Representation, Movement & Music,Language & Literacy, Mathematics & ScienceP1 – Support learningSkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMulti2.6 to 6.0 years Individual Ongoing Ongoing Observational profileItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitRunning recordsObservational N/A N/AMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseMultiple - As occurring in natural environmentMultiple Responses Multiple ResponsesScoring:Score of 1 to 5 on 32 behaviors and skills with subscale scores for four broad categoriesNotes:For customized training contact High/Scopes Educational Services Division at734/485-2000, ext. 218, or e-mail gavinh@highscope.org
  • 12. Assessment Tools 12Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitCreative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum Assessment (2005) Diane Trister Dodge,Laura Colker & CateHeromanTeaching Strategies, Inc.P.O. Box 42243Washington, DC 20015Toll Free: 800-637-3652Local: 202-362-7543Fax: 202-364-7273Complete AssessmentSystem Kit - $89.95(English & Spanish kitssold separately/sameprice)Domains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeMulti: Includes social/emotional, physical, cognitive, & language developmentalareasP1 – Support learningSkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMulti Age 3.0 to 5.0 Ongoing 3 summary points per yearrecommendedOngoing Observational checklistItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitVaries, includesobservations, and oral-directed running records11 interest areas ;multiple items in eachareaObservational N/A N/AMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseMultiple - As occurring in natural environment Multiple Responses Multiple ResponsesScoring: Notes:The Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum for Ages 3-5 is a valid and reliableinstrument which is the assessment component of The Creative Curriculum®
  • 13. Assessment Tools 13Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitDevelopmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-ThirdEdition(DIAL-3), 1998Carol Mardell-Czudnowski & DorotheaS. GoldenbergAGS Publishing4201 Woodland RoadCircle Pines, MN 55014-1796phone 800.328.2560 /651.287.7220fax 800.471.8457 /651.287.7223customerservice@agsnet.com Complete kit, inc.Speed DIAL(Eng./Spa.) –$469.99 Complete kit withASSIST - $569.99Domains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeDomains - Physical, Cognitive, Communication, Social or Emotional, and Adaptive.Subtests - Motor - gross & fine motor development; Concepts – knowledge of basicconcepts such as counting and colors; Language – receptive & expressive language;Self-Help Development – daily living skills in such areas as eating, drinking, &dressing, and; Social Development – skills in relating to others.(P2) - Developmental screening.DIAL-3 is an individually administered screening test designed to identify young childrenin need of further diagnostic assessment.Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMulti Age 3.0 - 6.11 Individual Periodic 20 -30 minutes; Speed DIAL(condensed version): 15 - 20minutesMultiple: On-demandresponse from child;observational record;parent questionnaireItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitEach item assesses uniquebehaviors. Some itemsconsist of only one task(for example, catching),while other items includemore than one task (forexample, jumping,hopping, and skipping).Gross Motor items include catching, jumping,hopping, & skipping; Fine Motor items includebuilding with blocks, cutting, copying shapes andletters, and writing, and a finger-touching task;Language items include answering simple personalquestions, articulation, naming, or identifying objectsand actions, plus phonemic awareness tasks; Conceptitems include pointing to named body parts, naming oridentifying colors, rote counting, counting blocks &sorting shapes.Multiple VariesMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseMulti: Including recall, performance, identification, etc. Multiple Responses Depending on task, childs response could be oral/motor.Scoring: By hand or computer. Computerized scoring: ASSIST scoring software inc.optional report to parents, parent-child activities, and group reporting capabilities.Notes: Training options available. Optional 45-minute video is available in bothlanguages to enhance training through visual examples of the screening situation and itemadministration.
  • 14. Assessment Tools 14Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitDECA Program, 1999 Paul A. Le Buffe & JackA. NaglieriKaplan Early LearningCompanyTel.: 1-800-334-2014 or336-766-7374Fax: 1-800-7526DECA Kit - $199.95DECA rating form –approx. $1.00 ea.Domains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeProtective Factors – Initiative, Attachment, Self-ControlBehavioral Concerns(P2) Standardized assessment for protective factors; screener for behavior concernsSkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDSocial-emotional Ages 2 through 5 Individual (parent &teacher)Periodic – 3 times p/year 10-15 minutes Observational recordItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitQuestions to be rated (seescoring below)37 Ea. item answers: “During the past 4 weeks, how oftendid the child...”Visual RatingMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseEvaluation and decision-making (by parent & teacher,not child)checkmark noneScoring:Items are scored according to following Likert scale: Never (O); Rarely (1);Occasionally (2); Frequently (3); and Very Frequently (4)Notes:Contact Kaplan directly. A trainer can be contracted starting at approx. $1,200 +expenses per day/per trainer/Professional Development * (*Does not apply to CreativeCurriculum Approach training).Keynote Address (if applicable) $3,000 + expensesTraining fees are based on a maximum number of 35 participantsExpenses include airfare or mileage, lodging, meals and training materials.
  • 15. Assessment Tools 15Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitEarly Screening Inventory-Preschool (ESI-P), 1997NOTE: ESI-R is a continuous protocol screener for children age 3 to 6 years old. ESI-P is for age 3 to 4 ½ while ESI-K is for children age 4 ½ to 6 years old.Samuel J. Meisels, MarthaStone Wiske, and LauraW. HendersonPearson Early LearningGroup1185 Avenue of theAmericas, 17th FloorNew York, NY 10036Tel.: 1.800.321.3106Fax: 1.800.393.3156ESI-P Kit, English version(Age 3-4 ½) - $118.50ESI-P Kit, Spanish version(Age 3-4 ½) - $118.50Domains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeDevelopmental areas addressed: Score Sheet: Visual Motor/Adaptive, Language, andCognition; (Social/Emotional is covered in the comments) Parent Questionnaire: Self-help skills(P2) - It identifies young children at risk for school failure — accurately, quickly, andcost effectively. Extensive research has shown the ESI-R to be both reliable and validSkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMulti Age 3 to 4 ½ Individual administered inhome or centerPeriodic 15 to 20 minutes Multiple: On-demandresponse from child andobservationalItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitEach item assesses uniquebehaviors. Some itemsconsist of only one taskwhile others items includemore than one task along acontinuum of developmentSome examples include: block building from imitationor from model, and cutting, copying shapes; catching,jumping, & skipping;Multiple VariesMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseMulti: Including recall, performance, identification, etc. Multiple types of responses depending on tasks andprocessing involvedDepending on task, childs response could be oral/motorScoring: By hand or computer.Yields three scores: Refer, Re-screen and OK. - interpreted differently, depending onage group. For each item, the child receives from 0-3 points.Computerized scoring: ESI-Online (both ESI-P & ESI-K) scoring software includesdownloadable user guides, data entry & automated scoring, printable score-sheets(Eng./Spa.) & parent questionnaires, class reports, report to parents, and tutorials. Licensed annually at a cost of $2.95 p/child. Technical support available from8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. EST, Mon. – Fri. For information on online products(including registration) call Leah Theodorou at 1.888.832.9378, ext. 1775.Notes: Training videos demonstrating procedures and administration are soldseparately; this is a recommended resource for every user.On-site training is available for a fee, plus expenses; to be able to negotiate better priceand terms for training, (maybe a discount if included with the entire package), callcompany with the actual number of participants.For information on professional development and general product questions, call DanaSchmidek at 1.888.832.9378, ext. 1763.
  • 16. Assessment Tools 16Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitLearning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition, III (LAP-D), 2005 Nehring, Aubrey D.;Nehring, Ema F.; Bruni,John R., Jr.; Randolph,Patricia L.; Kaplan Press;Sanford, Anne R.; Zelman,Janet G.; Glover, M.Elayne; Preminger, Jodi L.Kaplan Early LearningCompany1-800-334-2014 (Mon. –Fri., 8:00 - 6:00 p.m., EST)mailto:info@kaplanco.comLAP-DIII Kit - $799.95Domains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeFour developmental areas: fine motor, gross motor, cognition, and language. Each areais contains two subscales. Language Naming & Language Comprehension; Fine MotorManipulation & Fine Motor Writing; Gross Motor Body Movement & Gross MotorObject Movement, and; Cognitive Matching & Cognitive Counting(P1) & (P2) Results from the LAP-D can be used for developing IEPs and forclassroom planning. Personal/Social and Self-Help Checklists are included, along withLAP-D Pupil/Teacher/Parent Planning CardsSkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMulti 30-60 months individual Periodic Approx. 1 ½ hours(although this estimatedoes not take into accountincidentals such as time toestablish rapport with thechild, bathroom breaks,rest periods, etc.)On-demand response,some items timedItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitEach item assesses uniquebehaviorTotal 226 items but eachsubscale varies in # ofitems.Multi: including block building, from model or byimitation, identifying objects by pointing, matchingcolors, naming objects from pictures, to jumping,hopping, and skipping.Auditory, Visual andmixedVaries depending on itemMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseMulti: Including recall, performance, identification, etc Multiple types of responses depending on tasks andprocessing involvedChild performance and oral responseScoring: By hand, computer or palm pilot.The child reaches ceiling w/3 errors out of 5 consecutive items administeredNotes:Contact Kaplan directly for training.
  • 17. Assessment Tools 17Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitLearning Accomplishment Profile-Revised (LAP-3), 2004 Kaplan Early LearningCompany1-800-334-2014 (Mon. –Fri., 8:00 - 6:00 p.m., EST)mailto:info@kaplanco.comDomains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeSeven developmental domains, including: Gross Motor, Fine, Motor, Pre-Writing,Cognitive, Language, Self-Help, Personal/Social(P1) The purpose of the LAP 3 is to assist teachers plan instructionSkill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMulti Children functioning in the36-72 month age rangeindividual Periodic (at the beginning,middle, and end of theprogram year) or ongoingApprox. 1 ½ hours(although this estimatedoes not take into accountincidentals such as time toestablish rapport with thechild, bathroom breaks,rest periods, etc.)On-demand responseItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitEach item assesses uniquebehaviorMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseScoring:The LAP-3 neither assigns a diagnostic label nor yields statistically precise measuresregarding a child’s level of functioningNotes:Contact Kaplan directly for training.
  • 18. Assessment Tools 18Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitLearning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition Screens (LAP-DScreens-3 Yr. Old, 4 Yr. Old, 5 Yr. Old)Nehring, Aubrey D.;Nehring, Ema F.; Bruni,John R., Jr.; Randolph,Patricia L.; Kaplan Press;Sanford, Anne R.; Zelman,Janet G.; Glover, M.Elayne; Preminger, Jodi L.Kaplan Early LearningCompany1-800-334-2014 (Mon. –Fri., 8:00 - 6:00 p.m., EST)mailto:info@kaplanco.comDomains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposeFour developmental domains inc. Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Cognitive & Language (P2)Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDMulti (“condensed”version of LAP-D)3-, 4-, and 5-year-oldchildrenIndividual, one-on-oneonlyPeriodic 12-15 minutes toadministerOn-demand responsescreen, some items timedItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitEach item assesses uniquebehavior16 Multi: including block building, from model or byimitation, identifying objects by pointing, matchingcolors, naming objects from pictures,Auditory, Visual andmixedVaries depending on itemMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseMulti: Including recall, performance, identification, etc Multiple types of responses depending on tasks andprocessing involvedChild performance and oral responseScoring: By hand, computer or palm pilot.Results are divided into PASS (P) or REFER (R)Notes:Contact Kaplan directly for training.
  • 19. Assessment Tools 19Assessment Title/Year Published Author Publisher Price per UnitWork Sampling System® (WSS) - 2001Pearson Early LearningGroup1185 Avenue of theAmericas, 17th FloorNew York, NY 10036Tel.: 1.800.321.3106Fax: 1.800.393.3156Domains/Areas Assessed Overall PurposePersonal and social development; language and literacy; mathematical thinking;scientific thinking; social studies; the arts, and; physical development and health(P1) WSS is a curriculum-embedded assessment based on national and state standardswhich help teachers plan instruction.Skill ID Grade/Age Administration Frequency ofAdministrationAmount of timerequired toadministerAssessment Model IDN/A Preschool - 6thgrade N/A Ongoing N/A Observational recordItem Format Items Description Presentation Mode Presentation UnitN/A N/A N/A N/A N/AMental Processing Response Unit Student ResponseChildren assessed in natural setting, in non-threatening-manner.N/A None specificScoring: WSS does not involve point-in-time assessment scores, but rather, it charts thechilds progress over time.Notes: Contact publishers for more information
  • 20. Assessment Tools 20Using Assessment to Inform Teachingor to Identify Special NeedsThe following two options represent two different assessment models and thecorresponding instruments which were reviewed. These assessment models are based onthe NEGP principles and recommendations used to operationalize the purposes ofassessments discussed above in Section IX.-Purpose. The FIU staff’s recommendation tothe ELCMDM was to consider the use of two distinct types of instruments in their futureplanning, as follows: one instrument developed for instructional purposes, to helpteachers plan their classroom activities to meet the children’s needs; another instrumentdeveloped along the lines of a diagnostic purpose, to screen for and identify specialneeds. The instruments are listed according to their corresponding purpose or function:(P1) Support Learning/Instructional Purpose:*Battelle Developmental Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-2)*Brigance® Early Preschool Screen II (Ages 2 - 2 ½) - 2005*Brigance® Preschool Screen II (Ages 3 – 4) – 2005Child Observation Record, Second Edition (COR-2) - 2002Creative Curriculum® Developmental Continuum Assessment (2005)*DECA Program, 1999*Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition, III (LAP-D), 2005*Learning Accomplishment Profile-Revised (LAP-3), 2004Work Sampling System® (WSS) - 2001(P2) Screening Purpose:Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Second Edition (ASQ-II) - 1999Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) - 2002*Battelle Developmental Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-2)*Brigance® Early Preschool Screen II (Ages 2 - 2 ½) - 2005*Brigance® Preschool Screen II (Ages 3 – 4) – 2005
  • 21. Assessment Tools 21Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning-Third Edition(DIAL-3),1998*DECA Program, 1999Early Screening Inventory-Preschool (ESI-P), 1997*Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition, III (LAP-D), 2005*Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Edition Screens (LAP-D Screens-3 Yr.Old, 4 Yr. Old, 5 Yr. Old)NOTE: *Instruments with more than one purpose.
  • 22. Assessment Tools 22Spanish Versions of Instruments ReviewedAchenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA®)● Only Child Behavior Checklist (CBC) has a version in SpanishAges and Stages Questionnaires-2ndSecond Edition (ASQ-II)Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE)Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz™● Spanish adaptation/translation of WJ® IIIBattelle Developmental Inventory 2nd Edition (BDI-2)● Battelle Developmental Inventory-Spanish (BDI-2 Spanish)Behavior Assessment System for Children - Second Edition (BASC-2)Bilingual Verval Ability Tests - Normative Update (BVAT-NU)Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E)Bracken Basic Concept Scale– Third Edition: Receptive (BBCS–3:R)Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised (BBCS-R)● Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA)Brigance K & 1 Screen IIChild Observation Record Second Edition (COR-2)Creative Curriculum Developmental Continuum AssessmentDenver Developmental Screening Test-II (DDST-R)Developmental Indicators for the Assessment of Learning Third Edition (DIAL-3)Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA)Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (E-LAP)Early Screening Inventory Kindergarten (ESI-K)Early Screening Inventory Preschool (ESI-P)Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic Third Edition (LAP-D)Learning Accomplishment Profile Screens (3 yr-old, 4 yr-old, 5 yr-old)Learning Accomplishment Profile Third Edition (LAP 3) - formerly LAP-RWoodcock Language Proficiency Battery-RevisedWoodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-RevisedWork Sampling System 4th Edition (WSS-4)● Some WSS-4 materials have been translated into Spanish
  • 23. Assessment Tools 23Summary of Assessment ToolsNOTE: Factors such as (a childs) anxiety, lack of motivation, fatigue, and/or examiner inexperienceor failure to establish rapport may invalidate a childs test scores. Individual users mayhave different experiences.The information contained herein was based on resources available from the publishers ofthe assessments and/or drawn from the examiners manuals or other sources. For the sake ofbrevity, all the individuals responsible for developing (e.g., authors) and reviewing theseinstruments were not individually quoted herein. The readers are advised to consult therespective publisher directly.AIP and FIU, jointly and individually, make no claims as to the rights of ownership of thesethese instruments and AIP and FIU, jointly and individually, shall not be liable for any errorsand/or omissions. The information provided in the following pages is subject to changes,errors, omissions, and/or modifications - without prior notification.
