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Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)
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Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability (PhD defense nov 2011)

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Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability. …

Ontology spectrum for geological data interoperability.
A 10-minutre layman presentation for my PhD defense at University of Twente, 2011/11/30. Full text of dissertation is accessible at: http://www.itc.nl/library/papers_2011/phd/ma.pdf

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  • 1. 30-Nov-2011, Enschede, The Netherlands Ontology Spectrum for Geological Data Interoperability PhD candidate: Xiaogang Ma Promotors: Prof. dr. F.D. van der Meer Prof. C. Wu Dr. E.J.M. Carranza Asst. Promotor: (Background image courtesy of OneGeology and CGMW)
  • 2. Geology is everywhere… (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 3. Geology is everywhere… (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 4. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 5. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 6. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 7. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 8. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 9. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 10. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 11. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 12. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 13. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 14. (Images courtesy of OneGeology, CGMW, BGS, John Powell, Paul Witney, Serdar Yagci, Sourav Chowdhury, Corbis, Sarah Hannis)
  • 15. But…
  • 16. Is the geological knowledge harmonized? (Background image courtesy of British Geological Survey)
  • 17. Are the geological data interoperable? (Background image courtesy of British Geological Survey)
  • 18. …and that lack of interoperability may pose problems for the real world (Background image courtesy of British Geological Survey)
  • 19. Ontology in philosophy Definition: That branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature or essence of being or existence Aristotle (384 – 322 BCE) “ What is above form is called Tao; what is within form is called tool.” I Ching (Book of Changes) (c. 450 – 250 BCE)
  • 20. Ontology in computer science Definition: A shared conceptualization of domain knowledge [Gruber, 1995; Guarino, 1997] An ontology spectrum Italic words show a typical relationship between concepts in that type of ontology [Ma et al., 2010; adapted from Welty, 2002; McGuinness, 2003; Obrst, 2003; Uschold and Gruninger, 2004; Borgo et al., 2005]
  • 21. Data interoperability Science v. 331 (6018), 2011 Feb. 11, 2011 Nature Geoscience v. 4 (9), 2011 Sept. 2011
  • 22. Data interoperability Nature Geoscience v. 4 (12), 2011 Dec. 2011 Interoperable: discoverable, accessible, decodable, understandable, and usable
  • 23. Applying ontologies in geosciences Provide novel functions in geological data services ……
  • 24. Motivation Challenges in applying an ontology spectrum to promote geological data interoperability Modeling vs. encoding Multilinguality Flexibility & usefulness Mediation & evolution Objective Address these challenges, and provide a route map for applying an ontology spectrum to promote geological data interoperability
  • 25. Approach • Empirical studies following an ontology spectrum Taxonomy Thesaurus Schema Pragmatics RDF / OWL
  • 26. Taxonomy
  • 27. A taxonomical controlled vocabulary Taxonomy • Theme: mineral exploration Controlled vocabulary for mineral exploration geodatabases for mining applications Prospecting and exploration of mineral resources Mining geology and mining Geomorphology Hydrogeology Exploratory engineering Geotectonics Mineral and rock identification Ore deposits Structural geology Chemical analysis Engineering geology Geoeconomy Geophysics Petrology Geochemistry Crystallography and mineralogy Historical geology and stratigraphy Environmental geology Mathematical geology Coal geology Remote sensing geology Geophysical exploration Geochemistry exploration Palaeontology Paleogeography [Ma et al., 2010a, C&G] Beneficiation and metallurgy Mapping
  • 28. Use the vocabulary in mining projects Taxonomy Zijin Gold Mine Controlled vocabulary Conceptual modelling Conceptual schema …… Borehole_Layered_Geological_Description … Rock name [YSEB] Rock Texture [YSC] Borehole number [GCJCBN] Layer number [MDLOA] Rock name [YSEB] Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] Fossil [GSAB] Rock texture [YSC] Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] Fossil [GSAB] …
