GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY “ Because we don’t think about future generations, they will never forget us” Henrik Tik...
GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY OUR PLANET TODAY <ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Technological revolution </...
Global Warming “ For the past 150 years, Earth’s global temperature has been rising.” GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Ma...
EVIDENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício CO 2  levels Global Temperature years ago
The Greenhouse Effect Global Warming GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY “ For the past 150 years, Earth’s global temperatur...
GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício Greenhouse gases Methane -  18% Nitrous Oxide - 6% Other Gases - 13% CFC ...
Why do the levels of CO 2  diminish once a year? GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício CO 2  levels CO 2  level...
<ul><li>Melting of the North Polar ice cap and of the rest of the mountain glaciers in the world,  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I...
<ul><li>Sea saturation of calcium carbonate interferring with the making of shells by sea creatures – species extintion </...
GLOBAL WARMING’S CAUSES <ul><li>Volcanos:  sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide </li></ul><ul><li>Some m...
<ul><li>Landfills </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil-fuel burning (cars) </li></ul><ul><li>Waste-water treatment </li></ul><ul><li>O...
“ According to the main relation between Mankind and Envyronment, we need to guarantee to a minimum wellfare of the societ...
GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício 1,2% Romania 1,2% Czech Rebublic 1,2% Netherlands 1,9% Spain 2,1% Austral...
<ul><li>Promoves renewable sources of energy to get electric light and efficient transports </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces to 5...
GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício There’s another group of scientists – the ceptics – who agrees that the K...
Carbon Dioxide Sequestration removing CO 2  out of the atmosphere GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY <ul><li>stored for lon...
Energy Efficiency Racional utilization of energy : to decrease the losses of energy during its production, transformation ...
THE THREE “R’s” CYCLE FOR  THE CONSUMER R educe,  R euse and  R ecycle  GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Recycling takes ...
Sources of energy GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Coal Oil Natural gas Biomass Wind Waves Solar Geothermal Electricity H...
GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício Renewable sources of energy are being produced (naturaly or by human inte...
NONRENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY Coal <ul><li>Fossil-fuel which comes from mining </li></ul><ul><li>It exists in large quant...
Oil <ul><li>Main source of energy in the whole world </li></ul><ul><li>Used mostly in transports </li></ul><ul><li>It migh...
Natural Gas <ul><li>Less poluent than coal and oil  </li></ul><ul><li>It’s cheap </li></ul><ul><li>It exists in many place...
Why to use renewable sources of energy? <ul><li>They protect the envyronment </li></ul><ul><li>Energy independence </li></...
Wind Power RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY <ul><li>Turning wind energy into electric energy </li></ul><ul><li>Clean and boundl...
Solar <ul><li>It comes form the Sun light turned into electric or thermal energy </li></ul><ul><li>It’s guaranteed for 600...
Waves <ul><li>It turns machenical energy into electric energy </li></ul><ul><li>The instalations can’t interfeere with the...
<ul><li>It comes from the Earth’s inner heat, producing electicity and providing heat itself </li></ul><ul><li>It can be p...
Tides <ul><li>It’s energy is obtained from the different levels of the water during a specific time </li></ul><ul><li>(min...
Biomass <ul><li>It’s energy comes from forests, and food (during its making or its treatment) waste </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMI...
<ul><li>It’s an alternative fuel that can be brewed from leftover frying oil or any other organic waste  </li></ul><ul><li...
Hydrogen Power <ul><ul><li>It may be the ultimate clean fuel of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s at least a few ...