  • 24. Assessment Tools 24NOTE: The following Information pertains to the Pre-School module of the comprehensive AchenbachSystem of Empirically Based Assessment which includes an integrated set of rating forms for ages 1.5 - 59+THERE IS A SPANISH VERSION OF THE CHILD BEHAVIOR CHECKLISTPublisher ASEBADate 2000Domains/Areas Assessed ● The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1.5-5) and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), revised in 2000, are a set of ratingforms and profiles for the preschool-aged child. They replace theprevious editions of CBCL/2-3 and C-TRF/2-5.● CHILD BEHAVIOR CHECKLIST: parent report consisting of a 99-item child behavioral checklist (CBC) and a language developmentsurvey (LDS) that asks parents to provide the childs best multi-word phrases and words the child uses from a list of 310 words;the LSD indicates whether a childs vocabulary and wordcombinations are delayed relative to norms.● CAREGIVER-TEACHER REPORT FORM: (CTR) a 99-item checklistsimilar to the CBC except 17 family-specific items have beenreplaced with group situation items.● DSM-Oriented Scales: the 99 items in the CBC were organizedinto seven syndromes and two broader groupings of syndromes,while the 99 items in the CTR were organized into six of the CBCsyndromes with two of the broader groupings:□ Internalizing: Emotionally reactive, Anxious/depressive, Somaticcomplaints, Withdrawn□ Externalizing: Attention problems, Aggressive behavior□ Ungrouped (CBC only): Sleep problem□ In the 2000 revision, the syndromes scored between forms arebased on results of factor analyses□ DSM scales were constructed for the following categories:Affective Problems, Anxiety Problems, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems, Oppositional Defiant Problems,Pervasive Developmental ProblemsUses or purpose of instrument ● Information collected from parents and caregivers/teachersis used to assess the behavioral, emotional, and socialfunctioning (including language development) of young
  • 25. Assessment Tools 25children between the ages of 1.5 and 5 years.● To get a better understanding of how the child functions indifferent conditions, it is recommended that information becollected from more than one adult.● The results can be used to structure interviews with parents,identify areas for intervention, and evaluate interventionoutcomes; used in many setting including mental health clinicsAge Range 1.5 to 5 yearsAdministration Time 10 to 15 minutes to complete the forms (minimum 5th gradereading level)Examiner Parent/teacher self-reportScores ● The manual provides instructions for converting raw scores intoT-scores; can be hand or computer scored with the AssessmentData Manager (ADM) software● T-scores compare a child’s performance against other children& the scoring forms classify scores as normal (under 93%),borderline (93 to 97%), or clinical (over 97%); the authorsrecommend that the results be interpreted by someone with somegraduate training.● Respondents complete the CBC and CTR by circling one of threeresponses and the LDS by circling the words the child usesspontaneously.● The behavioral raw scores are derived by summing the responseitem values (0, 1, or 2) for the syndrome scale, responsesyndrome groupings, and total score.● The raw score for the language development survey is the totalnumber of circled words.Language(s) CBC is in English, Spanish and French; other forms in EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● CBCL/1.5-5 & C-TRF: re-normed as of 1999□ LDS: Available norms for ages 18 to 35 months can indicatewhether a childs expressive language is delayed relative to hischronological agePeriodic vs. Ongoing Periodic; at the discretion of the respective programValidity ● (1) Concurrent validity: The CBC correctly classified 84% of asample of children (some of whom were diagnosed as havingemotional/behavioral problems), and the CTR correctly classified74% of the children.● (2) Predictive validity: An 11-year longitudinal study found thatchildren identified by the LDS to have language development
  • 26. Assessment Tools 26problems were more likely to have weak verbal skills at age 13.Reliability ● (1) Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s alpha): the CBCscales - ranged from .66 to .92 for the syndromes & .63 to .86 forthe DSM-oriented scales: between .89 and .92 for the two broadergroupings (internalizing & externalizing syndromes) & .95 for thetotal score; the CTR syndromes - ranged from .52 to .96 & for thethe DSM-oriented scales from .68 to .93; and the internalizingand externalizing groupings - .89 and .96, respectively, and forthe total score, .97.● (2) Test-retest reliability (w/an 8-day interval between tests): thecorrelations were .85 and .76 for the CBC and CTR, respectively;studies on the LDS reported correlations greater or equal to .90.Uses Manipulative Materials N/AAdaptations for Special Needs None indicatedOTHER: New Instrument Test Observation Form for Ages 2-18 (TOF)● Empirically based & DSM-oriented assessment of behavioral &emotional problems during testing - documenting examinersobservations without written reports● 125-items; separate norms for each gender; co-normed withStanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth EditionNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 27. Assessment Tools 27THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Brookes Publishing CompanyDate 1999Domains/Areas Assessed ● Areas screened: Communication, gross motor, fine motor,problem solving, and personal-social● There are 19 questionnaires (corresponding to 19 designatedage intervals); each includes 30 developmental items to becompleted by parents at designated age-intervals, assessingchildren in their natural environments with the goal ofensuring valid results.● The ASQ system is flexible and can fit the needs of diversemonitoring & screening programs: the entire Master set(all the age intervals) of questionnaires can be used or onlysome age intervals: at 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22,24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 42, 48, 54, and/or 60 months of age;using the Master set, screening programs may choose ASQage intervals that fit their populations, program goals, & needsUses or purpose of instrument ● Main Uses: 1) Comprehensive, first-level screening of largegroups of infants and young children; 2) to monitordevelopment of children who are at-risk for delays● The forms are photocopiable which keeps costs low forpreschools and, ultimately, parents● Eight new questionnaires were added to this edition (since1980) as a result of user feedback, extending the age-rangeof the system to create a more authentic means of measuringthe rapidly developing skills of young children.● Using parent-completed tools fulfills the spirit of theIndividuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)Amendments of 1997, which calls for parents to be partners intheir childs assessment and intervention activities.Age Range 4 to 60 months of age (5 years old)Administration Time Each questionnaire takes 10–15 minutes to completeand approximately 3 minutes to scoreExaminer(s) Professionals, paraprofessionals and non-professionals;(in practice, the parents/caregivers complete thethe questionnaires and the professionals score them; it can also
  • 28. Assessment Tools 28be adapted to a variety of settings like health-clinics)Scores ● Professionals convert parents responses of yes, sometimes,and not yet to 10, 5, and 0, respectively — in just 2-3minutes — to color-coded scoring sheets, enabling them toquickly determine a childs progress in each developmentalarea.● A low total score is indicative of problems while a high scoreindicates the child is considered to be competent by theparent completing the questionnaire● The Users Guide then offers clear guidelines for determiningwhether children are at high or low risk in the variousdomains.Language(s) English, Spanish, French and Korean; translations are indevelopment in other languages including Mandarin andArabicType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced questionnaires (by age intervals)Periodic vs. Ongoing Ongoing (when used for monitoring purposes, which is often)Validity ● Concurrent validity was studied by comparing theclassifications of the childs performance based on parentquestionnaire with that on professionally administeredstandardized tests; the instruments were: The RevisedGessell & Armatruda Developmental and NeurologicalExamination (1980); the Bayley Scales of Infant Development(1969):; the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale (1985); theMcCarthy Scales of Childrens Abilities (1972); and theBattelle Developmental Inventory - BDI - (1984).□ A child was considered "identified" when his score fellbelow the cut-off point set at 2 standard deviations belowthe mean.● Specificity (ability to correctly identify typically developingchildren) ranged from 81% to 92% with overall agreement of86%; Sensitivity (ability to detect delayed development)was lower, averaging 72%; according to publishers, in otherstudies it was as high as 96%.Reliability ● Test-retest reliability studies compared the results ofquestionnaires completed by parents in a two-week timeperiod; the percentage of agreement based on thequestionnaires was .94%; interobserver reliability comparedquestionnaires completed by parents with those completedby examiners; percentage of agreement was also .94% - inother words, 9 out of 10 times, there was agreement.● Test-retest and interobserver reliability indicate that parentssperception of their children using the questionnaire were
  • 29. Assessment Tools 29consistent over time; examinerss agreement with parentalevaluations of children were consistently high● Internal consistency analyses indicated a strong relationshipacross items and within areas on the questionnaires.Uses Manipulative Materials Mostly those in natural environmentAdaptations for Special Needs N/A; a however, subsample of children with disabilities was usedto evaluate concurrent validity of questionnairesNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 30. Assessment Tools 30THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Brookes Publishing CompanyDate 2002Domains/Areas Assessed ● General areas screened: Personal-social (self-regulation,compliance, communication, adaptive functioning,autonomy, affect, and interaction with people)● There are 8 questionnaires (corresponding to 8 designatedage intervals); each includes 22 - 36 developmental items● The ASQ system is flexible and can fit the social-emotional needsof diverse monitoring & screening programs:the entire Master set of questionnaires can be used or onlysome of the age intervals, such as at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48,and/or or 60 months of age; using the Master set, screeningprograms may choose ASQ-SE age intervals that fit theirpopulations, program goals, and needsUses or purpose of instrument ● The ASQ: SE is a series of 8 questionnaires designed tobe completed by parents to address the emotional &social competence of young children.● Created in response to feedback from Ages & StagesQuestionnaires® - giving users an easy-to-use tool with afocus on children’s social-emotional behavior and all theadvantages of ASQ — the opportunity for input (as thequestionnaires are parent-completed) and the cost-effectivenessof the photocopiable forms; the instruments are researchvalidated by professionals and also culturally sensitive.Age Range 6–60 monthsAdministration Time ● Each questionnaire takes 10–15 minutes to complete andapproximately 3 minutes to scoreExaminer(s) Professionals, paraprofessionals and non-professionals;(in practice the parents/caregivers complete thethe questionnaires and the professionals score them, & it canbe adapted to a variety of settings like health-clinics)Scores ● Professionals converted parents responses of most of thetime, sometimes, and rarely or never to 10, 5, and 0, &
  • 31. Assessment Tools 31the total score, respectively — in just 2-3 minutes — to color-coded scoring sheets, enabling them to quickly determinea childs progress in each developmental area and total.● Scoring pattern is opposite that of the ASQ - in the ASQ:SEa high total score is indicative of problems, while a lowtotal score indicates the child is considered to be competentby the parent completing the questionnaire● The Users Guide then offers clear guidelines for determiningwhether children are at high or low risk in the variousdomains.Language(s) Questionnaires in English and SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced questionnaires (by age intervals)Periodic vs. Ongoing Ongoing (when used for monitoring purposes - which is often)Validity ● Validity was studied by comparing the classification ofquestionnaires completed by parents with the classificationof standardized assessments by trained examiners.Comparisons were made with the following instruments:□ the Child Behavior Checklist (1991, 1992); the VinelandSocial-Emotional Early Childhood Scale (1998)● Concurrent validity between the ASQ:SE & concurrentmeasures ranged from 81% to 95% with overall agreementof 93%;● Sensitivity (ability to detect delayed development) rangedfrom 71% to 85% with 78% overall sensitivity.● Specificity (ability to screen correctly those children withoutdelayed development) ranged from 90% to 98% with 95%overall specificity - supporting the usefulness of the ASQ:SEReliability ● Investigated with over 3,000 children across the age intervalsand their families. Test-retest reliability was 94%Uses Manipulative Materials Mostly those in natural environmentAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 32. Assessment Tools 32Publisher The Riverside Publishing CompanyDate 2001Domains/Areas Assessed The paper-pencil edition of BEAR is a suite of four criterion-referenced assessments of beginning reading and language artsskills, as follows:BEAR assesses progress toward developing four essentialreading skills: Reading Basics, Language Arts, Comprehension,And Reading Fluency. There is a computer edition of BEARwhich offers computer-assisted administration of the 4 subtestsUses or purpose of instrument To assess young students’ acquisition of the essentialcomponents of reading—phonemic awareness, phonics,vocabulary, comprehension, and oral reading fluency.Age Range Grades: K through 3rdAdministration Time Un-timed, estimated administration: Initial-Skills Analysis 45-60minutes total; Specific-Skills Analysis 30-40 minutes per contentarea; Oral Reading Fluency Assessment 15-30 minutes perpassage or list; and Summative Assessment 30-40 minutes percontent area.Examiner Professional or paraprofessionalScores ● Initial-Skills Analysis, Specific-Skill Analysis, and SummativeAssessment via computer. program● BEAR paper and pencil assessments help monitor studentprogress through-out the school-yearLanguage(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Criterion-referenced assessmentsPeriodic vs. Ongoing OngoingValidity & Reliability None describedUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 33. Assessment Tools 33THIS INSTRUMENT IS IN SPANISHThe completely and newly revised Bateria III Woodcock-Muñoz™ is a comprehensive set of teststhat includes the Pruebas de habilidades cognitivas and Pruebas de aprovechamiento which arecarefully adapted parallel Spanish versions of the Woodcock-Johnson® III (WJ® III) - cognitiveand achievement tests - and are also updated revisions of the Bateria-R.Publisher The Riverside Publishing CompanyDate 2005Domains/Areas Assessed ● The Cognitive battery offers 6 major scales that yield aGeneral Intellectual Ability (GIA) Score:□ Brief Scale□ Standard Scale□ Extended Scale□ Early Development Scale□ Bilingual scale (w/ Diagnostic Supplement)□ Low verbal scale (w/ Diagnostic Supplement)NOTE:□ A language-reduced General Intellectual Ability (GIA)score measures the intellectual ability of bilingual ormultilingual individuals□ A Broad Cognitive-low Verbal score (BVC) identifiesstrengths in individuals with limited English skills● The Achievement battery includes:□ Five tests of reading□ Four tests of oral language□ Four tests of mathematics□ Four tests of written language□ Five tests of academic language● A Comparative Language Index (CLI) determineslanguage dominanceUses or purpose of instrument ● Provides a measurement of general intellectual ability, specificcognitive abilities, oral language, and academic achievement● Helps identify and diagnose leaning difficulties in Spanish-dominant individuals● May be used with WJ® III to obtain a comparative languageindex to determine language dominance.● Assesses specific cognitive abilities based on CHC theory● Offers several options for brief as well as comprehensiveAssessmentAge Range 2.0 to 90.0+ years
  • 34. Assessment Tools 34Administration Time Varies, approximately 5-10 minutes per testExaminer Professionals (commonly used by bilingual school psychologistsin school settings )● Training required● Practice sessions are recommended prior to "real"AdministrationScores ● Scores obtained using Batería III: AE; GE; PR; SS; RPI;Instructional Ranges; Developmental Zones● Optional scores offered for the Batería III: NCE; Z; Stanines;CALP● Provides General Intellectual Ability (GIA) measurement,including a language-reduced Broad Cognitive Ability scoreas well as an early development GIA score● Provides interpretive information from test and cluster scoresthat helps measure performance levels, determine educationalprogress, and identify individual strengths and weaknesses.● Includes Compuscore® and Profiles Program - a computerscoring software which saves valuable professional time &significantly increases scoring accuracy□ Provides a brief summary report in both English and SpanishLanguage(s) SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - The norms are from the WJ III® - year 2000,which allows comparisons between an individual performanceon the Batería III and the WJ III; includes co-normed cognitiveand achievement batteries.Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity Information not available at this timeReliability Information not available at this timeUses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 35. Assessment Tools 35THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher The Riverside Publishing CompanyDate 2004Domains/Areas Assessed ● Five (5) Domains:● Personal-Social, Adaptive, Motor, Communication &CognitiveTwenty-two (22) Subtests including, but not limited to the● Expression of feelings, peer interaction, attention, personalresponsibility, body coordination, fine motor, perceptualmotor communication (receptive/expressive), perceptualdiscrimination, memory, conceptual development, reasoning& academic skills.Uses or purpose of instrument ● To assess and identify pre-k children w/disabilities● To evaluate groups of pre-k children w/disabilities● To assess the typically developing pre-k child● To assess or screen for school readiness● To use for program evaluation & accountability purposes● The screening test consists of 96 of the 341 total items &identifies if there is a need for further examination● The full BDI-2 provides useful information for eligibility orplacement decisions● Useful for Head Start mandates● Matches all areas as required by IDEAAge Range Birth to 7 years/11 monthsAdministration Time ● Complete BDI-2: 1 - 2 hours;● Screening Test: 10 - 30 minutesExaminer(s) ● Can be administered by a team of professionals or by anexperienced individual service providerScores ● Hand scored or scored w/optional scoring software:the BDI-2 ScoringPro software. Examiners can also use theBDI-2S Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) application - Palm®Solution - which includes both English and Spanish versions● Data is collected on electronic record forms.● Examiners then hotsynch data to their local desktop & canuse the scoring software
  • 36. Assessment Tools 36● Flexible web-based scoring options for use by team ofprofessionals or single examiner● Wide range of computerized reports to choose● Scoring procedure for BDI-2 Screening are similar to thoseof the full BDI-2, but cut-off scores are provided to helpidentify children who need additional follow-upLanguage(s) ● English & Spanish● The BDI-2 in Spanish can be administered entirely in Spanishin English, or both, in Spanish and English. The child is freeto respond in either language. Flexibility paramount.Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Norm-referenced● Normative data gathered nationally from over 2500 childrenbetween the ages of birth to 7 years 11 months - for the2nd edition of instrument● Sample closely matched the 2000 U.S. Census● (The earlier version of the BDI-2 (BDI, 1985) wasstandardized nationally on approx. 800+/- subjects)Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity Correlations are in the .79 to .94 range when compared tosimilar instruments - according to publishers &/or therelated literature on the topicReliability Test-Retest Reliability for the BDI Total was in the .90 to .99range according to publishers &/or related literatureUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs YesSPANISH VERSION Battelle Developmental Inventory-Spanish (BDI-2 Spanish)● Translation/adaptation of the BDI-2 to be conducted inSpanish for use with non-English proficient children andcaregivers; cut-off scores based on the BDI-2 standardization● The BDI-2 Spanish may be either hand-scored or computerscored using the BDI-2 ScoringPro™ software.NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 37. Assessment Tools 37THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A SPANISH VERSIONPublisher AGS PublishingDate 2005Domains/Areas Assessed Overview: A comprehensive set of rating scales and formsincluding the Teacher Rating Scales (TRS), Parent RatingScales (PRS), Self-Report of Personality (SRP), StudentObservation System (SOS), and Structured DevelopmentalHistory (SDH).● By analyzing the child’s behavior from three perspectives—Self, Teacher, and Parent—one gets a more complete andbalanced picture, as follows:□ Self Perspective -○ Self-Report of Personality (SRP): provides insightinto a child’s or adult’s thoughts and feelings.○ Each form—child (ages 8 to 11), adolescent (ages 12to 21), college (ages 18 to 25)—includes validity scalesfor helping judge the quality of completed forms.▪ A Spanish version is available for the child andadolescent forms.○ The BASC-2 version includes an SRP-Interview (SRP-I)form for children 6-7 in which children provide simpleyes-or-no responses to questions asked by examiner;responses are then recorded on a checklist - takes20 minutes to complete.□ Teacher Perspectives -○ Teacher Rating Scales (TRS): used to measure adaptiveand problem behaviors in the preschool or school setting.○ The forms describe specific behaviors that are rated ona four-point scale of frequency, ranging from “Never” to“Almost Always”; the TRS contains 100-139 items.○ Student Observation System (SOS): used to code andrecord direct observations of a child’s behavior utilizingmomentary time sampling—during 3-second intervalsspaced 30 seconds apart for 15 minutes.▪ SOS assesses both adaptive and maladaptivebehaviors, from positive peer interaction to repetitivemotor movements○ The SOS can also be used for the direct observationportion of a FBA (Functional Behavioral Assessment).
