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Global Warming & Sustainability

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  • 1. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY “ Because we don’t think about future generations, they will never forget us” Henrik Tikkanen Marta Aparício
  • 2. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY OUR PLANET TODAY
    • Population growth
    • Technological revolution
    • Increase of poluition
    • Lack of water
    • Loss of biodiversity
    • Increase of temperature
    Marta Aparício
  • 3. Global Warming “ For the past 150 years, Earth’s global temperature has been rising.” GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  • 4. EVIDENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício CO 2 levels Global Temperature years ago
  • 5. The Greenhouse Effect Global Warming GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY “ For the past 150 years, Earth’s global temperature has been rising.” The Sun’s energy enters the atmosphere in the form of light waves Most of the energy is sent back into space The Earth is heaten up by the Sun and radiates the infrared waves back into space The greenhouse gases traps a lot of the infrared radiation Marta Aparício
  • 6. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício Greenhouse gases Methane -  18% Nitrous Oxide - 6% Other Gases - 13% CFC - 14% Carbon Dioxide - 49%
  • 7. Why do the levels of CO 2 diminish once a year? GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício CO 2 levels CO 2 levels The leaves fall and disgorge CO 2 The leaves come out and breath in CO 2
  • 8.
    • Melting of the North Polar ice cap and of the rest of the mountain glaciers in the world,
      • Increasing the sea levels of as much as 6 metres
      • Leaving people nearby incapable of drinking fresh water from the ice shelves
      • Taking ice from polar bears, who drawn trying to reach another platform
    • Unstable configuration of ocean and wind – heat waves, droughts, hurricanes, floods
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING Marta Aparício
  • 9.
    • Sea saturation of calcium carbonate interferring with the making of shells by sea creatures – species extintion
    • Increase of deserted areas
    • Emerging of infectious diseases because of the disruption on instability in climate patterns
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING
  • 10. GLOBAL WARMING’S CAUSES
    • Volcanos: sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide
    • Some microorganisms anaerobic activity; in livestock farming, liquid manure is stored in massive tanks: methane
    • Water vapor
    Natural Causes GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Water vapor is a natural greenhouse gas that increases in volume with warmer temperatures, thereby magnifying the impact of all artificial greenhouse gases. Marta Aparício
  • 11.
    • Landfills
    • Fossil-fuel burning (cars)
    • Waste-water treatment
    • Other industry
    Human Causes GLOBAL WARMING’S CAUSES GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • Fertilizers
    • Forest burning
    • Crop residues
    • Aluminum smelting
    • Electricity grid
    Marta Aparício
  • 12. “ According to the main relation between Mankind and Envyronment, we need to guarantee to a minimum wellfare of the society, as to a maximum utilization of the resources our planet has.” SUSTAINABILITY “ Sustainable development applies to present needs without compromising the needs of future generations” GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  • 13. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício 1,2% Romania 1,2% Czech Rebublic 1,2% Netherlands 1,9% Spain 2,1% Australia 2,7% France 3,0% Poland 3,1% Italy 3,3% Canada 4,3% United Kingdom 7,4% Germany 8,5% Japan 17,4% Russia 36,1% United States The countries which release carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in higher quantities
  • 14.
    • Promoves renewable sources of energy to get electric light and efficient transports
    • Reduces to 5% the CO 2 emissions
    • Protects forests and other carbon emissors
    • Has been ratified by 132 Nations in the developed world
    • Has not been ratified by the United States
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY The Kyoto Treaty Marta Aparício Most of the scientists agree that, in order to control Global Warming, it’s necessary that the countries reduce to 60% the CO 2 emissions.
  • 15. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício There’s another group of scientists – the ceptics – who agrees that the Kyoto Treaty doesn’t make sense; people should just change the way they live their lives.
    • The most poluent countries can:
    • Buy “credits” to those who
      • polute less and
      • have the right to emit more than they do.
    • Or acquire “credits” by doing things that help absorving CO 2 from the atmosphere, like planting trees or mantaning the soil healthy.