  • 29. Use the vocabulary in mining projects Taxonomy Zijin Gold Mine Controlled vocabulary Database AConceptual modelling Borehole_Record ZK_ID ZK_type …… X Y Z ZK_azimuth_angle ZK_inclination_angle Layer_start Rock name [YSEB] Layer_end Rock Rock Texture [YSC] Grain_size Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] Color Mineral Fossil [GSAB] Au_grade Cu_grade … Database B Conceptual schema Database C Borehole_Brief_Information Exploration area number [MDBTAD] Borehole number [GCJCBN] X coordinate at hole top [TKCAF] Y coordinate at hole top [TKCAG] … Borehole_Layered_Geological_Description … Borehole_Layered_Geological_Desc Borehole number [GCJCBN] ription Layer number [MDLOA] Rock name [YSEB] Exploration area number [MDBTAD] Borehole number [GCJCBN] Rock texture [YSC] Layer number [MDLOA] Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] Rock name [YSEB] Fossil [GSAB] Rock color [YSHB] … … Integrated Database
  • 30. Use the vocabulary in mining projects Taxonomy Zijin Gold Mine Controlled vocabulary (a) List of rock names (b) List of igneous rock textures Conceptual schema Database AConceptual modelling Database B Level Database C Code English name Level Code English name Subclass Term … Term … Term … Borehole_Record YSEB YSEB10001 … YSEB14801 … YSEB20101 … Rock name Dunite … Granite … Breccia … Subclass Subclass Term … Term Term … YSC YSCA YSCA1001 … YSCA1011 YSCA1012 … Rock texture Texture of igneous rocks Holocrystalline … Intermediate granular Fine granular … (c) List of sedimentary rock textures Level Subclass Subclass Subclass Term … Term … Code YSCB YSCBA YSCBAA YSCBAA2001 … YSCBAA2011 … Mandate Mandate Borehole_Brief_Information (g) Standardized records Borehole_Layered_Geological_Description Exploration area number [MDBTAD] … Borehole number [GCJCBN] … Borehole Layer Symptomatic number number Rock name Rock texture Rock color mineral Fossil X coordinate at hole top [TKCAF] [GCJCBN] [MDLOA] [YSEB] [YSC] [YSHB] [KWBGAX] [GSAB] at [TKCAG] Intermediate granular Grey-white … Y coordinate 001hole top Granite ZK1101 … …… ZK1101 002 Breccia Granule Deep yellow-brown … ZK_ID ZK_type …… X Y Z … ZK1101 Borehole_Layered_Geological_Description 003 Breccia Granule Deep yellow-brown Gold ZK_azimuth_angle … … … … … … … ZK_inclination_angle … Layer_start Mandate Rock name [YSEB] Borehole_Layered_Geological_Desc Borehole number [GCJCBN] Mandate Layer_end ription (d) List of rock colors Layer number [MDLOA] of mineral names (e) List Rock Rock Texture [YSC] Level Code English name Level English name Rock name [YSEB] Exploration area number [MDBTAD] Code Grain_size Subclass YSHB Rock color Term KWBGAX Symptomatic mineral Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] YSHB001 Light Rock texture [YSC] Borehole number [GCJCBN] Color Term red Subclass KWBH Crystallochemical classification of minerals number [MDLOA] Term Mineral … … Layer … Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] KWBH0001 Diamond Fossil [GSAB] Integrated Database Term YSHB084 name [YSEB] Rock Grey-white … … … Au_grade … … Rock colorFossil [GSAB] Term … KWBH0028 Gold [YSHB] Cu_grade Term YSHB103 Deep … yellow-brown Term KWBH0029 Tetra-auricupride … … … English name Texture of sedimentary rocks Texture of clastic grains Grade of grains Coarse clastic … Granule … … … … … … … … … Mandate (f) List of fossil classifications Level Subclass Term … Term Term Term … Code GSAB GSAB01 … GSAB05 GSAB06 GSAB07 … English name Fossil Ancient organism … Marcofossil Mircofossil Nannofossil …
  • 31. Use the vocabulary in mining projects Taxonomy Zijin Gold Mine Controlled vocabulary (a) List of rock names (b) List of igneous rock textures Conceptual schema Database AConceptual modelling Database B Level Database C Code English name Level Code English name Subclass Term … Term … Term … Borehole_Record YSEB YSEB10001 … YSEB14801 … YSEB20101 … Rock name Dunite … Granite … Breccia … Subclass Subclass Term … Term Term … YSC YSCA YSCA1001 … YSCA1011 YSCA1012 … Rock texture Texture of igneous rocks Holocrystalline … Intermediate granular Fine granular … (c) List of sedimentary rock textures Level Subclass Subclass Subclass Term … Term … Code YSCB YSCBA YSCBAA YSCBAA2001 … YSCBAA2011 … English name Texture of sedimentary rocks Texture of clastic grains Grade of grains Coarse clastic … Granule … Mandate Mandate Borehole_Brief_Information (g) Standardized records Borehole_Layered_Geological_Description Exploration area number [MDBTAD] … Borehole number [GCJCBN] … Borehole Layer Symptomatic number number Rock name Rock texture Rock color mineral Fossil X coordinate at hole top [TKCAF] [GCJCBN] [MDLOA] [YSEB] [YSC] [YSHB] [KWBGAX] [GSAB] at [TKCAG] Intermediate granular Grey-white … Y coordinate 001hole top Granite ZK1101 … …… ZK1101 002 Breccia Granule Deep yellow-brown … ZK_ID ZK_type …… X Y Z … ZK1101 Borehole_Layered_Geological_Description 003 Breccia Granule Deep yellow-brown Gold … ZK_azimuth_angle … … … … … … … … … ZK_inclination_angle … Layer_start Mandate Mandate Rock name [YSEB] Borehole_Layered_Geological_Desc Borehole number [GCJCBN] Mandate Layer_end ription (d) List of rock colors Layer number [MDLOA] of mineral names (f) List of