  • 38. Assessment Tools 38○ You can use the SOS on its own, or with other BASC-2components.□ Parent Perspectives -○ Parent Rating Scales (PRS): used to measure bothadaptive and problem behaviors in the community andhome setting.○ The PRS contains 134-160 items and uses a four-choice response format.○ Structured Developmental History (SDH): a 12-pagehistory and background survey, helps when gatheringcrucial information for the diagnostic and treatmentprocess. The SDH provides a thorough review of social,psychological, developmental, educational, and medicalInformation about a child.○ You can use the SDH on its own, or with other BASC-2Components.□ Activities of Daily Living, Adaptability, Aggression, Anxiety,Attention Problems, Atypicability, Conduct Problems,Depression, Functional Communication, Hyperactivity,Leadership, Learning Problems, Social Skills, Somatization,Study Skills, Withdrawal● This revision of the BASC includes new scales: FunctionalCommunication (TRS/PRS), Activities of Daily Living(PRS), Attention Problems (SRP), and Hyperactivity(SRP)Uses or purpose of instrument ● The BASC-2 is a multi-method, multi-dimensional systemto evaluate the behavior and self-perceptions of childrenyoung adults - it is multi-dimensional in that it has fivecomponents, which may be used individually, or in anycombination, and that it measures numerous aspects ofand personality, including positive (adaptive) as well as(clinical) dimensions● BASC-2 is a well-established system for measuring behaviorand emotions - together the comprehensive set of ratingscales and forms will help you help understand the behaviorsand emotions of children and adolescents.● These scales measure areas important for both IDEA andDSM-IV classifications. In addition, the instrument isrespected for its developmental sensitivity and provides themost extensive view of adaptive and maladaptive behavior.● The uses of the basic BASC-2 tools are the following:□ To assess behavior patterns - Teacher Rating Scales(TRS); Parent Rating Scales (PRS); Student ObservationSystem (SOS)□ To assess emotions and feelings - Self-Report ofPersonality (SRP)□ To gather background information - Structured
  • 39. Assessment Tools 39Developmental History (SDH)● A great benefit of the BASC-2 if that it differentiatesbetween hyperactivity and attention problems.Age Range & Administration Time 2-0 through 21-11 (TRS and PRS)● TRS: Teachers or other qualified observers can completeforms in about 10–20 minutes for each of the three age levels —preschool (ages 2 to 5), child (ages 6 to 11), and adolescent(ages 12 to 21)● PRS: Parents or caregivers can complete forms in about 10-20minutes for each of the three age levels —preschool (ages 2 to 5), child (ages 6 to 11), andadolescent (ages 12 to 21)● 8-0 through college age (SRP)□ Each form takes about 30 minutes to complete for each ofthe three age levels -child (ages 8 to 11), adolescent (ages 12 to 21), and college(ages 18 to 25)□ SRP-I (for ages 6 to 7) takes about 20 minutes to complete.Examiner ● Professionals - test users/examiners should have a Ph.D. inPsychology or be certified in School Psychology (applicablefor administration of TRS, PRS, and SRP)● Paraprofessionals with training and supervision - (applicablefor administration of SOS and SDH)Scores ● T scores and percentiles, for a general population and clinicalpopulations● Parent Feedback Report:○ Survey results are presented to parents by means of theParent Feedback Report - the reports work with all age levelsof the TRS, PRS, and SRP○ Parents receive test results, interpretative information,definitions of behavior problems, an explanation of treatmentapproaches, and next steps○ Includes a resource list.Language(s) English and Spanish● BASC-2 test items on CD: For parents and students whdifficulty reading, test items are available on audio CD -and Spanish versions are offered for both the Parent RaScales and the Self-Report of PersonalityType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - Normed based on current U.S. Censuspopulation characteristicsPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● Concurrent:Groups of children with preexisting clinical diagnoses tend tohave distinct BASC-2 profiles.
  • 40. Assessment Tools 40● Predictive: none● Content:Item content came from teachers, parents, children, andpsychologists, as well as from reference sources such as theDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, FourthEdition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American PsychiatricAssociation, 2000) and other instruments.● Instruments used in correlation studies:TRS - include Achenbach System of Empirically BasedAssessment (ASEBA), Caregiver-Teacher Report Form for Ages1.5-5 (ASEBA) and the Conners Teacher Rating Scale-Revised(CTRS-R; Conners, 1997).PRS - include ASEBA Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1.5-5(ASEBA; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000) and the ConnersParent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R; Conners, 1997)Reliability ● Internal consistency:TRS - Preschool (age 2 -3) within the range of .87-.96 forComposites; and .75-.92 for the Scales. Preschool (age 4 -5)within the range of .91-.96 for Composites; and .81-.93 for theScales.PRS - Preschool (age 2 -3) within the range of .85-.93 forComposites; and .77-.88 for the Scales. Preschool (age 4 -5)within the range of .87-.93 for Composites; and (.70-.87) for theScales.● Test-retest:TRS - Preschool (age 2 -5) within the range of .84-.87 forComposites; and .72-.87 for the Scales.PRS - Preschool (age 2 -5) within the range of .81-.86 forComposites; and .72-.85 for the Scales.Uses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs N/ASoftware Programs ○ BASC-2 ASSIST™ PLUS: computer scoring and interpretationsoftware which generates profiles, calculates validity indexes,identifies strengths and weaknesses, and computes multi-ratercomparisons.● Provides reports on all the optional content scales, targetbehaviors for intervention, and relationships to DSM-IV-TRdiagnostic criteria▪ Because the content scales are optional, they are onlyavailable with the BASC-2 ASSIST Plus▪ The optional seven TRS and PRS scales include angercontrol, bullying, developmental social disorders,emotional self-control, executive functioning, negativeemotionality, and resiliency▪ Form levels SRP-A and SRP-COL offer these four optionalscales: anger control, ego strength, mania, and testanxiety
  • 41. Assessment Tools 41● Available for Windows and Macintosh.○ BASC Portable Observation Program: lets users design theirown template for observations in the classroom using their owndesktop computer; they can then download the form onto theirPersonal Digital Assistant to record personal observations. Or, theycan use their laptop computer to directly record their observations.Additional features of software program include:● Streamline report-writing□ Electronic reports are archived as Portable Document Format(PDF) files□ Allows quickly retrieval of details needed to create in-depth,precise reports for IEP teams● Track information over time● Includes the detailed Student Observation System (SOS)□ Uses of the SOS are to:▪ Collect diagnostic information▪ Create focused treatment plans▪ Monitor the effects of treatmentNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 42. Assessment Tools 42THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher The Riverside Publishing CompanyDate 2006 - expected dateDomains/Areas Assessed The Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests are comprised of threesubtests from the Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Test ofCognitive Ability; Picture Vocabulary; Oral Vocabulary, andVerbal Analogies.● These three subtests have been translated into eighteenlanguages, plus English.Uses or purpose of instrument ● Provides a measure of overall verbal ability for bilingualindividuals, or the unique combination of cognitive/academiclanguage abilities possessed by bilingual individuals inEnglish and another language.□ The need for this test is based in the reality that bilingualpersons know some things in one language, some things inthe other language, and some things in both languages -traditional procedures only allow the persons ability to betested in the dominant language.● The BVAT-NU can be used for a variety of purposes in bilingualeducation and clinical assessment; it can be used for entry andexit criteria for bilingual programs. It can be used to assess theacademic potential of bilingual students through a comparison ofhis or her current level of English language proficiency to his orher bilingual verbal ability.● The BVAT-NU can also be used in place of Tests 1 an 31 theWJ® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities to provide a general intellectualability-bilingual (GIA-Bil) score.Age Range 5.0 to AdultAdministration Time Varies. When using the BVAT-NU, the examiner administersthe three subtests in English first. Any item that was missed isthen administered in the native language.□ an estimate is approximately 30 minutesExaminer ● It may be administered either by one examiner who is fluent inthe individuals two languages, or, alternatively, by a primary andancillary examiner team when a bilingual examiner is notavailable.
  • 43. Assessment Tools 43Scores ● Scores that can be generated by using the BVAT include:SS, PR, AE, GE, RPI, Instructional Ranges, CALP levels● The BVAT-NU provides an overall score (BVA) which can beused to determine an individuals overall level of verbal ability.● For comparative purposes, the BVAT-NU also provides ameasure of English language proficiency.● The BVAT yields an aptitude measure that can be used inconjunction with the WJ-R Tests of Achievement.● A Scoring and Reporting Program is included with each testkit. This software program automates scoring procedures andprovides a narrative report of the individuals bilingual verbalability, English language proficiency, and language use andexposure. When used with the WJ-R Tests of Achievement,the achievement test results are scored and aptitude/achievement discrepancies are calculated and interpreted.The program determines and explains whether any identifieddiscrepancy is related to limitations of English languageproficiency.Language(s) The languages available in BVAT -NU are:Arabic; Chinese Simplified; Chinese Traditional; French;German; Haitian-Creole; Hindi; Hmong; Italian;Japanese; Korean; Navajo; Polish; Portuguese; Russian;Spanish; Turkish; Vietnamese - plus EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity The construct validity of the BVA score was validated bycomparing estimates of bilingual verbal ability obtained by twoparallel, but independent, testing procedures. No further detailswere available, per results of search.Reliability According to the publishers, alternative form proceduresreliabilities are provided for the BVA score. No further detailswere available, per results of search.Uses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 44. Assessment Tools 44THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH*NOTE: *Spanish version of instrument is used with an English-language manualPublisher The Psychological CorporationDate Available Fall 2006Domains/Areas Assessed The BBCS:E is a new test meant to complement the ReceptiveBracken instrument: The Bracken Basic Concept Scale– ThirdEdition: Receptive (BBCS–3:R) detailed separately.The BBCS:E assesses important educational concepts such as:● color, letter/sounds, numbers/counting, size, shapes,direction/position, self-/ social-awareness, texture/material, qualitytime/sequenceUses or purpose of instrument ● The BBCS:E is a developmentally sensitive measure of children’sbasic concept knowledge - includes the ability to evaluate a child’sunderstanding of basic concepts expressively.● The purpose of the BBCS:E is to evaluate the acquisition of basicconcepts of a child expressively, and to determine cognitive andlanguage development for childhood academic achievement.● Assists in developing appropriate IEP goals that relate to theeducational curriculum● Follows the early childhood education curriculum outlined throughHead Start and No Child left Behind ActAge Range 3:0 through 6:11 yearsAdministration Time Individual; 30 minutesExaminer Professional and paraprofessionalScores ● Standard scores and concept age equivalents● Scoring Assistant software which quickly & accurately score testresults, maintain demographic information, store raw scores, andcreate comprehensive graphical and narrative reports for both theBBCS–3:R and BBCS:E.Language(s) English and SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progress
  • 45. Assessment Tools 45Validity None described yet; awaiting publication of manualReliability None described yet; awaiting publication of manualUses Manipulative Materials None describedAdaptations for Special Needs N/A but provides clinical studies on specific populations includingDevelopmental Delayed and Mental RetardationNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 46. Assessment Tools 46THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH*NOTE: *Spanish version of instrument is used with an English-language manualPublisher The Psychological CorporationDate Available Fall 2006Domains/Areas Assessed The BBCS-3:R is a revision of a test (including updated norms andnew items) meant to complement the Expressive Bracken instrument:The Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E) detailedseparately.The BBCS-3:R assesses important educational concepts such as:● color, letter/sounds, numbers/counting, size, shapes,direction/position, self-/ social-awareness, texture/material, quality,time/sequenceUses or purpose of instrument ● The BBCS-3:R is a developmentally sensitive measure of children’sbasic concept knowledge - includes the ability to evaluate a child’s(receptive) understanding of basic concepts.● The purpose of the BBCS-3:R is to evaluate the acquisition ofbasic concepts of a child, and to determine cognitive and (receptive)language development for childhood academic achievement.● Assists in developing appropriate IEP goals that relate to theeducational curriculum● Follows the early childhood education curriculum outlined throughHead Start and No Child left Behind ActAge Range 3:0 through 6:11 yearsAdministration Time Individual; 30 to 45 minutesExaminer Professional and paraprofessionalScores ● Standard scores and concept age equivalents● Scoring Assistant software which quickly and accurately score testresults, maintain demographic information, store raw scores, andcreate comprehensive graphical and narrative reports for both theBBCS–3:R and BBCS:E.Language(s) English and SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progress
  • 47. Assessment Tools 47Validity None described yet; awaiting publication of manualReliability None described yet; awaiting publication of manualUses Manipulative Materials None describedAdaptations for Special Needs N/A but provides clinical studies on specific populations includingDevelopmental Delayed and Mental RetardationNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 48. Assessment Tools 48THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISH*NOTE: *Spanish version of instrument is used with an English-language manualPublisher The Psychological CorporationDate 1998Domains/Areas Assessed The BBCS-R consists of 308 items in 11 subtests assessingrelevant educational concepts for this age group, as follows:● Colors -identification of primary colors and basic color terms● Letters - knowledge of upper and lower case letters● Numbers/Counting - number recognition and counting abilities● Sizes - understanding of one-, two- and three-dimensional sizedconcepts such as tall, short and thick● Comparisons - matching or differentiating objects based onsalient characteristics● Shapes - knowledge of basic one-, two-, and three-dimensionalshapes (e.g., line, square, cube), and abstract shape-relatedconcepts (e.g., space)● Direction/Position - understanding concepts such as behind,on, closed, left/right, and center● Self-/Social-Awareness - understanding of emotions such asangry and tired; understanding of terms describing kinship,gender, relative ages, and social appropriateness● Texture/Material - understanding terms of characteristics of anobject such as heavy and sharp; knowledge of composition ofobjects, such as wood and glass● Quantity - understanding of concepts involving relativequantities, such as a lot, full and triple● Time/Sequence - understanding of concepts related to timing,duration and ordering of events, such as after and slow● A School Readiness Composite (SRC) is constructed from thefirst six subtests: Colors, Letters, Numbers/Counting, Sizes,Comparisons, and Shapes. A full battery score is created fromthe 11 subtests.Uses or purpose of instrument ● Designed to measure basic concept acquisition and receptivelanguage skills in young children - and to determine how familiarchildren are with concepts that parents and teachers have taughtthem to prepare them for a formal education.● The BBCS-R is a developmentally sensitive measure enabling you toassess important conceptual and receptive language abilities inchildren rather than only their knowledge of common vocabulary words
  • 49. Assessment Tools 49● This measure is achievement-oriented, focusing on constructsthat children learn (or not learn) through instruction.● The BBCS-R is designed to minimize verbal responses:responses are either pointing or short verbal responses● Because the BBCS-R minimizes verbal responses it can beused as an ice-breaker exercise/warm-up before otherassessments. It is useful for children who are shy or those thathave any one of a variety of conditions that might limit theirparticipation in other assessments (e.g., autism, phobias)● The BBCS-R remediates deficiencies in concept acquisition withthe Bracken Concept Development Program (BCDP)□ comprehensive instructional program featuring colorful materials forworking with children experiencing gaps in concept development□ primarily a multi-sensory approach which encourages hands-onactivities and experiencesAge Range 2.6 to 8 yearsAdministration Time The BBCS-R is un-timed so it varies (time for each subtest or fullbattery is not provided); however, the SRC composite takesapproximately 30 minutes to administer (first 6 subtests)□ Individual administration onlyExaminer ProfessionalScores ● Subtest and Composite, Percentile Ranks, Standard Scores,and Concept Age Equivalents● The BBCS-R uses basals and ceilings.□ basal is established when a child passes three consecutiveitems□ ceiling is established within each subtest when a childanswers three items incorrectly□ for each of the first 6 subtests, assessment always startswith the first item of the respective scale□ stating point for the remaining subtests is determined by thechilds SRC scoreLanguage(s) English and Spanish versions availableType (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● English version of the BBCS-R is norm-referenced, criterion-referenced, or curriculum-based assessment, depending onpurpose to be used.The standardization sample was representative of the general U.S.population of children between the ages of 2.6 and 8.0 and wasstratified by age, gender, race/ethnicity, region and parenteducation. Demographic percentages were based on 1995 U.S.census data.● Spanish version of the BBCS-R is used as a criterion-referenced
  • 50. Assessment Tools 50curriculum-based measure only. Spanish-language forms aredesigned for use with the English-language manual.□ Norms were established on a Latino sample of 293 children.Coefficient Alpha was used to assess internal consistency with rranging from .93 to .99. Grade Level: PK - 4Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progressValidity ● Internal validity - intercorrelations among the SRC and subtests 7 to11 for the full sample ranged from .58 to .72. In the full sample,intercorrelations between subtests 7 to 11 and Total test scoresranged from .79 to .87. The intercorrelations between SRC andTotal Test was .85 indicating that the subtests and the SRC werereasonably consistent in their associations with the Total Test scores● Concurrent validity - across studies correlations between theBBCS-R scale scores and other measures ranged from .34 to .89(most being above .70)□ correlations between SRC scale scores and WPPSI-R rangedfrom .76 to .88 (highest correlation being with the WPPSI-R FullScale IQ scores and lowest correlation being with the WPPSI-RPerformance IQ scores)□ correlations between the BBCS-R full battery scores and WPPSI-Rscale scores ranged from .72 to .85 with the lowest being thecorrelation w/Performance IQ scores & the highest w/Full scale IQ scores□ correlations between SRC and DAS scale scores ranged between .69and .79 (highest correlation being with DAS General Conceptual Abilityscores & the lowest correlation being with the DAS Verbal Clusters scores□ correlations between the BBCS-R full battery scores and DAS scalescores ranged from .74 to .88 with the lowest being the DAS VerbalCluster scores and the highest being the DAS General Conceptual Abilityscores● The readers are encouraged to consult the manual for details on thespecific correlations described in numerous validity studies as follows:□ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Boehm Test of BasicConcepts-Revised - .73 between Boehm-R scores and SRC scores; and.89 between Boehm-R scores and BBCS-R full battery scores□ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Boehm Test of BasicPreschool Version - .34 between Boehm-Preschool scores & SRCscores; and .84 between Boehm-Preschool scores and BBCS-R fullbattery scoresIt should be noted that this large difference between correlations (.34& .84) is difficult to interpret given that six scales making up the SRCare also part of the BBCS-R full battery.□ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Peabody PictureVocabulary Test - Third Edition - .69 between PPVT-III scores and SRC;and .79 between PPVT-III scale scores and BBCS-R full battery scores