    EMISSIONS TRADE The Kyoto Treaty
  • 16. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration removing CO 2 out of the atmosphere GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • stored for long periods of time in vegetation, in the ground or under the ground
    • injected in the bottom of the oceans
    • transformed into solid materials such as rocks
    Captured CO 2 : Marta Aparício
  • 17. Energy Efficiency Racional utilization of energy : to decrease the losses of energy during its production, transformation and consuming . GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • Choose compact fluorescent lightbulbs
    • Buy local products
    • Insulate your house
    • Reduce standby power waste
    • Drive less and get hybrid or fuel-cell cars
    • Use less hot water
    • Plant a tree
    • Don’t waste paper
    • Include less meat in your diet
    A single tree will absorb one tone of CO 2 over its lifetime. It takes far more fossil-fuel energy to produce and transport meat than to deliver equivalent amounts of protein from plant sources. A great part of the products we use daily comes from aboard, which requiers energy for its transportation and conservation. Marta Aparício
    • And, of course,
  • 18. THE THREE “R’s” CYCLE FOR THE CONSUMER R educe, R euse and R ecycle GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Recycling takes far less energy than does sending recyclables to landfills and creating new paper. Marta Aparício Product Reduce No Don’t buy Do you really need to buy it? Yes Buy Is it possible to recycle? Is it possible to reuse it? Waste Reuse Recycle Is it a big material? (like forniture or home machines) Use it racionally No Yes No Yes No Yes Choose recycled, biodegradable or reloadable products Put it in the garbage Contact your autarchy Collect your waste and put it in the right collector Deteriorated product that is useless (not including agricultural pesticides)
  • 19. Sources of energy GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Coal Oil Natural gas Biomass Wind Waves Solar Geothermal Electricity Heat Transportation Industry Our home Services Geothermal power station Petrol/Fuel Oil refinery Hydro Marta Aparício
  • 20. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício Renewable sources of energy are being produced (naturaly or by human intervention) at a very fast speed so that our waste won’t lead to its extintion. Ex: Wind power, solar power, biomass Nonrenewable sources of energy are wasted more rapidly than they are produced naturaly. Ex: Coal, oil, natural gas (fossil-fuels)
  • 21. NONRENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY Coal
    • Fossil-fuel which comes from mining
    • It exists in large quantities
    • Great envyronmental impacts
    • It produces electric energy
    • It’s the cheapest fuel
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  • 22. Oil
    • Main source of energy in the whole world
    • Used mostly in transports
    • It might spoil
    • Its burning releases greenhouse gases - it’s one of the biggest source of atmospheric polution
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício NONRENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • 23. Natural Gas
    • Less poluent than coal and oil
    • It’s cheap
    • It exists in many places all around the world
    • Not toxic
    • Difficult transportation
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício NONRENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • 24. Why to use renewable sources of energy?
    • They protect the envyronment
    • Energy independence
    • They create wealth, jobs and opportunity
    • The Kyoto Treaty (in Portugal, it was allowed the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions in 27% until 2012)
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  • 25. Wind Power RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
    • Turning wind energy into electric energy
    • Clean and boundless source
    • Noisy
    • Birds may crash
    • Large tract of land needed for a very high cost of the implementation of the wind power station
    • Dependent on wind velocity
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  • 26. Solar
    • It comes form the Sun light turned into electric or thermal energy
    • It’s guaranteed for 6000 millions of years
    • It’s easy to maintain a solar station
    • Keeps electricity inside
    • High cost of the implementation of the solar panels
    • All day long, light is variable; there are different climate situations and shadows from trees or buildings
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • 27. Waves
    • It turns machenical energy into electric energy
    • The instalations can’t interfeere with the navegation curses and have to resist sea storms
    • The water waves must be very high
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • 28.
    • It comes from the Earth’s inner heat, producing electicity and providing heat itself
    • It can be produced 10.000 times the energy needed for a total present year
    • It’s cheapest than fossil-fuels
    • Its energy is independent from weather variaties
    • The required area to the instalment of the geothermal station is small
    • It creates jobs
    • It’s expensive
    • The lost heat increases the envyronment’s temperature
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Geothermal Power Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • 29. Tides
    • It’s energy is obtained from the different levels of the water during a specific time
    • (minimum: difference of 5 metres)
    • It’s not poluent
    • It doesn’t require sofisticated material
    • The construction of the dam is expensive
    • It provides energy during ten hours a day only
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • 30. Biomass
    • It’s energy comes from forests, and food (during its making or its treatment) waste
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • Ex: biodiesel and bio-gas
    Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • 31.
    • It’s an alternative fuel that can be brewed from leftover frying oil or any other organic waste
    • Biodiesel increases the car engine’s life
    • Vegetation captures the CO 2 that comes from the burning of this fuel
    • It creates jobs
    Biodiesel GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  • 32. Hydrogen Power
      • It may be the ultimate clean fuel of the future
      • It’s at least a few decades away
      • It produces electricity with a profit higher than 40%
    • Renewable, boundless and not poluent resource of energy (it only expelts water vapor to the envyronment)
    GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY
    • It can have many sources of energy: solar power, wind power, water, fossil-fuels and biomass
    • It cannot be found in nature; it must be produced unnaturally
    • Hydrogen power’s cost will be reasonable compared to the oil’s costs
    Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  • 33. The End GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício

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