fossil classifications (e) List Rock Rock Texture [YSC] Level Code English name Level Code English name Level English name Rock name [YSEB] Exploration area number [MDBTAD] Code Grain_size Subclass YSHB Rock color Subclass GSAB Fossil Term KWBGAX Symptomatic mineral Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] YSHB001 Light Rock texture [YSC] Borehole number [GCJCBN] Color Term red TermLayer GSAB01 Ancient organism Subclass KWBH Crystallochemical Layer classification Percentage of minerals Core of core number [MDLOA] Term Mineral … … Layer … Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] … number… … KWBH0001 Diamond thickness sample recovery Fossil [GSAB] Integrated Database Term YSHB084 name [YSEB] Rock Grey-white Term GSAB05 Marcofossil … … … Au_grade Core Name of Symbol Geological … … Rock colorFossil [GSAB] Term … Term GSAB06 Mircofossil KWBH0028 Gold Depth at [YSHB] Cu_grade layer bottom length lithostratigraphic GSAB07type of rock Nannofossil description Term YSHB103 Deep … yellow-brown Term Term KWBH0029 Tetra-auricupride … … … … … … … … unit … … …
  • 32. Use the vocabulary in mining projects Taxonomy Zijin Gold Mine Controlled vocabulary External Interoperability (a) List of rock names (b) List of igneous rock textures Conceptual schema Database AConceptual modelling Database B Level Database C Code English name Level Code English name Subclass Term … Term … Term … Borehole_Record YSEB YSEB10001 … YSEB14801 … YSEB20101 … Rock name Dunite … Granite … Breccia … Subclass Subclass Term … Term Term … YSC YSCA YSCA1001 … YSCA1011 YSCA1012 … Rock texture Texture of igneous rocks Holocrystalline … Intermediate granular Fine granular … (c) List of sedimentary rock textures Level Subclass Subclass Subclass Term … Term … Code YSCB YSCBA YSCBAA YSCBAA2001 … YSCBAA2011 … English name Texture of sedimentary rocks Texture of clastic grains Grade of grains Coarse clastic … Granule … External projects Commonly accepted standards Mandate Mandate Borehole_Brief_Information (g) Standardized records Borehole_Layered_Geological_Description Exploration area number [MDBTAD] … Borehole number [GCJCBN] … Borehole Layer Symptomatic number number Rock name Rock texture Rock color mineral Fossil X coordinate at hole top [TKCAF] [GCJCBN] [MDLOA] [YSEB] [YSC] [YSHB] [KWBGAX] [GSAB] at [TKCAG] Intermediate granular Grey-white … Y coordinate 001hole top Granite ZK1101 … …… ZK1101 002 Breccia Granule Deep yellow-brown … ZK_ID ZK_type …… X Y Z … ZK1101 Borehole_Layered_Geological_Description 003 Breccia Granule Deep yellow-brown Gold … ZK_azimuth_angle … … … … … … … … … ZK_inclination_angle … Layer_start Mandate Mandate Rock name [YSEB] Borehole_Layered_Geological_Desc Borehole number [GCJCBN] Mandate Layer_end ription (d) List of rock colors Layer number [MDLOA] of mineral names (f) List of fossil classifications (e) List Rock Rock Texture [YSC] Level Code English name Level Code English name Level English name Rock name [YSEB] Exploration area number [MDBTAD] Code Grain_size Subclass YSHB Rock color Subclass GSAB Fossil Term KWBGAX Symptomatic mineral Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] YSHB001 Light Rock texture [YSC] Borehole number [GCJCBN] Color Term red TermLayer GSAB01 Ancient organism Subclass KWBH Crystallochemical Layer classification Percentage of minerals Core of core number [MDLOA] Term Mineral … … Layer … Symptomatic mineral [KWBGAX] … number… … KWBH0001 Diamond thickness sample recovery Fossil [GSAB] Integrated Database Term YSHB084 name [YSEB] Rock Grey-white Term GSAB05 Marcofossil … … … Au_grade Core Name of Symbol Geological … … Rock colorFossil [GSAB] Term … Term GSAB06 Mircofossil KWBH0028 Gold Depth at [YSHB] Cu_grade layer bottom length lithostratigraphic GSAB07type of rock Nannofossil description Term YSHB103 Deep … yellow-brown Term Term KWBH0029 Tetra-auricupride … … Local geodata Internal Interoperability Controlled vocabulary Data sources … … … … … … unit … … …
  • 33. Thesaurus
  • 34. A SKOS-based multilingual thesaurus Thesaurus • Theme: geological time scale SKOS: A scheme for encoding controlled vocabularies for the Semantic Web Chronostratigraphic terms in English as basic reference [Ma et al., 2011a, C&G]
  • 35. Translate online geological maps Thesaurus Pilot data courtesy of TNO, CGMW, GSJ & OneGeology
  • 36. Translate online geological maps Thesaurus Pilot data courtesy of TNO, CGMW, GSJ & OneGeology Same conceptual structure; Different languages