  • 51. Assessment Tools 51□ BBCS-R scores correlated with scores on the Preschool LanguageScale-3 -between SRC scores and PLS-3 scale scores ranging from .46to .57; and between PLS-3 scale scores and BBCS-R full battery scores,ranging from .74 to .84.● Predictive Validity - SRC scores & scores on subtests 7 through 11were found to be the strongest predictors of young childrens academicgrowth; stronger than childrens chronological age, social skills andperceptual motor skills.● Discriminant validity - In study conducted with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-oldchildren who were diagnosed with a language delay (with a receptivecomponent), as detailed in manual, BBCS-R correctly classified childrenas to the presence or absence of a language disorder 74 % of the times.Reliability ● Split-half reliability - analyses were conducted using the SRC,subtests 7 to 11, and the full battery score. The average split-halfreliability across ages 2 years to 7 years ranged from .91 for theto .98 the Total Test, with reliabilities estimates increasing slightlybetween ages 2 and 5.● Test-retest reliability - SRC was .88 The test-retest reliabilitiesof subtests 7 to 11 were .78 for both Quantity and Time/Sequence,.80 for Texture and Material, and .82 for both Direction/Position,and Self-/Social Awareness. Test-rest reliability for Total Test was .94Uses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs N/A - but provides clinical studies on specific populations includingDevelopmental Delayed and Mental RetardationRelated Instrument Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA)- Non-verbalscreener which helps determine if a child may have anunderlying language disorder that requires further evaluation(published in 2002)● Easy to administer; includes the first six subtests from the Bracken BasicConcept Scale, Revised (BBCS-R): Colors, Letters, Numbers/Counting,Sizes, Comparisons, and Shapes.● Includes information on how to develop local norms based on your schoolor area population to be more reflective of your clients - this will also help inthe process involved in establishing the criteria for identifying childrenat-risk (or not at-risk) for educational failure.● The BSRA is administered in English and Spanish; however, nationalnorms are provided for English only, but Spanish norms can be developedusing your Spanish-speaking population.□ Scores - "(English) Composite Percentile Ranks, Standard Scores byAge, Descriptive Classification (Spanish) Percent Mastery"□ Administration Time: 10 - 15 minutesNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 52. Assessment Tools 52THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Curriculum Associates®, Inc.Date 2005Domains/Areas Assessed ● In common with other Brigance® screens, the PreschoolScreen II samples skills in the broad range of areasincluding:□ fine & gross motor□ general knowledge□ language□ pre-academic/academic□ graphomotor development● Revision includes self-help and social emotional scales● Preschool Screen II assesses:□ personal data & color recognition□ picture vocabulary including identifying use of objects□ visual & gross-motor skills□ identifying body parts□ block tower building, number concepts, & rote counting□ sentence repetition, prepositions, irregular plural nouns,syntax & fluency, and following verbal directions□ visual discrimination□ feeding/eating skills & dressing/undressing skills□ toileting skills□ work/help skills□ play skills & behaviors□ gets along with othersUses or Purpose of Instrument ● To record a sampling of childrens language, motor, social-emotional, and early learning skills● To identify at-risk or gifted students early on● To offer a parental component to childrens education● To provide useful information for planning heterogeneous orhomogeneous grouping● To assist teachers with classroom planning & mandatedscreening compliance, as well as to indicate developmentalproblems - language, learning, or cognitive delays - &to identify children with academic talent or intellectualgiftednessAge Range 2.0 to 2.5 for the Brigance® Early Preschool Screen - II3.0 to 4.0 for the Brigance® Preschool Screen - II
  • 53. Assessment Tools 53Administration Time ● 10 - 15 minutes per child individually or in stations● Screening can be done● Some skills may be assessed in groupsExaminer(s) ● Professionals - Widely used in educational settingsScores ● Age equivalents, standardized scores, growth indicators, at-risk cut-off scores,& percentile scores● Online secure browser-based program manages dataincluding:□ program-wide data analysis based on demographicfactors□ customized reports, tables, & statistical bar graphs fordistrict/program-wide analysis● The Brigrance® online management system generatescustom reports detailing age equivalents, growthindicators, at-risk cut-off scores, & evidence-basedstandardized scoresLanguage(s) English & SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Depending on the information being sought, theBrigance® screens are both criterion-referenced &normed-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● There is abundant support for the content validity of theBrigance screens & for the applicability of the screens ineducational settings.Reliability ● Test-retest reliability in the lower grades - in the .85 range, &the inter-rater reliability (.97), alternative forms reliability,& internal consistency measures - also uniformly high(.80 - .97+/-), according to publishers & relatedliteratureUses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs NoNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 54. Assessment Tools 54THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Curriculum Associates®, Inc.Date 2005Domains/Areas Assessed ● The broad areas screened are the following:□ general knowledge & comprehension□ speech & language□ fine-motor & gross-motor skills□ pre-academic/academic□ social-emotional & self-help scales□ reading skills & manuscript writing● Specific areas sampled include:□ personal data (response & in print)□ color recognition□ visual discrimination, visual motor & gross motor□ rote counting, number readiness, numerals in sequence□ body parts & draws-a-person□ syntax & fluency□ reads upper or lower case letters, recites alphabet□ auditory discrimination & listening vocabulary□ phonemic awareness, decoding & word recognition□ computation□ work/help skills & feeding/eating skills□ toileting skills□ play skills & behaviors□ gets along with others● Supplemental assessments include uppercase lettersdictated, lowercase letters dictated, verbal concepts,substitutes initial consonant soundsUses or purpose of instrument ● To screen key developmental & early academic skillsbefore entering kindergarten & first grade● To assist teachers with classroom planning & mandatedscreening compliance, as well as to indicatedevelopmentalproblems - language, learning, or cognitive delays - &to identify children with academic talent or intellectualgiftedness● At-risk guidelines for use in prevention programs isincluded to identify children in need of prompt referral● K & 1 Screen II correlates to Head Start Child OutcomesFramework; Parent questionnaires add valuable
  • 55. Assessment Tools 55information to the screening process.● Meets IDEA requirements & provides consistent resultsthat support early childhood educators observations &judgments● Used by school districts nation-wideAge Range For children 4.9 through the end of the first gradeAdministration Time 10 - 15 minutes per childExaminer(s) ● Widely used in educational settings & often administeredby paraprofessionals in addition to professionalsScores ● Cut-off, age-equivalents, percentiles, & quotients inmotor, language, and readiness, as well as overallscores, are generated● In addition, there are cut-offs indicating potentialgiftedness and/or any psychological risk● Growth indicator scores plot progress over time.● Sensitivity & Specificity to giftedness & to developmental& academic problems are 70% to 82% across ages.Language(s) English, Spanish, Laotian, Vietnamese, Cambodian, andTagalogType (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Depending on the information being sought, theBrigance® screens are both criterion-referenced & normedPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● There is abundant support for the content validity of theBrigance screens & for the applicability of the screens ineducational settings, according to publishersReliability ● Test-retest reliability in the lower grades was in the .85range, and the inter-rater reliability (.97), alternative formsreliability, & internal consistency measures were alsouniformly high (.80 - .97+/-).Uses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs NoNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 56. Assessment Tools 56THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher High/Scope Educational Research FoundationDate 2002Domains/Areas Assessed ● The broad categories (or domains) assessed of eight itemseach are as follows:□ Initiative, Social Relations□ Creative Representation, Movement & Music□ Language & Literacy□ Mathematics & Science● Assesses thirty-two dimensions of learning within abovecategoriesUses or purpose of instrument ● Designed to measure childrens progress in early childhoodprograms including, but not limited to, those using theHighscope educational approach.● The COR-2 is an observational assessment tool that chartschildrens development & progress over time● Tool which enables teachers to construct a profile on eachchild that is directly connected to major educational goals● Information is gathered by those who know the child best -the caregiver & the parentAge Range 2.6 to 6.0 yearsAdministration Time OngoingExaminer(s) ● Teachers & other caregiversScores ● Scored the same way by different observers● Score of 1 to 5 on 32 behaviors and skills with subscalescores for four broad categories● Assessment log, portfolio, child observation, child interview● Computerized version of COR-2, the Preschool CORCD-Rom Kit is available through High/Scope● COR-Headstart Outcomes Reporter CD-Rom translatesresults into statistics, charts, & graphs that meetsHeadstart Outcomes reporting requirementsLanguage(s) English & Spanish
  • 57. Assessment Tools 57Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Criterion-referenced● Highscope philosophy advocates avoiding comparisonsbetween children - as one would with norm-referencedinstrumentsPeriodic vs. Ongoing OngoingValidity ● The COR-2 is valid, correlating as expected with concurrentmeasures of childrens development & future measures ofschool success● Moderate correlations with the Cognitive Skills AssessmentBattery (CSAB), specially in language & literacy● External validity was supported by expected correlationbetween COR-2 Total & CSBA (.46 - .62) & betweenCOR-2 Total and childrens ages (.31) with no significantassociation with gender● Validity findings formed the rationale for re-grouping initialcategories from six to fourReliability ● According to publishers, reliability findings on tenpairs of teachers and assistant teachers rating the samechildren were as follows:□ .73 Total COR-2□ .69 Initiative, Social Relations□ .70 Creative Representation, Movement & Music□ .79 Language & Literacy□ .73 Mathematics & ScienceUses Manipulative Materials Yes; those in natural environmentAdaptations for Special Needs Yes; if included in natural environmentNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 58. Assessment Tools 58CELF® Preschool, Second Edition (CELF® Preschool-2)Publisher The Psychological CorporationDate 2004Domains/Areas Assessed ● The language assessment specifically designed for preschool agedchildren who are bound for the classroom:● The CELF® Preschool-2 contains three composite scales(Receptive Language, Expressive Language, and Total Language),with the Receptive and Expressive Language scales each beingcomprised of three subtests.□ The Second Edition includes a variety of subtests that providein-depth assessment of a childs language skills.□ It includes a pre-literacy scale and phonological awareness subtest.□ A pragmatics profile helps to describe the childs language use atschool or at home.● Total Language Scale is the total of the standard scores for allbasic 6 subtests (i.e., the sum of the Receptive and ExpressiveLanguage scales). In addition, a Quick-Test can be administeredas a screener to determine the need for further testing.● Receptive Language: This scale contains the Linguistic Concepts,Sentence Structure, and Basic Concepts subtests.□ The Linguistic Concepts subtest assesses understanding ofconcepts such as the use of conjunctions (e.g., and, or), positiveversus negative and location in space or time.□ The Sentence Structure subtest taps understanding of early-acquired sentence formation rules, such as the ability to identifykey attributes of items from an example of those items.□ The Basic Concepts scale involves the child’s ability tounderstand modifiers, such as relative amount or size as well asbasic concepts such as same versus different, and inside andoutside.● Expressive Language: The Expressive Language scale iscomprised of the Recalling Sentences in Context, FormulatingLabels, and Word Structure subtests.□ The Recalling Sentences in Context subtest measures the child’sability to recall and repeat a sentence that is read to him/her in thecontext of a story.□ The Formulating Labels subtest focuses on the child’s ability to
  • 59. Assessment Tools 59give verbal labels to nouns and verbs depicted in illustrations.□ The Word Structure subtest measures the child’s understanding ofmorphological rules, through tapping his/her ability to provide wordforms such as past tense, irregular verbs, and pronoun assignment.● Total Language: The Total Language score is derived bysumming scores for all six subtests included within the Expressiveand Receptive Language scales.● Quick -Test: The Quick-Test may be used as an initial step inassessment and consists of only the Linguistic Concepts andRecalling Sentences in Context subtests. A score of seven or belowon the Quick -Test indicates that the remainder of the battery shouldbe given to address specific language deficits.● CELF® Preschool-2 is an individually administered test thatassesses receptive and expressive language ability and anis used as a tool for identifying, diagnosing and performing follow-upevaluations of language deficits in preschool childrenUses or purpose of instrument ● CELF® Preschool-2 includes a Behavioral Observation Checklistto be used during or after the assessment to record specific childbehaviors that occur in the testing session (makes note of physicalactivity level, attention to task, response latency, fatigue/boredom/frustration, and level of interaction)○ It is unclear whether there is a standardized way to include theBehavioral Observation Checklist in CELF® Preschool-2 scoring.Age Range 3.0 through 6.0Administration Time Un-timed, takes approximately 30 to 45 minutes● The Quick-Test administration times are approximately half that ofthe full test.Examiner Professionals involved in preschool education, including speech-language pathologists, child psychologists, educational diagnosticians,and special educatorsScores ● Total Language Score, Receptive Language Composite, ExpressiveLanguage Composite and additional index scores● Standard Scores, Percentile Ranks, and Age Equivalents● CELF® Preschool-2 Scoring Assistant - software that scores testresults, maintains demographic information, stores raw scores andproduces comprehensive graphical and narrative reports; all reportscomply with IDEA mandates.Language(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - More than 1,500 children participated instandardization, reliability, and validity studies.
  • 60. Assessment Tools 60Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity not available at this timeReliability not available at this timeUses Manipulative Materials not available at this timeAdaptations for Special Needs not available at this timeNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 61. Assessment Tools 61THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Teaching Strategies, Inc.Date 2005Domains/Areas Assessed ● Comprehensive assessment which includes social/emotional,physical, cognitive, & language developmental areasUses or purpose of instrument ● To enhance teachers effectiveness in understanding how contentis linked to teaching & learning● To explain how & what children are learning to significant figures(parents, administrators, public)● 4th revision introduces goals & objectives in the form of adevelopmental continuumAge Range 3.0 to 5.0Administration Time OngoingExaminer(s) Paraprofessionals as well as professionalsScores ● Summary comments; checklist, assessment log, observationrecord, individual child profile, class summary● Multiple part child progress and planning reports (to share with theparents of each child three times per year)● Software reporting tool The Creative Curriculum Progress andOutcomes Reporting Tool (CC-PORT) for web-based report-writingLanguage(s) English & Spanish versionsType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Criterion-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing OngoingValidity ● Yes; according to publishers.Reliability ● Yes, according to test developersUses Manipulative Materials Yes; those in the natural environmentAdaptations for Special Needs Yes; if included in the natural environment
  • 62. Assessment Tools 62THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Denver Developmental Materials Inc.Date 2005Domains/Areas Assessed ● Broad categories of childrens development in four areasof functioning:□ fine motor-adaptive□ gross motor□ personal-social□ language skillsUses or purpose of instrument ● To determine if a childs development is within the normalrange● To identify changes in development rates or patterns overtime● (Utilized by pediatricians to test a childs use of movement,vision, hand skills & other general areas of development)Age Range Birth to 6.0Administration Time 20 minutesExaminer(s) ProfessionalsScores ● Diagnostic scores are treated as categories:□ Normal□ Abnormal□ Questionable□ Untestable● Sources of scoring are parent report, child observation &structured performance taskLanguage(s) English & Spanish versionsType (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Norm-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● Yes, according to developers● Other studies cite psychometric deficiencies of theDDST-R, such as poor sensitivity & specificity; however,if used with clinical judgment it may be a valuable tool
  • 63. Assessment Tools 63for re-screening, parent-guidance, further evaluationor referralReliability ● Yes; according to developers, acceptable item test-retestand high inter-rater reliability (.90)● Other studies cite low sensitivity in predicting laterdevelopmental status & school readiness● Despite the psychometric deficiencies cited in studies, ifused with clinical judgment, the DDST-R may be avaluable tool for re-screening, parent-guidance, furtherevaluation or referralUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs NoNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 64. Assessment Tools 64THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher AGS PublishingDate 1998Domains/Areas Assessed ● Motor Area: Gross Motor items include catching, jumping,hopping & skipping; Fine Motor items include building blocks,cutting, copying shapes and letters, and writing, and thefinger-touching task from the DIAL-R● Language Area: Items include answers simple personalquestions (name, age, sex), articulation, naming (expressive)or identifying (receptive) objects and actions, plus phonemicawareness tasks such as rhyming and I Spy● Concepts Area: Items include pointing to named body parts,naming or identifying colors, rote counting, counting blocks,placing a block in a named positions relative to a little house,identifying concepts in a triad of pictures, and sorting shapes.□ The DIAL-3 includes an item that assesses automaticnaming of colors - a skill developers attest is associatedwith learning disabilities● Self-Help Development: Looks at the childs development ofpersonal care skills related to dressing, eating and grooming● Social Development: Looks at the childs development ofsocial skills with other children and parents, including rulecompliance, sharing, self-control, and empathy● Speed-DIAL: consists of 10 items from Motor, Language &ConceptsUses or purpose of instrument ● The purpose of the DIAL-3 is to identify young children at-riskor with delays in one or more of the developmental areas andto screen all five early childhood areas: motor, language,concepts, plus self-help and social development● Instrument is presented in colorful, child-friendly, age-appropriatetasks with the purpose of keeping children involvedAge Range 3.0 - 6.11Administration Time 20 -30 minutes; Speed DIAL (condensed version): 15 - 20 minutesExaminer(s) ● Screening team made up of professionals and para-
  • 65. Assessment Tools 65professionals from the fields of early childhood education, earlychildhood special education, school administration, and speech& language pathology; all para-professionals must be supervised,(parents provide valuable information)● Even though a screening team is involved, the DIAL-3 is anindividually administered screening test (often in station format)● Training video demonstrates item administration;recommended for para-professionalsScores ● Percentile cut-off levels, standard scores, percentile ranks● DIAL-3 ASSIST™ available on CD-Rom for convenient scoring;scannable software which can be exported in a format that isusable by statistical and database programs for further analysis:□ Offers options for scoring and summarizing test results□ Prints reports to parents, parent-child activities and severaltypes of group reports; includes narrative or data reports usedgenerate Individual Educational Plans (IEPs) for interventionsLanguage(s) English and SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Standardized for English and, separately, for Spanish speakers -Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● According to developers, the DIAL-3 has content & concurrentvalidity, instruments used in correlation studies included:□ Early Screening Profiles (ESP); Battelle DevelopmentalInventory Screening Test (BDIST); Bracken Basic ConceptScale Screening, Scale Form A; Brigance Preschool Screen;Differential Ability Scales (DAS); and Peabody PictureVocabulary Test, Third Edition (PPVT-III)Reliability ● Test-retest reliability:□ Age: 3.6 to 4.5 years - DIAL-3 Total .88; Speed DIAL .84□ Age: 5.6 to 5.10 years - DIAL-3 Total .84; Speed DIAL .82Uses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs N/A; standardization sample included children who were receivingspecial services; however, the screen was not developed forchildren with severe impairments, rather, it was developed toidentify children in need of further diagnostic evaluationNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 66. Assessment Tools 66THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Kaplan Early Learning CompanyDate 1999Domains/Areas Assessed ● General measure of social-emotional areas of developmentin young children● Observational behavioral rating scale which totals 37 items, 27of which assess a childs protective factors related toresilience (initiative, self-control, attachment); 10 of which screenfor behavioral concerns● Protective Factors:□ Initiative, Self-Control, Attachment● Behavioral Concerns Screen○ There is also now a Devereux Early Childhood AssessmentClinical (DECA-C) which is a 62-item rating scale similar to theDECA, however there are more Behavioral Concern itemsand they go into greater depth; (attention problems;aggression; withdrawal/depression; emotional controlproblems); all else is the same as the DECA.Age Range Ages 2 through 5Administration Time 10 to 15 minutesExaminer(s) ● Observational rating scales are required to be completed byteachers and/or other early childhood staff (after observing thechildren for four weeks), and by parents● Certified DECA Mentor can be contacted in case of questionsUses or purpose of instrument ● To identify and strengthen young childrens protective factorsand increase their resilience to obstacles● To generate individual and class profiles that identify thestrengths and relative weaknesses of the protective factors● To identify the children with behavioral concerns so these canbe addressed before they become behavior disorders - theDECA system advocates designing interventions promotingthe respective childs protective factors, as a way ofpreventing emotional/behavioral problems in the futureScores ● Raw scores; T-scores; percentile ranks; & descriptive scores:Typical, Strength or Concern● The items in the rating scales are rated according to following