The End GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
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Global Warming & Sustainability

  1. 1. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY “ Because we don’t think about future generations, they will never forget us” Henrik Tikkanen Marta Aparício
  2. 2. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY OUR PLANET TODAY <ul><li>Population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Technological revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of poluition </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of water </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of temperature </li></ul>Marta Aparício
  3. 3. Global Warming “ For the past 150 years, Earth’s global temperature has been rising.” GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  4. 4. EVIDENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício CO 2 levels Global Temperature years ago
  5. 5. The Greenhouse Effect Global Warming GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY “ For the past 150 years, Earth’s global temperature has been rising.” The Sun’s energy enters the atmosphere in the form of light waves Most of the energy is sent back into space The Earth is heaten up by the Sun and radiates the infrared waves back into space The greenhouse gases traps a lot of the infrared radiation Marta Aparício
  6. 6. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício Greenhouse gases Methane -  18% Nitrous Oxide - 6% Other Gases - 13% CFC - 14% Carbon Dioxide - 49%
  7. 7. Why do the levels of CO 2 diminish once a year? GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício CO 2 levels CO 2 levels The leaves fall and disgorge CO 2 The leaves come out and breath in CO 2
  8. 8. <ul><li>Melting of the North Polar ice cap and of the rest of the mountain glaciers in the world, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing the sea levels of as much as 6 metres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaving people nearby incapable of drinking fresh water from the ice shelves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking ice from polar bears, who drawn trying to reach another platform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unstable configuration of ocean and wind – heat waves, droughts, hurricanes, floods </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING Marta Aparício
  9. 9. <ul><li>Sea saturation of calcium carbonate interferring with the making of shells by sea creatures – species extintion </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of deserted areas </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging of infectious diseases because of the disruption on instability in climate patterns </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício CONSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL WARMING
  10. 10. GLOBAL WARMING’S CAUSES <ul><li>Volcanos: sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulphide </li></ul><ul><li>Some microorganisms anaerobic activity; in livestock farming, liquid manure is stored in massive tanks: methane </li></ul><ul><li>Water vapor </li></ul>Natural Causes GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Water vapor is a natural greenhouse gas that increases in volume with warmer temperatures, thereby magnifying the impact of all artificial greenhouse gases. Marta Aparício
  11. 11. <ul><li>Landfills </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil-fuel burning (cars) </li></ul><ul><li>Waste-water treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Other industry </li></ul>Human Causes GLOBAL WARMING’S CAUSES GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY <ul><li>Fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>Forest burning </li></ul><ul><li>Crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum smelting </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity grid </li></ul>Marta Aparício
  12. 12. “ According to the main relation between Mankind and Envyronment, we need to guarantee to a minimum wellfare of the society, as to a maximum utilization of the resources our planet has.” SUSTAINABILITY “ Sustainable development applies to present needs without compromising the needs of future generations” GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  13. 13. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício 1,2% Romania 1,2% Czech Rebublic 1,2% Netherlands 1,9% Spain 2,1% Australia 2,7% France 3,0% Poland 3,1% Italy 3,3% Canada 4,3% United Kingdom 7,4% Germany 8,5% Japan 17,4% Russia 36,1% United States The countries which release carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in higher quantities
  14. 14. <ul><li>Promoves renewable sources of energy to get electric light and efficient transports </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces to 5% the CO 2 emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Protects forests and other carbon emissors </li></ul><ul><li>Has been ratified by 132 Nations in the developed world </li></ul><ul><li>Has not been ratified by the United States </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY The Kyoto Treaty Marta Aparício Most of the scientists agree that, in order to control Global Warming, it’s necessary that the countries reduce to 60% the CO 2 emissions.
  15. 15. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício There’s another group of scientists – the ceptics – who agrees that the Kyoto Treaty doesn’t make sense; people should just change the way they live their lives. <ul><li>The most poluent countries can: </li></ul><ul><li>Buy “credits” to those who </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polute less and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have the right to emit more than they do. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Or acquire “credits” by doing things that help absorving CO 2 from the atmosphere, like planting trees or mantaning the soil healthy. </li></ul>EMISSIONS TRADE The Kyoto Treaty
  16. 16. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration removing CO 2 out of the atmosphere GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY <ul><li>stored for long periods of time in vegetation, in the ground or under the ground </li></ul><ul><li>injected in the bottom of the oceans </li></ul><ul><li>transformed into solid materials such as rocks </li></ul>Captured CO 2 : Marta Aparício
  17. 17. Energy Efficiency Racional utilization of energy : to decrease the losses of energy during its production, transformation and consuming . GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY <ul><li>Choose compact fluorescent lightbulbs </li></ul><ul><li>Buy local products </li></ul><ul><li>Insulate your house </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce standby power waste </li></ul><ul><li>Drive less and get hybrid or fuel-cell cars </li></ul><ul><li>Use less hot water </li></ul><ul><li>Plant a tree </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t waste paper </li></ul><ul><li>Include less meat in your diet </li></ul>A single tree will absorb one tone of CO 2 over its lifetime. It takes far more fossil-fuel energy to produce and transport meat than to deliver equivalent amounts of protein from plant sources. A great part of the products we use daily comes from aboard, which requiers energy for its transportation and conservation. Marta Aparício <ul><li>And, of course, </li></ul>