  • 37. Translate online geological maps Thesaurus Pilot data courtesy of TNO, CGMW, GSJ & OneGeology 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 <skos:Concept rdf:ID="Lower_Triassic"> <skos:definition>Lower/Early Triassic Series/Epoch; 251.0±0.4—~245.9 Ma</skos:definition> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="cn">下三叠统</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">Untertrias</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Lower Triassic</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">Triásico Inferior</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">Trias Inférieur</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="jp">下部三畳系</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="nl">Onder Trias</skos:prefLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Early Triassic</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳紀前期</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">前期三畳紀</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳系下部</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="cn">早三叠世</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="nl">Vroeg Trias</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Triasico Inferior</skos:altLabel> <skos:broader rdf:resource="#Triassic"/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Olenekian"/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Induan"/> <rdf:type rdf:resource="#Series"/> <gts:lowerThan rdf:resource="#Middle_Triassic"/> <gts:upperThan rdf:resource="#Lopingian"/> <gts:upperBoundaryTime>~245.9 Ma</gts:upperBoundaryTime> <gts:lowerBoundaryTime>251.0±0.4 Ma</gts:lowerBoundaryTime> <gts:basalGsspInfo> https://engineering.purdue.edu/stratigraphy/gssp/detail.php?periodid=76-top_parentid=35 </gts:basalGsspInfo> <skos:inScheme rdf:resource="urn:ICS:International_Stratigraphic_Chart:2010"/> </skos:Concept> Same conceptual structure; of Definition Different languages Triassic” “Lower
  • 38. Translate online geological maps Thesaurus Pilot data courtesy of TNO, CGMW, GSJ & OneGeology 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 <skos:Concept rdf:ID="Lower_Triassic"> <skos:definition>Lower/Early Triassic Series/Epoch; 251.0±0.4—~245.9 Ma</skos:definition> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="cn">下三叠统</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">Untertrias</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Lower Triassic</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">Triásico Inferior</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">Trias Inférieur</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="jp">下部三畳系</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="nl">Onder Trias</skos:prefLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Early Triassic</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳紀前期</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">前期三畳紀</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳系下部</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="cn">早三叠世</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="nl">Vroeg Trias</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Triasico Inferior</skos:altLabel> <skos:broader rdf:resource="#Triassic"/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Olenekian"/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Induan"/> <rdf:type rdf:resource="#Series"/> <gts:lowerThan rdf:resource="#Middle_Triassic"/> <gts:upperThan rdf:resource="#Lopingian"/> <gts:upperBoundaryTime>~245.9 Ma</gts:upperBoundaryTime> <gts:lowerBoundaryTime>251.0±0.4 Ma</gts:lowerBoundaryTime> <gts:basalGsspInfo> https://engineering.purdue.edu/stratigraphy/gssp/detail.php?periodid=76-top_parentid=35 </gts:basalGsspInfo> <skos:inScheme rdf:resource="urn:ICS:International_Stratigraphic_Chart:2010"/> </skos:Concept> Same conceptual structure; of Definition Different languages Triassic” “Lower
  • 39. Translate online geological maps Thesaurus Pilot data courtesy of TNO, CGMW, GSJ & OneGeology 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 <skos:Concept rdf:ID="Lower_Triassic"> <skos:definition>Lower/Early Triassic Series/Epoch; 251.0±0.4—~245.9 Ma</skos:definition> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="cn">下三叠统</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">Untertrias</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Lower Triassic</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">Triásico Inferior</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">Trias Inférieur</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="jp">下部三畳系</skos:prefLabel> <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="nl">Onder Trias</skos:prefLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Early Triassic</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳紀前期</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">前期三畳紀</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳系下部</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="cn">早三叠世</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="nl">Vroeg Trias</skos:altLabel> <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Triasico Inferior</skos:altLabel> <skos:broader rdf:resource="#Triassic"/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Olenekian"/> <skos:narrower rdf:resource="#Induan"/> <rdf:type rdf:resource="#Series"/> <gts:lowerThan rdf:resource="#Middle_Triassic"/> <gts:upperThan rdf:resource="#Lopingian"/> <gts:upperBoundaryTime>~245.9 Ma</gts:upperBoundaryTime> <gts:lowerBoundaryTime>251.0±0.4 Ma</gts:lowerBoundaryTime> <gts:basalGsspInfo> https://engineering.purdue.edu/stratigraphy/gssp/detail.php?periodid=76-top_parentid=35 </gts:basalGsspInfo> <skos:inScheme rdf:resource="urn:ICS:International_Stratigraphic_Chart:2010"/> </skos:Concept> Same conceptualTailored structure; of Definition Different languages Triassic” “Lower “mash-up”