  • 67. Assessment Tools 67categories:□ Never; Rarely; Occasionally; Frequently; and, VeryFrequently, according to parents or teachers perception ofchild○ e-DECA - web-based computer program that administersthe assessment online in either Spanish or English, completescompletes all scoring, stores results in a database, andgenerates numeric and graphic summaries of results.Available results include:□ Individual Child Profile; Classroom Profile; RaterComparisons; Pre-Posttest Comparisons; Parent Letter;(Site and Program level reports will be available in Winter2005, according to developers)Language(s) English and SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing Periodic (ideally, it is recommended for use 3 times per year)Validity According to test developers the DECA has construct, content,and concurrent validity within the range between .65 and .69Reliability ● Test-retest reliability:□ .55 to .80 for parents; .87 to .94 for teachers● Interrater reliability:□ .59 to .77 for the protective factors (comparing teachers andaides); all correlations were significant at the .01 levelUses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 68. Assessment Tools 68Publisher Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. (PAR)Date 1989 - DAS Second Edition is currently being revised (2005)Domains/Areas Assessed ● Assesses multidimensional abilities:□ The Preschool Levels measure reasoning, as well asverbal, perceptual, and memory abilities● The DAS contains 20 subtests grouped into Core Cognitive,Diagnostic, or Achievements tests, as divided follows:● Verbal subtests -□ Verbal Comprehension, Naming Vocabulary, WordDefinition, Similarities● Non-Verbal Spatial subtests -□ Block Building, Picture Similarities, Copying, Recall ofof Designs, Pattern Construction● Non-Verbal (Fluid Reasoning) subtests -□ Matrices, and Sequential & Quantitative Reasoning● Early Number Concepts -□ Early Number Concepts● Achievement subtests -□ Basic Number Skills, Spelling, and Word Reading● Diagnostic subtests -□ Matching Letter-Like Forms, Recall of Digits,Recognition of Pictures, Recall of Objects Immediate,Recall of Objects Delayed, Speed of InformationProcessingUses or purpose of instrument ● Individually administered battery of cognitive & achievementtests for children & adolescents used to assess the multi-dimensional nature of abilities● DAS-II will add new subtests and round out floors &ceilings in existent onesAge Range ●The entire instrument covers from 2.6 to 17.11 years of agebecause of the wide age range, it is divided into three levels:□ Lower Preschool: 2.6 through 3.5□ Upper Preschool: 3.6 through 5.11□ School Age: 6.0 through 17.11Administration Time ● 45 - 65 minutes for full cognitive battery● 15 - 25 minutes for achievement testsExaminer(s) Professional; usually clinical or school psychologists
  • 69. Assessment Tools 69Scores ● Specific ability for Verbal Ability, Non-Reasoning Ability &Spatial Ability are reported as percentiles & standard scores● Scores on diagnostic subtests - including perceptual& memory skills - are reported by age as percentiles &T-scores● The DAS® Scoring Assistant® eliminates manual scoring;automatically scores completed DAS protocol & analyzesresulting profile (by same developer)□ calculates subtest T-scores, the General ConceptualAbility (GCA) score, and the Verbal, Non-Verbal Reasoning,Spatial, and Special Non-Verbal scores● Software program DAS for EXCEL™ requires the examinerto enter obtained scores & the program calculates the restLanguage(s) ● English● Spanish instructions for the Special Non-Verbal Compositecurrently being developed to meet the growing demand forbilingual assessment toolsType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Standardized instrumentPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity Yes, acceptable according to test developersReliability Yes, acceptable according to test developersUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs No, the DAS is inappropriate for children with severe impairments,unless the trained examiner judges that the impairments wouldnot prevent a valid administration of the test (DAS 1989standardization included children with mild impairments)NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 70. Assessment Tools 70THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Kaplan Early Learning CompanyDate 2004Domains/Areas Assessed The E-LAP contains a hierarchy of developmental skills arrangedin chronological sequence in six domains of development:● Gross Motor● Fine Motor● Cognitive● Language● Self-Help● Social EmotionalUses or purpose of instrument ● The purpose of this criterion-referenced assessment is to assistteachers, clinicians, and parents in assessing individual skilldevelopment in six domains of development: gross motor, finemotor, cognitive, language, self-help, and social emotional.● The results of the E-LAP can be used to generate a completepicture of a child’s developmental progress in the six domainsso that individualized, developmentally appropriate activitiescan be planned and implemented.● This assessment can be used with any infant and toddler,including children with disabilities.● It is expected that the E-LAP will be used more than once inevaluating children over the course of several months.● Early Learning Activity Cards are sequenced with instructionalactivities and direct teaching procedures, which correlate withthe items on the E-LAP. Each card has the skill written as anobjective, teaching procedures for meeting the objective, andadditional suggestions for expanding emerging skills. Skill areaand developmental age are referenced on each card.Age Range Appropriate for children functioning in the birth to 36 month agerange.Administration Time ● Administration time takes about 1-11/2 hours.● Domains may be administered in more than one session.● Administered by trained professionals or paraprofessionals● Administered at specific intervals or ongoing to monitor progressExaminer Professional or paraprofessional - requires trainingScores ● After the basal has been determined, the assessment should
  • 71. Assessment Tools 71continue until the child fails to demonstrate 3 skills out of fivetasks presented. This defines the childs ceiling level ofperformance and the assessment should end at this point.● The absence of these skills should be analyzed for possibleinclusion in the IEP. The child can be tested several times andnew skills noted by the date of achievement.● Teachers can record their classroom observations via theMobile Scoring Assistant hand-held device - the data can laterbe hotsynced to their computer, thus eliminating re-entry ofassessment results.Language(s) English and SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Criterion-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing Periodic or ongoing to monitor progressValidity Criterion validity was determined by examining the correlationsusing Pearsons r between the E-LAP developmental age domainscores and the BSID-II Mental and Motor Scaledevelopmental age scores for conceptually related items□ Correlations between the Early LAP and the BSID-II MentalScale for the core sample (n = 242) ranged from .90 to .97,while correlations between the Early LAP and the BSID-IIMotor Scale ranged from .92-.94.Reliability To assess test-retest reliability, a subset of children from theproject sample (n = 92) were administered the E-LAP by thesame examiner on two separate occasions, one to three weeksapart.□ Test-retest reliability ranged from .96-.99.To assess interrater reliability, a subset of children from the projectsample (n = 49) were administered the E-LAP by two differentexaminers on two separate occasions, one to three weeks apart.□ Interrater reliability ranged from .96-.99.● The results of this research indicate the E-LAP is a very reliableinstrument for use in assessing the developmental progressof young children.● The mean raw scores for the children with disabilities for eachdomain were substantially lower than the mean of the childrenschronological ages, and the correlations between raw scores andchronological age were substantially lower than the correlationsfor children with typical development.Uses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs N/A; a subsample of children with disabilities was included in thestudy which examined the reliability and validity of the E-LAP.
  • 72. Assessment Tools 72NOTE: This screen is the Kindergarten version of the ESI-Revised; there is also a Preschoolversion of the ESI-R which is developmentally appropriate for younger children.THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Pearson Early Learning GroupDate 1997Domains/Areas Assessed Brief developmental screening designed to identify childrenwho need special services to perform successfully in schoolESI-K is separated into three sections, as follows:● Visual-Motor/Adaptive - This section uses block building;drawing tasks and a visual memory game to assess finemotor skills; eye-hand coordination; short-term memoryskills; and the ability to reproduce two- and three-dimensional forms and structures● Language and Cognition - This section focuses onlanguage comprehension and verbal expression; the abilityto reason and count; and the ability to remember auditorysequences.● Gross Motor - This section assesses the child’s level ofdevelopment in gross motor skills.● The inventory also includes a Parent Questionnaire whichasks about demographic detail; family information; healthand development of the child; and self-help skills; (social/emotional is covered in the comments)Age Range 4.6 to 6.0 yearsAdministration Time 15 to 20 minutesExaminer(s) Professional/paraprofessional (usually a trained teacher,school psychologist, or speech pathologist)Parents are invited to be presentUses or purpose of instrument ● Developmental observational rating scale designed to identifychildren who may be at risk of school failure. It provides aquick overview of a child’s development in three majorareas: Visual-Motor/Adaptive, Language and Cognition,and Gross Motor Skills.● Interviews are part of screening processScores ● The ESI-K yields three scores: Refer, Rescreen and OK.
  • 73. Assessment Tools 73● These scores are interpreted differently, depending on theage group.□ Refer-- children may be at risk for delay/disability-- referfor an in-depth, complete assessment□ Rescreen-- use the screening again in 8 to 10 weeks todetermine if the screening was accurate (also gatherinformation from teachers and parents to help determinenext steps)□ OK-- child appears to developing normally● For each item, the child receives from 0-3 points;Subscales are not scored-- only the total score is usedwhen interpreting results● ESI-R Online™ is available for secure, automated scoring,summarizing screening results, and providing individualor group reports - includes both ESI-P and ESI-KLanguage(s) English and Spanish versionsType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● Childrens ESI-K total score was correlated with theirGeneral Cognitive Indexes (GCIs) on the McCarthy Scalesof Childrens Abilities (MSCA), according to publishers -correlation coefficient of .73.● Cost matrices analyses were calculated to determine cut-off points: Sensitivity of ESI-K is .93 (9 out of 10 at-riskchildren will be correctly identified) Specificity is .80 (4 outof 5 children who were not at-risk were correctly identifiedand were not referred for further evaluation)Reliability ● According to publishers, interrater reliability correlations oftesters and observers were all above .97; alphas for testers/observer pairs were equally high - all above .98● The Cronbach reliability coefficients for the test-retest were.87 for the whole groupUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 74. Assessment Tools 74NOTE: This screen is the Preschool version of the ESI-Revised; there is also aKindergarten version of the ESI-R which is developmentally appropriate for older children.THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Pearson Early Learning GroupDate 1997Domains/Areas Assessed Brief developmental screening designed to identify childrenwho need special services to perform successfully in schoolESI-P is separated into three sections, as follows:● Visual-Motor/Adaptive - This section uses block building;drawing tasks and a visual memory game to assess finemotor skills; eye-hand coordination; short-term memoryskills; and the ability to reproduce two- and three-dimensional forms and structures● Language and Cognition - This section focuses onlanguage comprehension and verbal expression; the abilityto reason and count; and the ability to remember auditorysequences.● Gross Motor - This section assesses the child’s level ofdevelopment in gross motor skills.● The inventory also includes a Parent Questionnaire whichasks about demographic detail; family information; healthand development of the child; and self-help skills; (social/emotional is covered in the comments)Age Range 3.0 to 4.5 years oldAdministration Time 15 to 20 minutesExaminer(s) Professional/paraprofessional (usually a trained teacher,school psychologist or speech pathologist)Parents are invited to be presentUses or purpose of instrument ● Developmental screening instrument designed to identifychildren who may be at risk of school failure. It provides aquick overview of a child’s development in three majorareas: Visual-Motor/Adaptive, Language and Cognition,and Gross Motor Skills.● interviews are part of screening process● Widely used, specially in Head Start programsScores ● The ESI-P yields three scores: Refer, Rescreen and OK.● These scores are interpreted differently, depending on the
  • 75. Assessment Tools 75age group.□ Refer-- children may be at risk for delay/disability-- referfor an in-depth, complete assessment□ Rescreen-- use the screening again in 8 to 10 weeks todetermine if the screening was accurate (also gatherinformation from teachers and parents to help determinenext steps)□ OK-- child appears to developing normally● For each item, the child receives from 0-3 points;Subscales are not scored-- only the total score is usedwhen interpreting results● ESI-R Online™ is available for secure, automated scoring,summarizing screening results, and providing individualor group reports - includes both ESI-P and ESI-KLanguage(s) English and Spanish versionsType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● Childrens ESI-K total score was correlated with theirGeneral Cognitive Indexes (GCIs) on the McCarthy Scalesof Childrens Abilities (MSCA), according to publishers -correlation coefficient of .73.● Cost matrices analyses were calculated to determine cut-off points: Sensitivity of ESI-K is .92 (9 out of 10 at-riskchildren will be correctly identified) Specificity is .80 (4 outof 5 children who were not at-risk were correctly identifiedand were not referred for further evaluation)Reliability ● According to publishers, interrater reliability correlations oftesters and observers were all above .99; alphas for testers/observer pairs were equally high - .98● The Cronbach reliability coefficients for the test-retest were.87 for the whole groupUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 76. Assessment Tools 76Publisher AGS PublishingDate 1990Domains/Areas Assessed ● ESP screens the five major developmental areas specifiedby P.L. 99-457: cognitive, language, motor, self-help andsocial development● Components may be used independently or in anycombination. They are:□ Cognitive/Language Profile; Motor Profile;Self-Help/Social Profile; Articulation Survey; HomeSurvey; Health History Survey; Behavior Survey● Composite Names - Total Screening (a composite of thethree profiles).● Subtest Names - The Cognitive/Language Profile consistsof 2 subscales and 2 subtests, as follows:□ the Cognitive subscale includes 2 cognitive, nonverbalsubtests (Visual Discrimination and Logical Relations),and the Language subscale includes 2 language subtests(Verbal Concepts and Basic School Skills).Age Range 2.0 to 6.11Administration Time 15 to 40 minutesExaminer(s) ● Professionals and paraprofessionals (supervised) - ineducational, medical or community settings;● Childhood specialists, preschool & early kindergartenteachers (also used in Head Start programs)● Individually administered, either as a mass screening or aone-on-one by a single examinerUses or purpose of instrument ● ESP is an ecological battery that uses multiple domains,settings and sources to measure cognitive, motor,self-help/social development of young children and surveystheir articulation, home environment, health history and testbehavior.● ESP provides practical information that helps the earlyspecialist make accurate screening decisions, and planinterventions for young children and their respective familiesScores ● Level I Scores - 6 Screening indexes or broad categoriescorresponding to 6 standard deviation units on the normalcurve can be used to determine which children needfurther assessment; users can choose the Screening
  • 77. Assessment Tools 77Indexes to set the cut-off point for possible at-riskclassification● Level II Scores- Standard scores with confidence intervals,percentile ranks, and age equivalents; users can choosethe standard score, percentile rank, stanines, NCEs, orage equivalents to set the cut-off point for furtherassessmentLanguage(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● The ESP consists of 3 norm-referenced -profiles and 4 non-norm-referenced surveysPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● According to test developers, predictive, concurrent, andconstruct validity studies are available within range of.48 to .84; also instruments sensitivity is within rangebetween 53 and 92%; specificity is quoted from 65 to 88%Reliability ● Yes, according to test developers, immediate and delayed,test-retest and interrater reliability literature is available asfollows: Internal consistency: .60 to .90; □ Test-retest: .55to .93; Inter-observer: .80 to .99Uses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs Manual suggests some adaptations, such as evaluatingcognitive language ability separately for children with languageproblems or who are not native English speakers.□ However users must keep in mind that children withspecial needs were not included in the standardizationsampleNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 78. Assessment Tools 78IT IS UNKNOWN TO US IF THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Psychological CorporationDate 1993Domains/Areas Assessed ● A standardized screening tool - designed to identify youngchildren who may have mild to severe school-related problems;meant only as a first step in the process of evaluatingchildren with special needs/developmental delays● Five domains: cognitive, communication, motor (fine & motor),social-emotional, and adaptive-behavior checklist□ The social-emotional assessment occurs by observingbehaviors during the first step assessment.○ Social-emotional areas evaluated include: task confidence;cooperative mood, temperance & emotionality,uncooperative antisocial behavior, attention communicationdifficulties.● Each test consists of 12 subtests in the form of gamesdesigned to test each specific function.Uses or purpose of instrument ● Screening instrument which is: a) sensitive enough to detecteven mild developmental delays b) used to assist the teacher inplanning a developmental program which is appropriate forindividual student needs & c) used to identify the children whoneed more complete, in-depth, diagnostic evaluations.● Also designed as short companion to the Miller Assessmentfor Preschoolers (MAP) - a test of nonverbal, cognitive, verbal,neuromaturational and integrated abilities● The main purpose is to screen for the presence ofdevelopmental delays in each of the 5 domains mandated byIDEA Amendments of 1991: cognition, communication, motor,social-emotional, and adaptive functioningAge Range 2.9 to 6.2 years oldAdministration Time 15 - 20 minutesExaminer(s) ● Professionals and paraprofessionals (teachers and aides,school nurse, special education specialist, speech pathologist,and the occupational and/or physical therapist - OT/PT)Scores ● Age groupings; norm tables convert raw scores to scaledscores stratified by age for 5 domains and 1 composite
  • 79. Assessment Tools 79● A score is produced for each domain graded as acceptablelimits, caution, or at risk; the total score can be directlycompared with age-peer scores.● Children demonstrating signs of developmental delay have beenshown through validation studies to score 1.5 to 2 SD belowthe mean of normal children on this test.● Correlates well with full developmental assessments, such asthe Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R)Language(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Norm-referenced in 6-month designated age intervals;Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic, but can be ongoing, if neededValidity ● Both sensitivity and specificity are above 80% (8 out of 10children will be correctly identified; and 8 out of 10 childrenwill also be correctly identified, as such, and will not be referredfor further evaluation or screening)● Correlates well with full developmental assessments, such asthe WPPSI-R.Reliability Did not find relevant information on this topicUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs Did not find relevant information on this topicNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 80. Assessment Tools 80Publisher AGS PublishingDate 1993Domains/Areas Assessed K-SEALS is an expanded and enhanced version of the Cognitive/Language Profile in the AGS Early Screening Profiles. Thismeans you receive a more reliable and balanced evaluation in thesubtest, scale, and composite content areas.K-SEALS features three separate domains for a well-roundedprofile:● Vocabulary Subtest—the child identifies, by gesture or name,pictures of objects or actions and points to or names objectsbased on verbal descriptions of their attributes● Numbers, Letters & Words—the child selects or namesnumbers, letters, or words; counts; indicates knowledge ofnumber concepts (“smallest,” “half”); and solves numberproblems● Articulation Survey—the child pronounces the names ofcommon objects or actions and is assessed for correctness ofpronunciation● The test names are: Vocabulary; Numbers, Letters, & Words;and Articulation SurveyUses or purpose of instrument K-SEALS is an easy-to-administer measure of young childrenslanguage skills (expressive and receptive vocabulary), numericalskills, and articulation.● K-SEALS is valuable in a variety of situations—testing schoolreadiness, identifying gifted children, evaluating programeffectiveness, and researching children’s early development.Age Range 3.0 to 6.11 yearsAdministration Time Approximately 15-25 minutesExaminer Professional and paraprofessional (training & supervision required)● Appropriate for preschool, kindergarten, and elementaryteachers. Used in speech and language clinics, and medicalagenciesScores ● Age-based standard scores (mean = 100, standard deviation= 15) are available on the subtests, scales, and composite.