  18. 18. THE THREE “R’s” CYCLE FOR THE CONSUMER R educe, R euse and R ecycle GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Recycling takes far less energy than does sending recyclables to landfills and creating new paper. Marta Aparício Product Reduce No Don’t buy Do you really need to buy it? Yes Buy Is it possible to recycle? Is it possible to reuse it? Waste Reuse Recycle Is it a big material? (like forniture or home machines) Use it racionally No Yes No Yes No Yes Choose recycled, biodegradable or reloadable products Put it in the garbage Contact your autarchy Collect your waste and put it in the right collector Deteriorated product that is useless (not including agricultural pesticides)
  19. 19. Sources of energy GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Coal Oil Natural gas Biomass Wind Waves Solar Geothermal Electricity Heat Transportation Industry Our home Services Geothermal power station Petrol/Fuel Oil refinery Hydro Marta Aparício
  20. 20. GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício Renewable sources of energy are being produced (naturaly or by human intervention) at a very fast speed so that our waste won’t lead to its extintion. Ex: Wind power, solar power, biomass Nonrenewable sources of energy are wasted more rapidly than they are produced naturaly. Ex: Coal, oil, natural gas (fossil-fuels)
  21. 21. NONRENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY Coal <ul><li>Fossil-fuel which comes from mining </li></ul><ul><li>It exists in large quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Great envyronmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>It produces electric energy </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the cheapest fuel </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  22. 22. Oil <ul><li>Main source of energy in the whole world </li></ul><ul><li>Used mostly in transports </li></ul><ul><li>It might spoil </li></ul><ul><li>Its burning releases greenhouse gases - it’s one of the biggest source of atmospheric polution </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício NONRENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  23. 23. Natural Gas <ul><li>Less poluent than coal and oil </li></ul><ul><li>It’s cheap </li></ul><ul><li>It exists in many places all around the world </li></ul><ul><li>Not toxic </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult transportation </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício NONRENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  24. 24. Why to use renewable sources of energy? <ul><li>They protect the envyronment </li></ul><ul><li>Energy independence </li></ul><ul><li>They create wealth, jobs and opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>The Kyoto Treaty (in Portugal, it was allowed the increase of the carbon dioxide emissions in 27% until 2012) </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  25. 25. Wind Power RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY <ul><li>Turning wind energy into electric energy </li></ul><ul><li>Clean and boundless source </li></ul><ul><li>Noisy </li></ul><ul><li>Birds may crash </li></ul><ul><li>Large tract of land needed for a very high cost of the implementation of the wind power station </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on wind velocity </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  26. 26. Solar <ul><li>It comes form the Sun light turned into electric or thermal energy </li></ul><ul><li>It’s guaranteed for 6000 millions of years </li></ul><ul><li>It’s easy to maintain a solar station </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps electricity inside </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of the implementation of the solar panels </li></ul><ul><li>All day long, light is variable; there are different climate situations and shadows from trees or buildings </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  27. 27. Waves <ul><li>It turns machenical energy into electric energy </li></ul><ul><li>The instalations can’t interfeere with the navegation curses and have to resist sea storms </li></ul><ul><li>The water waves must be very high </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  28. 28. <ul><li>It comes from the Earth’s inner heat, producing electicity and providing heat itself </li></ul><ul><li>It can be produced 10.000 times the energy needed for a total present year </li></ul><ul><li>It’s cheapest than fossil-fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Its energy is independent from weather variaties </li></ul><ul><li>The required area to the instalment of the geothermal station is small </li></ul><ul><li>It creates jobs </li></ul><ul><li>It’s expensive </li></ul><ul><li>The lost heat increases the envyronment’s temperature </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Geothermal Power Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  29. 29. Tides <ul><li>It’s energy is obtained from the different levels of the water during a specific time </li></ul><ul><li>(minimum: difference of 5 metres) </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not poluent </li></ul><ul><li>It doesn’t require sofisticated material </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of the dam is expensive </li></ul><ul><li>It provides energy during ten hours a day only </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  30. 30. Biomass <ul><li>It’s energy comes from forests, and food (during its making or its treatment) waste </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY <ul><li>Ex: biodiesel and bio-gas </li></ul>Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  31. 31. <ul><li>It’s an alternative fuel that can be brewed from leftover frying oil or any other organic waste </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel increases the car engine’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation captures the CO 2 that comes from the burning of this fuel </li></ul><ul><li>It creates jobs </li></ul>Biodiesel GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício
  32. 32. Hydrogen Power <ul><ul><li>It may be the ultimate clean fuel of the future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s at least a few decades away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It produces electricity with a profit higher than 40% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renewable, boundless and not poluent resource of energy (it only expelts water vapor to the envyronment) </li></ul>GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY <ul><li>It can have many sources of energy: solar power, wind power, water, fossil-fuels and biomass </li></ul><ul><li>It cannot be found in nature; it must be produced unnaturally </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen power’s cost will be reasonable compared to the oil’s costs </li></ul>Marta Aparício RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY
  33. 33. The End GLOBAL WARMING AND SUSTAINABILITY Marta Aparício

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