  • 40. Schema
  • 41. Conceptual schemas Schema • Theme: compositing borehole intervals Mineral resources Boreholes ID Ls Gs 1 1.36 0.35 2 1.36 0.23 3 0.05 n=1 n=2 n=3 1.36 Lc/Gc Lc/Gc Lc/Gc 1.36 4 0.46 5 1.15 0.04 6 1.56 0.10 3.10/1.41 2.42/1.54 7 1.36 0.13 1.74/1.80 3.10/1.27 2.42/1.38 1.49/1.64 8 3.10/1.12 1.36 1.10 2.42/1.06 9 1.362.87/0.94 0.24 10 1.63 0.10 11 0.44 0.81 E 12 1.02 5.57 f D (CSUi , Sn ) 13 0.71 1.11 n=1 14 0.65 0.69 Ls Gs Lc/Gc Lc/Gc 15 0.65 0.53 0.68 0.28 16 1.09 0.50 0.75 0.19 17 0.81 0.33 2.11/0.77 0.68 1.06 18 0.75 0.47 1.36/1.09 2.06/0.93 0.68 1.11 19 0.68 0.28 0.7 0.61 20 0.75 0.19 0.51 1.03 21 0.68 1.06 22 0.68 1.11 23 0.70 0.61 24 0.51 1.03 25 0.61 0.94 26 0.68 0.92 27 0.68 0.89 28 0.93 0.97 29 0.81 2.75 30 0.68 0.31 31 0.68 0.17 32 0.70 0.22 … … … Orebodies Gc/Lc E f D (CSUi , Sn ) ID Ls Gs Lc/Gc 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 0.61 0.68 0.68 0.93 0.81 0.68 0.68 0.7 0.68 0.94 0.92 0.89 0.97 2.75 0.31 0.17 0.22 0.39 0.81/2.75 ID 19 20 21 22 23 24 Borehole intervals Compositing metal-grade intervals 0.20/9.51 1.10/1.36 0.25/3.43 3.74/1.73 0.43/5.38 1.09/1.36 0.61/0.70 1.03/0.51 0.94/0.61 1.41/3.10 … Cross sections
  • 42. Standard-compatible conceptual schemas Schema Zijin Gold Mine All Si in a borehole i=1, 2, …, p E An instance C SUi and external intervals Sn i=0 n=1 T Finish F i>=p m=1 i=i+1 T T F GS>=GM E Si is S Si is S All m > n+1 F Data-flow models W Add Sn related to the m-th E dilution choice to the C SUi E CDn  CSUi  S n i=1, 2, …, q T i>=q Finish LC >= LM T GC·LC >= GM·LM E E C Pi is CSM F C E Pi is C CDn LC >= LM C E Pi T C Dn is C D and E is added to SETCd E n=n+1 is C E SUU E E CSUi is CSUD All n+1 C D in SETCd satisfy GC < GM F F Result in a C F E E C D Output based on theC D  New F E f D (CSUi , S n ) E D Output Cd E Combine composites in SETCm with the C D  Max E to result in a C D  New , delete waste intervals at E the top and bottom of C D  New as many as possible while keep LC>=LM F Add C Dn to SET N F E E C Pi is CSU E SUD T contains anyC N D in SETN E E C DMax is C D Output T Result in a T F Cd E C Pi is CSE E E C Pi is C L F SETCm  NULL F T E SETCd N C Dn is C D and is added to SET N Cd T GC<GM E Find a C DMax in i=0 i=i+1 m=m+1 E C Pi in a borehole Return TRUE [Ma et al., 2010b, C&G] T C E SUi is E CSUU E SETCd  NULL T Return FALSE
  • 43. Standard-compatible conceptual schemas Schema Zijin Gold Mine All Si in a borehole CU i=1, 2, …, p T E CP GC LC f (GC ) W C GC : GC  GM i=i+1 LC F i>=p T C GC : GC  GM LC f ( LC ) Minable : N / A i=0 Finish F GS>=GM 1 1..* Si is SW LS E C Pi in a borehole 1 i=0 0..* i=i+1 T C E Pi C is E L SE GS : GS  GM LS 1..* 1..* is C Pi GC·LC >= GM·LM CD 1..* GC LC SETCd E Find a C DMax 1 in E SETCd 1..* T F N CD SETCm  NULL GC : GC  GM T LC CS 1..* F 0..* C is C Cd Result inC E D Output based on 1theC D  New a CE 0..1 D  Max F E f MAX ( SETCd ) C is C 1 1 E SUU E E CD  Max  f MAX ( SETCd ) E E CSUi is CSUD 1 F 1 E D Output 1..* generalization 1 LC >= LM 1  N C Di  F SETCd C Di  SETCd E f D (CSUi , S n )  FALSE T SETCm E C Dn is C D and E is 1 1 to SETCd added E CD Output E E (CD Output  f Output(CD  New )) 0..1 1 0..*  (C E All n+1 C D in SETCdDOutput satisfy GC < GM E  CDMax ) 1 F Return TRUE 1 aggregation [Ma et al., 2010b, C&G]  Object-oriented models E CD New E E CD New  CD Max  Cm n=n+1 E f Output(CD  New ) F Result in a C Minable : NO m=m+1 E CSUU Add T GC : GC  C Dn G N to SET M Cd LC : LC  LM GC  LC  GM  LM CDn contains anyC N D in SETN 1 1 E SETCd E Pi Economic : YES N C Dn is C D and is added to SET N Cd T F E E C DMax is C D Output 1 E f D (CSUi , S n ) CDn  CSUi  S n GC<GM E CSUD G :E C G Combine composites in SETCm with theCC D  Max GM N E LC : Lat to result in a C D SETCd , delete waste intervals C  LM 0..1 New E the top and bottom of C D  New as many as  L  G  L GC C M M possible while keep LC>=LM 1 E f D (CSUi , S n )  TRUE E E C Pi is CSU E SUD E CU CSUi E f D (CSUi ,ES n ) 0..* E CD  f D (CSUi , S n ) N f (GC , LC , SETCd ) E E Pi 1 Minable : YES E C SU m > n+1 GC : GC  GM F LC : LC  LM Add Sn related to the m-th GC  LC  GM  LM E dilution choice to the 0..* 1..* T T Economic : YES 1 T E Finish CD F GC : GC  GM L : LC  LM F LC >= LM C N C Dj E SETCd C Dj  C D   E E E C Pi is CSM 0..* GC : GC  GM LC : LC  LM f (GC , LC ) E CM GC : GC  GM n=1 LC : LC  LM GC  LC= 1GM  LM m  E CS i=1, 2, …, q i>=q SM 0..* Data-flow models S GS LS f (GS ) SW GS : GS  GM All E CL GC : GC  GM LC : LC  LM 1 1..* 1..* 1..* Si is SE E An instance C SUi and external intervals Sn CE Economic : NO 1 1 association T C 1 E SUi is E CSUU E SETCd  NULL T dependency Return FALSE