  • 81. Assessment Tools 81● Percentile ranks, descriptive categories, and age equivalents arealso provided. Performance on the Articulation Survey subtestcan be interpreted using descriptive categories (Normal, BelowAverage, Mild Difficulty, or Moderate to Severe Difficulty) anditem error analysis procedures.Language(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced -Based on U.S. census data in the year 1990and estimates for education attainment and region from 1985estimates (from machine-readable data file).Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progressValidity Intercorrelations:● Correlations between Vocabulary and Numbers, Letters andWords: Mean is .59● Correlations between Expressive Skills and Receptive Skills:Mean is .86● Correlations between Number Skills and Letter and Word Skills:Mean is .77Content:The three K-SEALS subtests, Vocabulary; Numbers, Letters andWords; and Articulation Survey were designed to measurechildrens expressive and receptive language skills, pre-academicskills, and articulation.Construct:● A test for young children should demonstrate age differentiationif it is designed to measure constructs such as language andacademic skills that are related to development and learning andare purported to increase with chronological age. Mean rawscores for each K-SEALS subtest and scale increased steadilywith increasing age.Concurrent:● With tests of intelligence and achievement: The K-SEALScomposite correlated substantially with standard scores onindividually administered tests, correlating in the low .80s withK-ABC Achievement, SB-IV Verbal Reasoning, and SB-IV TestComposite; and about .55 to .65 with most other K-ABC andSB-IV scales.● Coefficients with the group-administered Metropolitan tests werelower, typically ranging from the low .30s to the low .50s.● With language and screening tests: Correlations of the PPVT-Rand BBCS standard scores with the K-SEALS language andcomposite scales range from .66 to .73● The correlations between the K-SEALS and the Battelle and theDIAL-R are generally lower than this, but this is accountable interms of these measures having less overlap of content with theK-SEALS.Predictive:● With intelligence, language, and achievement tests:□ The Early Academic & Language Skills Composite correlated .80 with the K-ABC Achievement Scale, and .76 with the
  • 82. Assessment Tools 82PPVT-R standard score. Correlation with the SAT Total Batteryand Otis-Lennon standard scores were .60 and .57 respectively.● With Teachers Ratings as criteria:□ Vocabulary (.47); Numbers, Letters & Words (.57); ReceptiveSkills (.58); Expressive Skills (.57); Number Skills (.49); Letter &Word Skills (.53); and Early Academic & Language SkillsComposite.Reliability Internal consistency:● Median reliability the Subtests is .88 to .94● Median reliability for the Scales is .81 to .94● Median reliability for the Composite is .94Test - Retest:● Median test-retest reliability the Subtests is .87 to .92● Median test-retest reliability for the Scales is .88 to .93● Median test-retest reliability for the Composite is .94Uses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs Children with identified delays or handicaps were not systematicallysampled during standardization, however they were not excluded assubjects unless they had visual, hearing, or physical problems thatprevented them from responding to test items.NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 83. Assessment Tools 83THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Kaplan Early Learning CompanyDate Did not find relevant information on this topicDomains/Areas Assessed The LAP-D contains a hierarchy of developmental skills arranged inchronological sequence in four domains of development:The domains are Language, Cognitive, Fine Motor and Gross MotorThe specific eight areas, or subscales, are the following:● Language: Naming and Comprehension● Cognitive: Counting and Matching● Fine Motor: Writing and Manipulation● Gross Motor: Body Movement and Object MovementUses or purpose of instrument ● The LAP-D provides a systematic method for observing childrenfunctioning in the 30-72 month age range.● The purpose of this normed-referenced assessment is to assistteachers, clinicians, and parents in assessing individual skilldevelopment in the four major developmental domains.● The results can be used to generate a picture of a childsdevelopmental progress so that individualized, developmentallyappropriate activities can be planned and implemented.Age Range 30 to 72 monthsAdministration Time ● Approximately 1 to 1 1/2 hours though it varies with differentchildren and/or examiners● Domains may be administered in more than one sessionExaminer Professional (often administered by teachers in school settings) -requires trainingScores ● Scores are: standard deviation scores (z scores), percentiles,age equivalents, NCE● The LAP software generates:□ Individual assessment results and summaries□ Classroom profiles□ Parent reports□ Group progress charts□ Links to developmentally appropriate activities□ Individual, classroom, and center analyses of assessment
  • 84. Assessment Tools 84results in relation to the Head Start Child Outcome● Teachers can administer the assessment via the Mobile ScoringAssistant hand-held device - the data can later be hotsyncedto their computer, thus eliminating re-entry of assessment results.□ Software generates individual assessment reports & summaries,classroom profiles, parent reports, group progress charts,links to developmentally appropriate activities, assessmentresults in relation to Head Start Child OutcomesLanguage(s) English and SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced (in the event the instructions are not followed perprescribed, this tool could be used as criterion-referenced forinstructional purposes).Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progressValidity Did not find relevant information on this topicReliability Did not find relevant information on this topicUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs Yes however assessment is, then, treated as a criterion-referencedinstrumentNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 85. Assessment Tools 85THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Kaplan Early Learning CompanyDate Did not find this information while researching topicDomains/Areas Assessed The Learning Accomplishment Profile-Diagnostic EditionScreens (LAP-D Screens) contain three parts: a Five Year Old(Kindergarten) screen; a Four Year Old Screen; and a ThreeYear Old Screen.● The LAP-D Screens contain a hierarchy of developmental skillsarranged in chronological sequence by age level in fourdevelopmental domains, including the following:□ Gross Motor□ Fine Motor□ Cognitive□ LanguageUses or purpose of instrument The LAP-D Screens are standardized tools used to obtain a fast,reliable “snapshot” of an individual child’s development.● The results can be used to determine whether an in-depthevaluation is needed.● When possible, the LAP-D Screens should be used inconjunction with other screening information, such as visionand hearing screening, through a multi-disciplinary teamprocess.Age Range The LAP-D Screens are appropriate for 3-, 4-, and 5-year-oldchildren (one screen per age level).Administration Time ● Takes 12-15 minutes● Administered one-on-one onlyExaminer Professional or paraprofessional - requires trainingScores ● Results are divided into PASS (P) or REFER□ REFER scores are divided into three levels: Primary,Secondary, and Tertiary.● Teachers can administer the assessment via the Mobile ScoringAssistant hand-held device - the data can later be hotsyncedto their computer, thus eliminating re-entry of assessmentresults.□ Software generates individual assessment reports &summaries,classroom profiles, parent reports, group progress charts,
  • 86. Assessment Tools 86links to developmentally appropriate activities, assessmentresults in relation to Head Start Child OutcomesLanguage(s) English and SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced (in the event the instructions are not followed perprescribed, this tool could be used as criterion-referenced forinstructional purposes).Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progressValidity Did not find relevant information on this topicReliability Did not find relevant information on this topicUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special NeedsYes however screens are, then, treated as a criterion-referencedtoolNOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 87. Assessment Tools 87Formerly LAP-RTHIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Kaplan Early Learning CompanyDate 2004Domains/Areas AssessedThe LAP 3 is a criterion-referenced assessment instrument forthe36-72 month age range, measuring development in the domainsof● Gross Motor (54 items)● Fine Motor (40 items)● Pre-Writing (38 items)● Cognitive (87 items)● Language (69 items)● Self-Help (50 items)● Personal/Social (45 items)Uses or purpose of instrument ●The purpose of the LAP 3 is to assist teachers, clinicians, andparents in assessing individual skill development of youngchildren.● The results can be used to generate a complete picture of achild’s developmental progress across seven developmentaldomains so that individualized, developmentally appropriateactivities can be planned and implemented.● As a criterion-referenced assessment, the LAP 3 neitherassigns a diagnostic label nor yields statistically precisemeasures regarding a child’s level of functioning.Age Range Appropriate for children functioning in the 36 to 72 month agerangeAdministration Time ● Approximately 1 1/2 hours● Domains may be administered in more than one session● May be administered at specific checkpoints, or used asongoing observation toolExaminer Professional or paraprofessional in school settingsScoresDid not find specific information regarding what type of scoresare produced by the LAP-3 at this timeLanguage(s) English and Spanish
  • 88. Assessment Tools 88Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) Criterion-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity Criterion validity was determined by examining the correlationsusing Pearsons r between the LAP-R domain raw scores andthe Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) component scores forconceptually related items.● The results indicate fairly strong correlations between theLAP-3 and BDI scores.● Seventy-six percent of the domains had correlations between.70 to .92.● The remaining 24% had correlations in the .54 to .69 range,and were primarily related to the Communication Domain onthe BDI and the Personal/Social Domain on the LAP-3.Reliability ● To assess test-retest reliability, a subset of children from theoverall project sample (n = 40) were administered the LAP-Rby the same examiner on two separate occasions, one tothree weeks apart.□ Test-retest reliability ranged from .96-.99.● To assess interrater reliability, a subset of children from theoverall project sample (n = 33) were administered the LAP-Rby two different examiners on two separate occasions, one tothree weeks apart.□ Interrater reliability ranged from .81-.98.● The results of this research indicate the LAP-R is a veryreliable instrument for use in assessing the developmentalprogress of young children.● The mean raw scores for the children with disabilities for eachdomain were substantially lower than the mean of thechildrens chronological ages, and the correlations betweenraw scores and chronological age were substantially lowerthan the correlations for children with typical developmentUses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs Yes; a subsample of children with special needs was included inthe study which examined the reliability and validity of the LAP 3NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 89. Assessment Tools 89IT IS UNKNOWN TO US IF THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher Psychological CorporationDate 1988Domains/Areas Assessed ● Foundation Index: assesses abilities involving motor tasks andawareness of sensations● Coordination Index: assess complex gross, fine, and oral motorabilities● Verbal Index: focus on memory, sequencing, comprehension,association, & expression in a verbal contextvisualization, and the performance of mental manipulationsUses or purpose of instrument ● A short but comprehensive standardized assessment tool -designed to identify young children for mild to moderatedevelopmental delays.● Developed as a screening tool, it helps identify children at riskfor sensory, motor and language delays;● Can be used to determine further need for in-depth assessmentand intervention & for creating a framework from which toformulate IEPs & IFSPs; a color-coded record form delineatesage appropriate performance for each itemAge Range 2.9 to 5.8Administration Time 30 to 40 minutesExaminer(s) ProfessionalScores Did not find relevant information on this topicLanguage(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Nationally norm-referenced scales to identify children at risk fordevelopmental disabilities, specially sensory processing disorderPeriodic vs. Ongoing Did not find relevant information on this topicValidity Did not find relevant information on this topicReliability Did not find relevant information on this topicUses Manipulative Materials Did not find relevant information on this topicAdaptations for Special Needs Did not find relevant information on this topic
  • 90. Assessment Tools 90Publisher The Psychological CorporationDate 1997Domains/Areas Assessed Using NEPSY®s comprehensive subtests, the examiner can identifystrengths and analyze deficits in five functional domains thatfacilitate or interfere with a childs learning (the NEPSY® has 27subtests specifically designed for children 3 to 12 years of age). Thefunctional domains are:● Attention and Executive Functions—assesses inhibition,self-regulation, monitoring, vigilance, selective and sustainedattention, maintenance of response set, planning, flexibility inthinking, and figural fluency● Language—assesses phonological processing abilities, receptivelanguage comprehension, expressive naming under confrontationand speeded naming conditions, verbal fluency, and the ability toproduce rhythmic oral motor sequences● Sensorimotor Functions—assesses sensory input at the tactilelevel, fine motor speed for simple and complex movements, theability to imitate hand positions, rhythmic and sequentialmovements and visuomotor precision in controlling pencil use● Visuospatial Processing—assesses the ability to judge positionand directionality and the ability to copy two-dimensionalgeometric figures and reconstruct three-dimensional designs froma model or picture● Memory and Learning—assesses immediate memory forsentences, immediate and delayed memory for faces, names,and list learning, and narrative memory under free and cued recallconditions.Uses or purpose of instrument ● NEPSY® provides a thorough means of assessing theneuropsychological status of children with congenital or acquiredbrain dysfunction, damage, or disease and is invaluable as a basisfor planning treatment, special education, and long-term follow-upcare.● It is a child-friendly test that provides a wealth of clinical datauseful for planning treatment - when you need a completediagnostic picture, NEPSY® provides a flexible approach forevaluating attention/ executive functions, language, visuospatialprocessing, sensorimotor functions, and memory and learning.● More than 10 years in development, NEPSY® detects strengthsas well as subtle deficiencies in the five functional domains thatfacilitate or interfere with learning.