  • 44. Standard-compatible conceptual schemas Schema Zijin Gold Mine All Si in a borehole CU i=1, 2, …, p T E CP GC LC f (GC ) W C GC : GC  GM i=i+1 LC F i>=p T C GC : GC  GM LC f ( LC ) Minable : N / A i=0 Finish F GS>=GM 1 1..* Si is SW LS E C Pi in a borehole 1 i=0 0..* i=i+1 T C E Pi C is E L SE GS : GS  GM LS 1..* 1..* is C Pi GC·LC >= GM·LM CD 1..* GC LC SETCd E Find a C DMax 1 in E SETCd 1..* T F N CD SETCm  NULL GC : GC  GM T LC CS 1..* F 0..* C is C Cd Result inC E D Output based on 1theC D  New a CE 0..1 D  Max F E f MAX ( SETCd ) C is C 1 1 E SUU E E CD  Max  f MAX ( SETCd ) E E CSUi is CSUD 1 F 1 E D Output 1..* generalization 1 LC >= LM 1  N C Di  F SETCd C Di  SETCd E f D (CSUi , S n )  FALSE T SETCm E C Dn is C D and E is 1 1 to SETCd added E CD Output E E (CD Output  f Output(CD  New )) 0..1 1 0..*  (C E All n+1 C D in SETCdDOutput satisfy GC < GM E  CDMax ) 1 F Return TRUE 1 aggregation [Ma et al., 2010b, C&G]  Object-oriented models E CD New E E CD New  CD Max  Cm n=n+1 E f Output(CD  New ) F Result in a C Minable : NO m=m+1 E CSUU Add T GC : GC  C Dn G N to SET M Cd LC : LC  LM GC  LC  GM  LM CDn contains anyC N D in SETN 1 1 E SETCd E Pi Economic : YES N C Dn is C D and is added to SET N Cd T F E E C DMax is C D Output 1 E f D (CSUi , S n ) CDn  CSUi  S n GC<GM E CSUD G :E C G Combine composites in SETCm with theCC D  Max GM N E LC : Lat to result in a C D SETCd , delete waste intervals C  LM 0..1 New E the top and bottom of C D  New as many as  L  G  L GC C M M possible while keep LC>=LM 1 E f D (CSUi , S n )  TRUE E E C Pi is CSU E SUD E CU CSUi E f D (CSUi ,ES n ) 0..* E CD  f D (CSUi , S n ) N f (GC , LC , SETCd ) E E Pi 1 Minable : YES E C SU m > n+1 GC : GC  GM F LC : LC  LM Add Sn related to the m-th GC  LC  GM  LM E dilution choice to the 0..* 1..* T T Economic : YES 1 T E Finish CD F GC : GC  GM L : LC  LM F LC >= LM C N C Dj E SETCd C Dj  C D   E E E C Pi is CSM 0..* GC : GC  GM LC : LC  LM f (GC , LC ) E CM GC : GC  GM n=1 LC : LC  LM GC  LC= 1GM  LM m  E CS i=1, 2, …, q i>=q SM 0..* Data-flow models S GS LS f (GS ) SW GS : GS  GM All E CL GC : GC  GM LC : LC  LM 1 1..* 1..* 1..* Si is SE E An instance C SUi and external intervals Sn CE Economic : NO 1 1 association T C 1 E SUi is E CSUU E SETCd  NULL T dependency Return FALSE
  • 45. Standard-compatible conceptual schemas Schema Zijin Gold Mine All Si in a borehole CU i=1, 2, …, p T E CP GC LC f (GC ) W C GC : GC  GM i=i+1 LC F i>=p T C GC : GC  GM LC f ( LC ) Minable : N / A i=0 Finish F GS>=GM 1 1..* Si is SW SE GS : GS  GM LS LS E C Pi in a borehole 1..* 1 i=0 0..* i=i+1 T C E Pi C is E L is C Pi GC LC GC·LC >= GM·LM SETCd E Find a C DMax 1 in E SETCd 1..* T F N CD SETCm  NULL GC : GC  GM T LC CS 1..* F 0..* C is C Cd Result inC E D Output based on 1theC D  New a CE 0..1 D  Max F E f MAX ( SETCd ) C is C 1 1 E SUU E E CD  Max  f MAX ( SETCd ) E E CSUi is CSUD 1 F 1 E D Output 1..* generalization 1 LC >= LM 1  N C Di  F SETCd C Di  SETCd E f D (CSUi , S n )  FALSE T SETCm E C Dn is C D and E is 1 1 to SETCd added E CD Output E E (CD Output  f Output(CD  New )) 0..1 1 0..*  (C E All n+1 C D in SETCdDOutput satisfy GC < GM E  CDMax ) 1 F Return TRUE 1 aggregation [Ma et al., 2010b, C&G]  Object-oriented models E CD New E E CD New  CD Max  Cm n=n+1 E f Output(CD  New ) F Result in a C Minable : NO m=m+1 E CSUU Add T GC : GC  C Dn G N to SET M Cd LC : LC  LM GC  LC  GM  LM CDn contains anyC N D in SETN 1 1 E SETCd E Pi Economic : YES N C Dn is C D and is added to SET N Cd T F E E C DMax is C D Output 1 E f D (CSUi , S n ) CDn  CSUi  S n GC<GM E CSUD G :E C G Combine composites in SETCm with theCC D  Max GM N E LC : Lat to result in a C D SETCd , delete waste intervals C  LM 0..1 New E the top and bottom of C D  New as many as  L  G  L GC C M M possible while keep LC>=LM 1 E f D (CSUi , S n )  TRUE E E C Pi is CSU E SUD E CU CSUi E f D (CSUi ,ES n ) 0..* E CD  f D (CSUi , S n ) N f (GC , LC , SETCd ) E E Pi Minable : YES E C SU m > n+1 GC : GC  GM F LC : LC  LM Add Sn related to the m-th GC  LC  GM  LM E dilution choice to the 0..* 1..* T 1 Economic : YES 1 T E Finish CD F GC : GC  GM L : LC  LM F LC >= LM C N C Dj E SETCd C Dj  C D   E E E C Pi is CSM T CD 1..* i=1, 2, …, q i>=q 0..* 1..* E CM GC : GC  GM n=1 LC : LC  LM GC  LC= 1GM  LM m  E CS GC : GC  GM LC : LC  LM f (GC , LC ) UN classification of mineral resources SM 0..* Data-flow models S GS LS f (GS ) SW GS : GS  GM All E CL GC : GC  GM LC : LC  LM 1 1..* 1..* 1..* Si is SE E An instance C SUi and external intervals Sn CE Economic : NO 1 1 association T C 1 E SUi is E CSUU E SETCd  NULL T dependency Return FALSE
  • 46. Standard-compatible conceptual schemas Schema Zijin Gold Mine All Si in a borehole CU i=1, 2, …, p Minable : N / A i=0 T Finish CW GC : GC  GM i=i+1 LC F i>=p T F GS>=GM 1 1..* Si is SW E Pi C in a borehole i=0 0..* i>=q T E E C Pi is C L T E Finish D C F GC : GC  GM LC : LC  LM F LC >= LM N C Dj E SETCd C Dj  E C Pi is CS 1..* T GC·LC >= GM·LM E E C Pi is CSM T C E Pi is C  1..* F E E C Pi is CSU 1 E f D (CSUi , S n ) E SUD E SETCd F E f MAX ( SETCd ) C Result in a C E CP GC LC f (GC ) GC : GC  GM LC f ( LC ) E D Output E CL GC : GC  GM LC : LC  LM E CS ls gs E An instance C SUi and 1 E 1.36 0.35 C SM S W external intervals Sn 2 1.36 0.23 g s : g s  GM GC : GC3 GM n = 1 1.36 0.05 LC : LC 4 LM  1.36 0.46 ls 0..* GC  LC51GM  LM0.04 m = 1.15 0..* 1 1..* SE GS : GS  GM GC : GC  GM LC : LC  LM f (GC , LC ) T 1.56 UN classification of mineral resources E CM E C SU 1.36 m >7n+1 SE 1.36 G : GC8 GM F g s : g s  GM C E Pi is C E SUU 1..* generalization Return TRUE 1 aggregation [Ma et al., 2010b, C&G] E CSUU g c : g c  GM Economic : YES lc : lc  LM Minable : YES g c  lc  GM  LM 9.51/0.20 0.1 0.13 1.1 1.36/1.10 0.24 S LC : LC 9 LM  1.36 E CU ls Add Sn related to 1.63 the m-th 3.43/0.25 10 G  L 0.1 GS GC  LC  M E LS 1..* 1 dilution choice to the C M 0.44 SUi0.81 Economic : YES E 11 LS f D (CSUi ,ES n ) 1..* 1..* CDn  CSUi  S n 12 1.02 5.57 Minable : NO CD m=m+1 1.73/3.74 f (GS ) 13 0..* 0.71 1.11 GC S 14 0.65 0.69 N LC C Dn D and g s GC<GM T 15 0.65is C0.53 Nis E 1 CD  f D (CSUi , S n ) added SET SETCd E E 16 1.09 to 0.5 Cd Find a C DMax 1 SETCd in ls N F 1..* f (GC , LC , SETCd ) 5.38/0.43 17 0.81 0.33 1 18 0.75 0.47 C E 0..* CDn SUU 19 Add F T N contains anyC N 0.68 C :0.28 C Dn G GC GM E E CD D C DMax is C D Output SETCm  NULL to 0.19SET N 0..* in SETN 20 0.75 L LC  Cd Cd GC : GC  GM 21 0.68 C : 1.06 LM E GC  LC  G1.36/1.09 T LC CSUD M  LM 22 F 0.68 1.11  CD  N 23 0.7 C Di0.61 Cd C Di  SETCd   F SET 0.70/0.61 G :E C G Combine composites in SETCm with theCC D  Max GM 1 N 1 E LC >= LM f (C , S )0.51/1.03 1 E 24 0.51 D 1.03 n  FALSE LC : Lat to result in a C D SETCd , delete waste intervals C  LM 0..1 SUi New E 25 0.61 0.94 0.61/0.94 the top and bottom of C D  New as many as  L  G  L GC C M M SETCm 26T 0.68 0.92 possible while keep LC>=LM 1 E E C Dn is C D and f D (CSUi , S n )  TRUE 27 0.68 0.89 E E 1 3.10/1.41 is 1 1 to SETCd added 1 CD  28 0.93 0.97 Output E CD New E E E 29 (CD Output  f Output(CD  New )) 0.81 2.75 Result inC E D Output based on 1theC D  New E a CE E 0..1 D  Max CD New  CD Max  Cm 0..* 30 E 0.68 E E n=n+1 1  (C E 0.31  CDMax ) E CD  Max  f MAX ( SETCd ) f Output(CD  New ) T 1 All n+1 C D in SETCdDOutput 1 31 0.68 0.17 E E CSUi is CSUD satisfy 32C < GM G 0.7 0.22 0..1 1 E E 1 33 F0.68 0.39 1CSUi is CSUU 34 0.68 0.28 F E SETCd … NULL  … … … 1..* 6 l c / gc Data-flow models SW GS : GS  GM LS i=1, 2, …, q i=i+1 C 1..* Si is SE All id Economic : NO E CU Economic : YES Minable : NO e f D (csu , sn )  FALSE E CSM g c : g c  GM E CM Economic : YES Minable : YES lc : lc  LM g c  lc  GM  LM CW g c : g c  GM lc CU Economic : NO Minable : N / A Results are Object-oriented interoperable with models external projects 1 1 association GM: T g/t; LM: 3 m Return FALSE 1 dependency E CD g c : g c  GM lc : lc  LM E CD Output e e w (cd Output  cd  New  sTop & Bottom ) e e OR(cd Output  cd  Max )
  • 47. RDF / OWL
  • 48. A RDF/OWL-based ontology RDF / OWL • Theme: geological time scale (GTS) RDF/OWL: languages for conceptual modeling and encoding for the Semantic Web A GTS ontology and easy-for-use functions based on the ontology were developed [Ma et al., 2011b, C&G]
  • 49. Interactions with online geological maps RDF / OWL Pilot data courtesy of BGS & OneGeology
  • 50. Interactions with online geological maps RDF / OWL Pilot data courtesy of BGS & OneGeology 1 <gts:Series rdf:ID="Lower_Triassic"> 2 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Lower Triassic</skos:prefLabel> 3 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">Untertrias</skos:prefLabel> 4 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">Triásico Inferior</skos:prefLabel> 5 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">Trias Inférieur</skos:prefLabel> 6 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="cn">下三叠统</skos:prefLabel> 7 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="jp">下部三畳系</skos:prefLabel> 8 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="nl">Onder Trias</skos:prefLabel> 9 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Early Triassic</skos:altLabel> 10 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳紀前期</skos:altLabel> 11 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">前期三畳紀</skos:altLabel> 12 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳系下部</skos:altLabel> 13 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="cn">早三叠世</skos:altLabel> 14 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="nl">Vroeg Trias</skos:altLabel> 15 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Triasico Inferior</skos:altLabel> 16 <rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">The lower series of the Triassic System of the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Scale, above the Permian System of the Paleozoic Erathem and below the Middle Triassic Series. Also the time during which these rocks were formed, the Middle Triassic Epoch.