  • 91. Assessment Tools 91Age Range/ ● Core Assessment:Administration Time □ Ages 3.0 to 4.0 - approximately 45 minutes□ Ages 5.0 to 12.0 - approximately 65 minutes● Full Assessment:□ Ages 3.0 to 4.0 - approximately 1 hour□ Ages 5.0 to 12.0 - approximately 2 hoursExaminer ProfessionalScores ● Scaled Scores, Percentile Ranks, Core Domain Scores (StandardScores), and Base Rate Percentages (Supplemental andQualitative Scores) by ageExplanation:● Each NEPSY® domain has a core set of subtests. A summarystandard score, based on the domains core subtests, can beobtained for each domain. For any domain, examiners can alsoperform an expanded assessment using the additional subtestsfrom that domain or a selective assessment using additionalsubtests across domains.● In addition to subtest-level scores, on many subtests thesubcomponents may also be scored (these are SupplementalScores). Qualitative Observations made about the childs behaviormay be examined in relation to base rates of occurrence in thestandardization sample.● Scoring Assistant® software program available for scoring andreportsLanguage(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - up-to-date norms are based on a nationallyrepresentative sample of more than 1,000 U.S. children withperformances comparable to the performances of others in theappropriate age groups.Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● Validity data include content and construct validity, as well asstudies with children diagnosed with learning disabilities,attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders, traumatic brain injury,autistic disorders, and speech and language impairments.Reliability ● The NEPSY® manual reports reliability statistics, includinginter-rater and interscorer agreement, subtest internal consistency,and test-retest stability.Uses Manipulative Materials NEPSY®s materials were selected to be attractive to children,engaging their attention throughout the administration of the test.Adaptations for Special Needs No
  • 92. Assessment Tools 92Publisher The Riverside Publishing CompanyDate 2005Domains/Areas Assessed ● Measures: Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, QuantitativeReasoningVisual-Spatial Processing, Working Memory● The Early SB5, like the SB5, has 10 subtests. Two routingsubtests (Nonverbal Fluid Reasoning and Verbal Knowledge)cover the age range 2.0 through 7.3, while the remaining eightsubtests offer scores in the preschool range from 2.0 - 5.11.As with the SB5, testing begins in Item Book 1 with the tworouting subtests, which are retained in their entirety. However,all remaining subtests into which the 1st two subtests route arecontained in Item Book 2, with only the most difficult levels ofitems dropping across those subtests. Dropping these moredifficult items will generally have no impact on the scores of theyoung children typically assessed with the Early SB5. However,because of the changes, assessment for intellectual giftednesswould require use of only the two routing subtests or, better yet,the complete SB5.Uses or purpose of instrument ● Purpose: Individually administered assessment of intelligenceand cognitive abilitiesAge Range 2 to 7-3 years (2 to 5-11 years for full battery; 6 to 7-3 years forabbreviated battery)Administration Time Full Battery: 30-50 minutes; Abbreviated Battery: 15-20 minutesExaminer ProfessionalScoresScores that can be generated by the Early SB5 include: FullScaleIQ, Nonverbal IQ, Verbal IQ, Abbreviated Battery IQ, StandardScores, Percentile Ranks, Change-Sensitive Scores, andExtended IQ. The SB5 can be hand-scored or scored withoptionalscoring software.● All scored available for the SB5 are also available for the Early SB5.● These include 10 subtest scores (scales scores have a mean of 10,SD=3, score range 1-19), broad ability (factor index) and IQcomposite scores (mean of 100, SD=15, range 40-160), percentile,
  • 93. Assessment Tools 93change-sensitive scores (CSSs), and age-equivalents.● Csss, because they reference absolute levels of ability rather thanage-referenced norms, may be especially useful in the stuffy of therapid growth of abilities in earliest childhood. In distinction to thecomplete SB5, users should be aware that determination ofExtended IQ (EXIQ) scores from instructions in the InterpretiveManual should be limited to scores under 40, which may be ofinterest in the study of severe developmental delays.● The newly developed Test Observation Checklist identifies a rangeof behaviors that may serve as “flags” for behavioral or cognitivedifficulties● The Early SB5 may be hand-scored or scored with the optional SB5ScoringPro™ softwareLanguage(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced)Norm-referenced - A normative sample of 1,800 individuals wasusedin the age range addressed by the Early SB5 (ages 20. through 7).The normative sample closely matches the 2000 U.S. Census(education level based on 1999 data).Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity Concurrent and criterion validity data were obtained using the SBIV, SM L-M, WJIII®, UNIT™, Bender®-Gestalt II, WPPSI-R®,WAIT®-II, and WISC-III®.Reliability Reliabilities for the Early SB5 are very high for scores across itsage range: FSIQ (.97-.98), NVIQ and VIQ (.94.96), factor indexes(.90-.92), and subtests (.81-.92).Uses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 94. Assessment Tools 94Publisher Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Date 2003Domains/Areas Assessed The test measures informal and formal (school-taught) conceptsand skills in the following domains:● numbering skills, number-comparison facility, numeral literacy,mastery of number facts, calculation skills, and understanding ofconcepts.● It has two parallel forms, each containing 72 items.Uses or purpose of instrument ● The TEMA-3 measures the mathematics performance of youngchildren and is also useful with older children who have learningproblems in mathematics.● It can be used as a norm-referenced measure or as a diagnosticinstrument to determine specific strengths and weaknesses.● Thus, the test can be used to measure progress, evaluateprograms, screen for readiness, discover the basis for poor schoolperformance in mathematics, identify gifted students, and guideinstruction and remediation.● The two forms of the TEMA-3 allows you to study a childsmathematics progress over time.Age Range 3.0 to 8.11 yearsAdministration Time ● Approximately 40 minutesExaminer Professionals and paraprofessionals (training & supervision required)● The TEMA-3 can be used in a variety of settings, includingpreschools, elementary schools, and clinicsScores ● Test results are reported as standard scores, percentile ranks,and age and grade equivalents.● Reportedly, one of the test authors (Herbert Ginsburg) is currentlyworking on software that can guide teachers mathematicsassessment and organize their observations.Language(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - The all new standardization sample is composedof 1,219 children. The characteristics of the sample approximatethose in the 2001 U.S. Census.Periodic vs. Ongoing Periodic to monitor progress
  • 95. Assessment Tools 95Validity Many validity studies are described in the Examiners Manual.Reliability Internal consistency reliabilities are all above .92; immediate anddelayed alternative form reliabilities are in the .80s and .90s.Uses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 96. Assessment Tools 96Publisher Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Date 2002Domains/Areas Assessed This new edition of the TERA-3 has been redesigned to provide theexaminer with three subtests. The cognitive elements supported:Three subtests:□ Construction of meaning - knowledge of environmental□ Alphabet knowledge - letter naming and oral reading□ Conventions - book handling, punctuation, proofreading● Examiners no longer have to prepare their own items that requirethe use of company logos and labels because these items arenow standardized and provided as part of the test kit.□ Logos and labels from such national companies as McDonalds,and Kraft, Libbys, are used to make the TERA3● Categorical vocabulary in this assessment consists of identifyingwhat word "goes with" a set of words.● Part of the alphabet knowledge subtest score is determined byoral reading accuracy.● Two forms of the test are available for test-retest applications.Uses or purpose of instrument ● TERA-3 is a unique, direct measure of the reading ability ofyoung children. Rather than assessing childrens "readiness" forreading, the TERA-3 assesses their mastery of early developingreading skills.● The TERA-3 has many uses:□ (a) to identify those children who are significantly below theirpeers in reading development and may be candidates for earlyintervention;□ (b) to identify strengths and weaknesses of individual children;□ (c) to document a childs progress as a consequence of earlyreading intervention programs;□ (d) to serve as a measure in research studying readingdevelopment in young children; andto other assessments.□ (e) to serve as an adjunctAge Range Ages 3.6 through 8.6 (Pre-K, K, 1, 2, 3, and higher)Administration Time Approximately 15 to 30 minutes
  • 97. Assessment Tools 97Examiner Professional or paraprofessional (training & supervision required)Commonly used by teachers and/or reading specialists inclassroom settingsScores ● Raw scores can be converted into standard scores, percentiles,and NCEs - age and grade equivalents provided.● An overall Reading Quotient is computed using all three subtestscores.● Software for scoring is available for PC or Apple II systems.Language(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - this assessment tool was normed on nationalsample of 1,454 children in 15 states.● All new normative data were collected during 1999 and 2000.Periodic vs. Ongoing OngoingValidity ● Validity measures, assessed using the Basic School SkillsInventory, were found to be in the .55 range.● New validity studies have been conducted; special attention hasbeen devoted to showing that the test is valid for a wide variety ofsubgroups as well as for a general population.Reliability Reliability measures are in the .90 range:● Reliability coefficients have been computed for subgroups of thenormative sample (e.g., African Americans, Hispanic Americans,females) as well as for the entire normative sample. Reliability isconsistently high across all three types of reliability studied. All but 2of the 32 coefficients reported approach or exceed .90.Uses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 98. Assessment Tools 98Publisher The Psychological CorporationDate 2002Domains/Areas Assessed The WPPSI™-III is an individual test that does not require reading orwriting. Verbal subtests are oral questions without time limits.Performance subtests are nonverbal (both spatial and fluid reasoning)problems, several of which are timed.The subtests are as follows:● Information: oral, “trivia”-style general information questions.Scoring is pass/fail.● Vocabulary: giving oral definitions of words. Scoring is 2-1-0,according to the quality of the responses● Word Reasoning: deducing the meaning of a word from one, two,or three clues. Scoring is pass/fail.● Comprehension: oral questions of social and practicalunderstanding. Scoring is 2-1-0, based on quality.● Similarities: explaining how two different things (e.g., horse andcow) or concepts (e.g., hope and fear) could be alike. Scoring is2-1-0, according to the quality of the responses.● Block Design*: copying small geometric designs with two, three,or four plastic cubes while viewing a constructed model or apicture within a specified time limit. Scoring is 2-1-0 for items 1through 6 and 2-0 for items 7 to 20.● Matrix Reasoning: completing logical arrangements of designswith missing parts; multiple-choice. Scoring is pass/fail.● Picture Concepts: presented with two or three rows of pictures,choose the one picture from each row based upon a commoncharacteristic. Scoring is pass/fail.● Picture Completion*: identifying missing parts of pictures byeither pointing to or naming the missing part. Scoring is pass/fail.● Object Assembly*: assemble, within a specified time limit,puzzles of cut-apart silhouette objects with no outline pieces.Scoring allows for scores from 5 to 0 depending upon the item.● Symbol Search*: deciding if a target symbol appears in a row of3 symbols and marking YES or ? accordingly.● Coding *: copying symbols that are paired with simple geometricdesigns as quickly as possible for 2 minutes● Receptive Vocabulary: point to one of 4 pictures that representsthe word spoken by the examiner. Scoring is pass/fail.● Picture Naming: Name pictures shown. Scoring is pass/fail.
  • 99. Assessment Tools 99■ Verbal IQ is based on Information, Vocabulary, and WordReasoning. (Comprehension and Similarities are possiblesubstitutes for the other verbal subtests.)■ Performance (fluid) IQ is based on Block Design, MatrixReasoning, and Picture Concepts. (Picture Completion andObject Assembly are possible substitutes for the otherPerformance subtests.)■ Processing Speed Quotient, or visual-motor, clerical speed andaccuracy, includes Coding & Symbol Search.■ General Language Composite is based on ReceptiveVocabulary and Picture Naming■ Full Scale IQ is based on seven tests: 3 Verbal, 3 Performance(fluid), and 1 Processing Speed test.NOTE: * time limitUses or purpose of instrument ● The WPPSI™-III is a revision of the WPPSI-R and extended theage range, updated the norms, added new subtests and compositescores, and claims to have a developmentally appropriatestructure based on contemporary intelligence and cognitivedevelopment theory.● The artwork was updated, and some the test material was mademore child-friendly and engaging.● Some modifications in the administration and scoring made thescales easier to use.● The WPPSI™-III accurately measures intellectual abilities in youngchildren; it is a reliable and valid measure of intelligence that ismore age-appropriate and user-friendly than previous editions.● The WPPSI™-III was updated to reflect both feedback from usersof WPPSI–R® and contemporary theories on childrens intelligence.providing more clinically useful information for diagnosis andplanning.Age Range Approximately 2.6 to 7.3 yearsAdministration Time ● 2.6 to 3.11 years range: 30-45 minutes● 4.0 to 7.3 years range: 45-60 minutesExaminer ProfessionalScores ● Scaled Scores by age, intelligence quotients (IQs)● The WPPSI™-III employs the Deviation IQ (M=100, SD=15) for theVerbal, Performance and Full Scale IQS, and scaled scores(M=100, SD=3) for the subtests● In addition to traditional hand scoring, WPPSI™–III offers twooptional scoring and reporting software programs: WPPSI–III®—WIAT®–II Scoring Assistant®. By simply entering raw scores,concise scorereports are generated automatically from any PC.
  • 100. Assessment Tools100Language(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced - The normative sample included 1700 children innine age groups. The sample was representative of the US populationof children aged 2:6 to 7:3 for sex, race/ethnicity, parental educationlevel and geographic region.Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● Validity studies with numerous other measures, including the newWechsler Individual Achievement Test®—Second Edition(WIAT®–II), have been conducted to reflect federal legislationrequirements and the use of multiple criteria for identification ofchildren for special services.● Also being conducted are studies with various special groups,including mental retardation (mild and moderate), developmentaldelay, Autism, Aspergers Syndrome, receptive and expressivelanguage disorders, children at risk, motor impairment, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, cognitively gifted, and limited Englishproficiency.● The scores derived from the WPPSI-R correlate well with theWPPSI, WISC-R, Stanford Binet (4th ed.), and McCarthy Scales(rs between WPPSI-R FSIQs and other test composites rangefrom .74 to .90).● The correlation between the WPPSI-R FSIQ and the Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) Mental ProcessingComposite is low (.49), but the K-ABC has consistently yieldedlower correlations with other intelligence tests as well.● These results imply good criterion validity for the WPPSI-R. Thereare also studies showing the discriminant validity of the WPPSI-Rwith gifted, mentally deficient, learning disabled, and speech-language impaired children.Reliability ● The reliability coefficient of the WPPSI™-III subtests range from .83to .95.● The reliability coefficients for the composite scales ranged from .89to .96.● Test-retest reliabilities for a mean interval of 26 days for the 2:6 to3:11 year old group Verbal, Performance, Full and GeneralLanguage scores were .90, .84, .92 and .92 respectively.● For the 4 to 7:3 year old group for Verbal, Performance, ProcessingSpeed, Full and General Language werer.92, .87, .93, .92, and .90respectively.Uses Manipulative Materials YesAdaptations for Special Needs N/A
  • 101. Assessment Tools101NOTE: The Woodcock-Johnson® III Complete Battery consists of two distinct, co-normed batteries wtogether form a comprehensive system for measuring general intellectual ability (g), specific cognitiveabilities, scholastic aptitude, oral language, and achievement. The following information applies only totests of achievement.Publisher The Riverside Publishing CompanyDate 2001Domains/Areas Assessed The WJ® III measures many aspects of academic achievement witha variety of brief tests and it is divided into two batteries - parallelforms (A and B); the Standard and the Extended Battery.● The Standard Battery includes tests 1 through 12 which providea broad set of scores.□ Letter-Word Identification; Reading Fluency; Story Recall;Understanding Directions; Calculation; Math Fluency;Spelling; Writing Fluency;● The Extended Battery includes tests 10 through 22 whichprovide more in-depth diagnostic information on specific, relativestrengths and weaknesses● Examiners can administer the Standard Battery either alone orwith the Extended Battery● In addition, the tests are grouped into clusters, which parallelthe IDEA areas & provide sound procedures for determiningdiscrepancies between a students abilities and achievementin each area.□ Oral Expression; Listening Comprehension; WrittenExpression; Basic Reading Skills; Reading Comprehension;Math Calculation Skills; Math ReasoningUses or purpose of instrument ● Although the WJ® III Tests of Achievement are measures ofacademic achievement, they can be used with the WJ® III Testsof Cognitive Abilities to assess a students abilities on manyspecific McGrew, Flanagan, and Ortiz Integrated Cattell-Horn-Carroll Gf-Gc (CHC) "cognitive factors".● This instrument was built upon the idea of selective testing. Theexaminer is advised to consult the Selective Testing Table in themanual to make sure to administer all of the tests necessary toobtain the desired cluster score - depending on the goal oftesting.● An additional new feature of this edition is that it is computer-scored, thus decreasing errors from manual scoring
  • 102. Assessment Tools102Age Range 2 to 90+ yearsAdministration Time Approximately (5) minutes per test; (35 - 45) minutes per StandardBattery; (90 - 115) minutes per Extended Battery (Individual usersmay have different experiences)Examiner Professionals (commonly used by school psychologists in schoolsettings)● Training required● Practice sessions are recommended prior to "real" administrationScores ● Grade or Age Equivalent (GE or AE); Instructional Ranges;Relative Proficiency Indexes (RPIs); Standard Scores(Deviation Quotients); and Percentile Ranks available for eachtest and cluster● The Compuscore for the WJ® III has an additional columnthat allows for the addition of one of the following scores:NCE, T-Score, z-score, age or grade equivalent, Stanines, orCALP level (for certain tests).Language(s) EnglishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Norm-referenced - Normative data were gathered from 8,818subjects in over 100 geographically diverse communities in theU.S.● The sample consisted of 1,143 preschool subjects; 4,784kindergarten to twelfth-grade subjects; 1,165 college anduniversity subjects; and 1,843 adult subjects.Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● The WJ® III uses continuous-year norms to yield normative dataat 10 points in each grade; it provides age-based norms bymonth from ages 24 months to 19 years and by year from ages2 to 90+ years; and it provides grade-based norms forkindergarten through 12th grade, 2-year college, and 4-yearcollege, including graduate school.● It is a highly accurate and valid diagnostic system because thetwo batteries were co-normed, which means that the normativedata are based on a single sample. When tests are co-normed,examiners get actual discrepancies and avoid errors typicallyassociated with estimated discrepancies.Reliability ● Most of the WJ® III tests show strong reliabilities of .80 orhigher; several are .90 or higher.● The WJ® III interpretive plan is based on cluster interpretation -and these show strong reliabilities, most at .90 or higher.● The reliability characteristics of the WJ® III meet or exceed basicstandards for both individual placement and programmingdecisions.
  • 103. Assessment Tools103Uses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANEW FEATURES This revision of the W-J® III Tests of Achievement consist of aseries of instruments which share the following new features:● 7 new tests● 8 new clusters● 4 oral language tests● Expanded broad achievement clusters with 3 tests to measurebasic skills, fluency, and application● A revised procedure for evaluating intra-achievementdiscrepancies that now include oral language● Expanded reading tests containing more items to measureearly reading performance● WJ® III Audio is available on CD (instead of cassette); this itemin CD format must be ordered separately.NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 104. Assessment Tools104NOTE: The Woodcock-Johnson® III Complete Battery consists of two distinct, co-normed batteries wtogether form a comprehensive system for measuring general intellectual ability (g), specific cognitiveabilities, scholastic aptitude, oral language, and achievement. The following information applies only totests of cognitive abilities.Publisher The Riverside Publishing CompanyDate 2001Domains/Areas Assessed ● The Standard Battery consists of tests 1 through 10, and theExtended Battery includes tests 11 through 20.● The list of Broad Cognitive Factors and the Name of Tests, bothStandard and Extended, is as follows:□ COMPREHENSION-KNOWLEDGE (Gc)■ Verbal Comprehension (Std)■ General Information* (Ext)□ LONG TERM RETRIEVAL (Glr)■ Visual-Auditory Learning (Std)■ Retrieval Fluency* (Ext)■ Visual-Auditory Learning-Delayed□ VISUAL-SPATIAL THINKING (Gv)■ Spatial Relations (Std)■ Picture Recognition (Ext)■ Planning (Gv/Gf)□ AUDITORY PROCESSING (Ga)■ Sound Blending (Std)■ Auditory Attention (Ext)■ Incomplete Words□ FLUID REASONING (Gf)■ Concept Formation (Std)■ Analysis-Synthesis (Ext)■ Planning* (Gv/Gf)□ PROCESSING SPEED (Gs)■ Visual Matching (Std)■ Decision Speed* (Ext)■ Rapid Picture Naming* (Ext)■ Pair Cancellation*□ SHORT-TERM MEMORY (Gsm)■ Numbers Reversed (Std)■ Memory for Words (Ext)■ Auditory Working Memory*Note: *New tests in the WJ III; the italicized test names are not part of the
  • 105. Assessment Tools105factor or cognitive performance clusters.Uses or purpose of instrument ● Depending on the purpose and extent of the assessment,examiners can use the Standard Battery alone or in conjunctionwith the Extended Battery.● By design, the WJ® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities were developedto measure a students abilities on many specific cognitive factors.● Each of the 7 tests in the Standard Battery is designed tomeasure one factor. However, the Extended Battery offers 7 moretests - making two tests for each factor; one from the Standardand one from the Extended Battery.● There are 3 Standard and 3 Extended tests that contribute toadditional Clinical Clusters● Tests can also be combined into a General Intellectual Ability(GIA Std) score of 7 or 14 tests (GIA Ext) and into severalcognitive categories.● Examiners are permitted to select the tests they need to selectabilities in which they are interested for a particular student.● The WJ® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities is based on the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities, which combinesCattell and Horns Gf-Gc theory and Carrolls three-stratum theory.The CHC theory provides the most comprehensive frameworkavailable for understanding the structure of human cognitiveabilities.Age Range 2 to 90+ yearsAdministration Time Approximately (5) minutes per test; (35 - 45) minutes per StandardBattery; (90 - 115) minutes per Extended Battery (Individual usersmay have different experiences)Examiner Professionals (commonly used by school psychologists in schoolsettings)● Training required● Practice sessions are recommended prior to "real" administrationScores ● Grade or Age Equivalent (GE or AE); Instructional Ranges;Relative Proficiency Indexes (RPIs); Standard Scores(Deviation Quotients); and Percentile Ranks available for eachtest and cluster● The Compuscore for the WJ® III has an additional columnthat allows for the addition of one of the following scores:NCE, T-Score, z-score, age or grade equivalent, Stanines, orCALP level (for certain tests).Language(s) English
  • 106. Assessment Tools106Type (norm-/criterion-referenced) ● Norm-referenced - Normative data were gathered from 8,818subjects in over 100 geographically diverse communities in theU.S.● The sample consisted of 1,143 preschool subjects; 4,784kindergarten to twelfth-grade subjects; 1,165 college anduniversity subjects; and 1,843 adult subjects.Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity ● The WJ® III uses continuous-year norms to yield normative dataat 10 points in each grade; it provides age-based norms bymonth from ages 24 months to 19 years and by year from ages2 to 90+ years; and it provides grade-based norms forkindergarten through 12th grade, 2-year college, and 4-yearcollege, including graduate school.● It is a highly accurate and valid diagnostic system because thetwo batteries were co-normed, which means that the normativedata are based on a single sample. When tests are co-normed,examiners get actual discrepancies and avoid errors typicallyassociated with estimated discrepancies.Reliability ● Most of the WJ® III tests show strong reliabilities of .80 orhigher; several are .90 or higher.● The WJ® III interpretive plan is based on cluster interpretation -and these show strong reliabilities, most at .90 or higher.● The reliability characteristics of the WJ® III meet or exceed basicstandards for both individual placement and programmingdecisions.Uses Manipulative Materials NoAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANEW FEATURES ● 8 new tests that measure information-processing abilities,including tests of working memory, planning, naming speed, andattention● 5 new cognitive clusters; 2 additional clusters available whencognitive and achievement batteries are used together● Modified organization and interception plan that increases depthand breadth of coverage● Expanded cognitive factor structure so that two to three testsclearly measure different narrow aspects of a broader ability● Clusters and tests grouped into three broad cognitive areas:Verbal Ability, Thinking Ability, and Cognitive Efficiency● Expanded procedures for evaluating ability/achievementdiscrepancies● WJ® III Audio available separately on CD● Diagnostic Supplement to the Tests of Cognitive Abilities some ofwhich help determine the basis for reading difficulties
  • 107. Assessment Tools107THIS INSTRUMENT HAS A VERSION IN SPANISHPublisher The Riverside Publishing CompanyDate 2005Domains/Areas Assessed This major revision was expanded from four to seven tests:● WMLS-R Test/Scales: 1) Picture Vocabulary; 2) VerbalAnalogies; 3) Letter-Word Identification; 4) Dictation;5) Understanding Directions*; 6) Story Recall*; 7) PassageComprehension*NOTE: *New tests.The WMLS-R contains two forms in English and one in Spanish.Each form contains the seven tests measuring different aspectsof language proficiency. Combinations of tests form clusters thatserve as broad measures for interpretation, as follows:Oral Language Clusters● Oral Language Clusters: measure of listening and speaking skills,including language development and verbal reasoning. Tests:Test 1: Picture Vocabulary; Test 2: Verbal Analogies.● Oral Expression: aggregate measure or expressive vocabulary,language comprehension and development, and memory. Tests:Test 1: Picture Vocabulary; Test 6: Story Recall● Listening: aggregate measure of listening ability, comprehension, alinguistic competency. Tests: Test 2: Verbal Analogies; Test 5:Understanding Directions● Oral Language—Total: broad measure of language competency,including listening and speaking skills, language development, verbreasoning, and language comprehension.Reading and Writing Clusters● Reading-Writing: measure of letter and word identification skills andspelling, punctuation, capitalization, and word usage skills.Tests: Test 3: Letter-Word Identification; Test 4: Dictation● Reading : measure of reading achievement, including letter and wordidentification skills and the ability to comprehend written passages.Tests: Test 3: Letter-Word Identification; Test 7: PassageComprehension● Writing: A measure of spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and wordusage. Test: Test 4: DictationBroad Language Ability Clusters● Broad English Ability: sampling of listening, speaking, reading, and
  • 108. Assessment Tools108writing skills. Tests: Test 1: Picture Vocabulary; Test 2: VerbalAnalogies; Test 3: Letter-Word Identification; Test 4: Dictation● Language Comprehension: combined measure of listening andReading comprehension abilities. Tests: Test 6: Story Recall; Test 7:Passage Comprehension● Applied Language Proficiency: index of the proficiency with whichan individual can effectively apply listening speaking, reading, writingand comprehension abilities. Tests: Test 4: Dictation; Test 5:Understanding Directions; Test 6: Story Recall; Test 7: PassageComprehension● Broad English Ability—Total: A broad-based measure of languageability, including language comprehension abilities.Uses or purpose of instrument ● Establishes language proficiency level in English or Spanish● Assesses level of English Language Proficiency (ELP)● Designed to measure cognitive academic language proficiency● Determines eligibility for bilingual services● Plans instructional programs● Monitors progress● Evaluates program effectiveness● Used in research studies● Allows for separate entry and year-end evaluations● Meets requirements for English language proficiency underNCLBAge Range 2.0 to AdultAdministration Time 55 minutes for all 7 tests; 25 minutes for screening measureExaminer Professional and trained paraprofessional (results interpreted byprofessional)Scores ● W Score, SS, RPI, and CALP● WMLS-R Scoring and Reporting (software) Program providesall derived scores for the individual and clusters in both theEnglish and Spanish versionsLanguage(s) English and SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Norm-referenced measure of reading, writing, listening, andcomprehension● The WMLS-R normative data was gathered from 8,818 subjects inmore than 100 geographically diverse U.S. communities duringthe standardization of the WJ® III● The Spanish Form was calibrated to the WJ III norms using dataobtained from 1,157 native Spanish-speaking subjects from theUnited States, Mexico, Argentina, Panama, Costa Rica,
  • 109. Assessment Tools109Columbia, and Puerto Rico.Periodic vs. Ongoing PeriodicValidity Items included in the various tests were selected using Rasch-baseditem validity techniques as well as expert opinion. The WMLS-Remphasizes the cluster concept, which combines results from two ormore tests to provide a broader measure of ability, to minimize thedanger of making important decisions based on a single, narrow aspectof behavior. The principle of cluster interpretation was adopted toimprove the content validity.Reliability The test reliabilities range from the mid-70s to high-90s; high-80sto high-90s for the clustersUses Manipulative Materials N/AAdaptations for Special Needs N/ANOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 110. Assessment Tools110SOME WSS MATERIALS HAVE BEEN TRANSLATED INTO SPANISHPublisher Pearson Early LearningDate 2001Domains/Areas Assessed ● The WSS focuses on seven constructs or domains as follows:Personal and social development - the childs feelingsabout self and interactions with peers and adultsLanguage and literacy - acquisition of language and reading(or pre-reading) skillsMathematical thinking - patterns, relationships, the searchfor multiple solutions to problemsScientific thinking - investigation through observing, recordingdescribing, questioning, forming explanations and drawingconclusionsSocial studies - ideas of human independence and therelationships between people and the environmentThe arts - how children engage in dance, drama, music, andart, both actively and receptivelyPhysical development.- addresses fine motor and grossmotor development, control, balance and coordination● Each construct contains a series of "Functional Components"● Each Functional Component, in turn, is defined by a seriesof performance indicators that present the skills, behaviors,attitudes, and accomplishments of the childUses or purpose of instrument ● Research-based observational classroom performanceassessment that is used to document childrens skills,knowledge, behavior, acknowledge, behavior, andaccomplishments across a wide variety of curriculum areas onmultiple occasions in order to enhance teaching and learning● Teachers observe the children and record the classroomobservations in the process note forms included in the teachersmanual; document learning by completing a grade-levelDevelopmental Checklist for each child 3 times p/yr; & report toparents 3 times p/yr; children observed in groups or individually● Designed to improve instruction and enhance learning frompreschool to up to grade 6Age Range 3.0 to 12.0 years of age (preschool through 6th grade)Administration Time Ongoing
  • 111. Assessment Tools111Examiner Professional/paraprofessional (if well trained and supervised)Generally administered by teachers. It should be noted that thismeasurement method was originally created to accompany theHigh/Scope CurriculumScores WSS does not involve point-in-time assessment scores, butrather, it charts the childs progress over time.Data is collected throughout the year by means of portfolios,developmental guidelines and checklists, and then it is compiledin summary reports.● Portfolios are used to track a childs efforts, achievements &progress: a) by collecting student work that reflect "CoreItems" and b) "Individualized Items"● Developmental checklists are provided for each guideline -including a brief description for the "Functional Components"of the construct (or guideline) being addressed and a fewexamples of how the one-sentence indicator might be met(i.e., "Listens for meaning in discussion & conversations").● Indicators are then rated as Not Yet; In Progress; or Proficient● A summary report is to be prepared three times per year(replacing the conventional report cards).□ Each "Functional Component" is rated for Performance(Developing as Expected or Needs Developing)□ Also for both checklists and portfolios as well as for Progress(As Expected or Other Than Expected)□ Teachers can add comments to the ratings● Teachers who maintain records should also interpret resultsand use them on an ongoing basis to inform instruction● Using data based on concurrent validity of WSS ratings (below),cut-offs were created to identify "at-risk" and "not at-risk"scores on both the WJ-R and on WSS Broad Reading and BroadMathLanguage(s) Mainly English, however, some of the WSS materials have beentranslated into SpanishType (norm-/criterion-referenced) Criterion-referencedPeriodic vs. Ongoing Ongoing observation/periodic reportingValidity Concurrent validity - sample of 345 children from 17 classroomin Pittsburgh schools divided I to 4 cohorts: kindergarten, first,second and third grade.● Correlations between specific subscales of the WoodcockJohnson-Revised (1989) WSS Language and Literacy checklist,the WSS mathematical thinking checklist, and summary report `
  • 112. Assessment Tools112ratings were assessed● Correlations between the most relevant WJ-R subscales & WSSchecklists and Summary Report ratings at two time points (falland spring) ranged from .36 to .75, with most of the coefficientsfalling between .50 and .75.● Correlations tended to increase with age● Using data based on concurrent validity of WSS ratings, cut-offswere created to identify "at-risk" and "not at-risk" scores onboth the WJ-R and on WSS Broad Reading and Broad MathContent validity - No information provided as to how WSSdevelopers identified the behavior for the Functional Componentsfor each age groupReliability Internal consistency & interrater reliability - none described forthe most recent edition.● Coefficient alphas for an earlier edition of WSS on checklistscales (final 3 waves of testing done) ranged between .87 to .94● for an earlier WSS version the reported interrater reliability (for(2 raters reporting on 24 familiar & 26 unfamiliar children) was .88Uses Manipulative Materials Yes, those in the natural environmentAdaptations for Special Needs Reliability and validity for the most recent version of WSS wereassessed with a sample of children, 8% of whom were classifiedas having special needs. No additional information was disclosed.NOTE: A lot of the information herein was obtained from literature provided by the publisher or theirwebsite. Please contact the publisher directly for more details. (See Appendix B-References on pg. 115.)
  • 113. Assessment Tools113Appendix ACoding Scheme Used in TablesThe coding scheme used in the Section above entitled Overview of Early ChildhoodTools: Tables of Explanatory Analysis was adapted from the Center for the Improvementof Early Reading Achievement (CIERA) publication (CIERA Report #2-013, April 23,2001). For the purposes of our analysis we largely simplified the coding scheme used inthe CIERA Research Model and borrowed the format they used to represent the outline.It is important to note that the CIERA Research Model is completely dedicated toexplore the persistent problems in the learning and teaching of beginning reading. Thedocument referenced above is very specific and more in-depth on one subject – readingand reading tools – than the present one, which is broader in scope, and simplysummarizes numerous early childhood assessment tools.The following table describes most of the categories used in the Overview ofEarly Childhood Tools: Tables of Explanatory Analysis:Category ExplanationDomains/Areas Assessed Self-explanatoryOverall Purpose Per National Educational Goals Panel(NEGP) recommendations regarding thepurpose of assessmentsSkill ID Description of skill(s) being testedGrade/Age Self-explanatoryAdministration Form of administration:individual/groupFrequency of Administration How often: periodically/ongoingAmount of time required to administer In actual time incrementsAssessment Model ID Clinical interview, constructed response,observation, on-demand response, studentself-assessment, multiple responsesItem Format Checklist, oral-directed, running records,multiple responsesItems Number of items in assessment, if availableDescription Varies with instrumentsPresentation Mode Auditory, visual, auditory & visual, mixed,multiple responses, otherPresentation Unit Auditory-general, picture with words,object with words, visual-general, patterns,directions, sentence/question, book, letter,
  • 114. Assessment Tools114multiple responses, otherMental Processing Recall, recognition, identification,production, imitation, multiple responses,otherResponse Unit Oral, written, drawing, gesture, multipleresponse, otherStudent Response Perform, respond orally, point, mark,manipulate, draw, use scissors,sort/organize, write, count, multipleresponses, otherScoring: This section is used to add information,especially if the instrument has anyaccompanying software.Notes: This section is used for any additionalinformation such as the availability andcost of training.
  • 115. Assessment Tools115Appendix BREFERENCESAchenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment™ – http://www.ASEBA.orgAchenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Manual for ASEBA™ Preschool Forms &Profiles (ASEBA™). Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center forChildren, Youth, & Families.Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2000). Achenbach System of Empirically BasedAssessment (ASEBA), Caregiver- Teacher Report Form for Ages 1.5-5.0. NewYork, NY: Pearson Early Learning.Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Achenbach System of Empirically BasedAssessment (ASEBA), Teacher’s Report for Ages 6-18. New York, NY: PearsonEarly Learning.AGS Publishing™ - http://www.agsnet.comAssing, R. (1998). BASC Parent Rating Scale (Spanish translation): Validity study. Paperpresented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association (SanFrancisco, August, 1998).Bracken, B. A. (2006). The Bracken Basic Concept Scale: Expressive (BBCS:E). SanAntonio, Texas: Harcourt Assessment, Inc.Bracken, B. A. (2006). The Bracken Basic Concept Scale– Third Edition: Receptive(BBCS-3:R). San Antonio, Texas: Harcourt Assessment, Inc.Bricker, D. & Squires, J. (1999). Ages & Stages Questionnaires®, Second Edition(ASQ®-2). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.Brigance, A. H., (2005). BRIGANCE® Early Preschool Screen-II. North Billerica, MA:Curriculum & Associates, Inc.Brigance, A. H., (2005). BRIGANCE® Preschool Screen-II. North Billerica, MA:Curriculum & Associates, Inc.Chapel Hill Training-Outreach Project Inc. - http://www.chtop.orgConners, C. K.(1997). Conners’ Rating Scales-Revised (CRS-R). New York, NY:Pearson Early Learning.CURRICULUM ASSOCIATES®, Incorporated - http://www.curriculumassociates.com
  • 116. Assessment Tools116Denver Developmental Materials, Incorporated - http://www.denverii.comDevereux Early Childhood Initiative – http://www.devereuxearlychildhood.orgDichtelmiller, M. L., Jablon, J. R., Meisels, S. J., & Marsden, D. B. (2001). WorkSampling for Head Start. New York, NY: Pearson Early Learning.Elliott, C. D. (2005). Differential Ability Scales®(DAS®). Lutz, FL: PsychologicalAssessment Resources, Inc.Frankenburg, W.K., Dodds, J., Archer, P., Shapiro, H., Bresnick, B. (2005). DenverDevelopmental Screening Test, Second Edition (DDST-R). Denver, CO: DenverDevelopmental Materials, Inc.Ginsburg, H. P. & Baroody, A. J. (2003). Test of Early Mathematics Ability, 3rd Ed.(TEMA-3). Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Harrison, P., Kaufman, A. Kaufman, N., Bruininks, R., Rynders, J., Ilmer, S., Sparrow S.,& Cicchetti, D. (1990). Early Screening Profiles (ESP). Circle Mines, MN: AGSPublishing.High/Scope Educational Research Foundation - http://www.highscope.orgKamphaus, R. & Reynolds, (2005). Behavior Assessment System for Children, SecondEdition (BASC-2). Circle Mines, MN: AGS Publishing.Kaplan Early Learning Company - http://www.kaplanco.comKaufman, A. S., & Kaufman, N. L. (1993). The Kaufman Survey of Early Academic andLanguage Skills (K-SEALS). Circle Mines, MN: AGS Publishing.Korkman, M., Kirk, U., Kemp, S. (1997). NEPSY®. San Antonio, Texas: ThePsychological Corporation.Mardell-Czudnowski, C. & Goldenberg, D. S. (1998). Developmental Indicators for theAssessment of Learning, Third Edition, (DIAL-3). Circle Mines, MN: AGSPublishing.Meisels, S. J. & Piker, R. A. (2001). An analysis of early literacy assessments used forinstruction. Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement Report #2-013, April 23, 2001. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan School ofEducation – http://www.ciera.orgMeisels, S. J., Wiske, M. S., & Henderson, L. W. (1997). Early Screening Inventory-Kindergarten (ESI-K). New York, NY: Pearson Early Learning.
  • 117. Assessment Tools117Meisels, S. J., Wiske, M. S., & Henderson, L. W. (1997). Early Screening Inventory-Preschool (ESI-P). New York, NY: Pearson Early Learning.Miller, L. J., (1993). FirstSTEp™: Screening Test for Evaluating Preschoolers. SanAntonio, Texas: The Psychological Corporation.Miller, L. J., (1988). Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP™). San Antonio, Texas:The Psychological Corporation.Muñoz-Sandoval, A. F., Cummins, J., Alvarado, C. G. & Ruef, M. L. (2006). BilingualVerbal Ability Tests, Normative Update BVAT®-NU). Itasca, IL: RiversidePublishing Co.Newborg, J. (2004). Battelle Developmental Inventory, Second Edition (BDI®-2). Itasca,IL: Riverside Publishing Co.Paul H. Brookes™ Publishing Company, Incorporated –http://www.brookespublishing.comPearson Early Learning - http://www.pearsonearlylearning.comPsychological Assessment Resources, Inc. (PAR™) - http://www3.parinc.comD. Kim Reid, D. K., Wayne P. Hresko, W. P. & Donald D. Hammill, D. D. (2002). Testof Early Reading Ability, ThirdEd. (TERA-3). Lutz, FL: PsychologicalAssessment Resources, Inc.Riverside Publishing Company - http://www.riverpub.comRoid, G. H. (2005). Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales for Early Childhood (Early SB5).Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Co.Semel, E, Wiig, E. H., & Secord, W. A. (2004). Clinical Evaluation of LanguageFundamentals®-(CELF®-2.) San Antonio, Texas: The PsychologicalCorporation.Shepard, L., Kagan, S. L., & Wurtz, E. (Eds.), (1998). Principles and recommendationsfor early childhood assessments. (National Educational Goals Panel).Washington,D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.Teaching Strategies, Incorporated - http://www.teachingstrategies.comThe Psychological Corporation - http://harcourtassessment.com
  • 118. Assessment Tools118Squires, J., Bricker, D., & Twombly, E. (2002). Ages & Stages Questionnaires®: SocialEmotional (ASQ®:SE). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.David Wechsler (2002). Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™—ThirdEdition (WPPSI™–III). San Antonio, Texas: The Psychological Corporation.Woodcock, R. W., Muñoz-Sandoval, A. F., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2005). BateríaIII Woodcock-Muñoz™. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Co.Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). The Woodcock-Johnson® III(WJ-III®) Tests of Achievement. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Co.Woodcock, R. W., McGrew, K. S., & Mather, N. (2001). The Woodcock-Johnson® III(WJ-III®) Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing Co.

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