</rdfs:comment> 17 <gts:cgmwRgbColor>983999</gts:cgmwRgbColor> 18 <gts:subsetOf rdf:resource="#Triassic"/> 19 <gts:supersetOf rdf:resource="#Olenekian"/> 20 <gts:supersetOf rdf:resource="#Induan"/> 21 <gts:lowerThan rdf:resource="#Middle_Triassic"/> 22 <gts:upperThan rdf:resource="#Lopingian"/> 23 <gts:upperBoundaryTime>~245.9 Ma</gts:upperBoundaryTime> 24 <gts:lowerBoundaryTime>251.0±0.4 Ma</gts:lowerBoundaryTime> 25 <gts:basalGsspInfo> https://engineering.purdue.edu/stratigraphy/gssp/detail.php?periodid=76-top_parentid=35 [Subcommission for Stratigraphic Information of ICS, 2010, GSSP Table]</gts:basalGsspInfo> 26 </gts:Series>
  • 51. Interactions with online geological maps RDF / OWL Pilot data courtesy of BGS & OneGeology 1 <gts:Series rdf:ID="Lower_Triassic"> 2 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Lower Triassic</skos:prefLabel> 3 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">Untertrias</skos:prefLabel> 4 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">Triásico Inferior</skos:prefLabel> 5 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">Trias Inférieur</skos:prefLabel> 6 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="cn">下三叠统</skos:prefLabel> 7 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="jp">下部三畳系</skos:prefLabel> 8 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="nl">Onder Trias</skos:prefLabel> 9 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Early Triassic</skos:altLabel> 10 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳紀前期</skos:altLabel> 11 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">前期三畳紀</skos:altLabel> 12 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳系下部</skos:altLabel> 13 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="cn">早三叠世</skos:altLabel> 14 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="nl">Vroeg Trias</skos:altLabel> 15 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Triasico Inferior</skos:altLabel> 16 <rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">The lower series of the Triassic System of the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Scale, above the Permian System of the Paleozoic Erathem and below the Middle Triassic Series. Also the time during which these rocks were formed, the Middle Triassic Epoch.</rdfs:comment> 17 <gts:cgmwRgbColor>983999</gts:cgmwRgbColor> 18 <gts:subsetOf rdf:resource="#Triassic"/> 19 <gts:supersetOf rdf:resource="#Olenekian"/> 20 <gts:supersetOf rdf:resource="#Induan"/> 21 <gts:lowerThan rdf:resource="#Middle_Triassic"/> 22 <gts:upperThan rdf:resource="#Lopingian"/> 23 <gts:upperBoundaryTime>~245.9 Ma</gts:upperBoundaryTime> 24 <gts:lowerBoundaryTime>251.0±0.4 Ma</gts:lowerBoundaryTime> 25 <gts:basalGsspInfo> https://engineering.purdue.edu/stratigraphy/gssp/detail.php?periodid=76-top_parentid=35 [Subcommission for Stratigraphic Information of ICS, 2010, GSSP Table]</gts:basalGsspInfo> 26 </gts:Series> Annotation & Animation
  • 52. Interactions with online geological maps RDF / OWL Pilot data courtesy of BGS & OneGeology 1 <gts:Series rdf:ID="Lower_Triassic"> 2 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Lower Triassic</skos:prefLabel> 3 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">Untertrias</skos:prefLabel> 4 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">Triásico Inferior</skos:prefLabel> 5 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">Trias Inférieur</skos:prefLabel> 6 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="cn">下三叠统</skos:prefLabel> 7 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="jp">下部三畳系</skos:prefLabel> 8 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="nl">Onder Trias</skos:prefLabel> 9 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Early Triassic</skos:altLabel> 10 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳紀前期</skos:altLabel> 11 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">前期三畳紀</skos:altLabel> 12 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳系下部</skos:altLabel> 13 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="cn">早三叠世</skos:altLabel> 14 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="nl">Vroeg Trias</skos:altLabel> 15 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Triasico Inferior</skos:altLabel> 16 <rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">The lower series of the Triassic System of the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Scale, above the Permian System of the Paleozoic Erathem and below the Middle Triassic Series. Also the time during which these rocks were formed, the Middle Triassic Epoch.</rdfs:comment> 17 <gts:cgmwRgbColor>983999</gts:cgmwRgbColor> 18 <gts:subsetOf rdf:resource="#Triassic"/> 19 <gts:supersetOf rdf:resource="#Olenekian"/> 20 <gts:supersetOf rdf:resource="#Induan"/> 21 <gts:lowerThan rdf:resource="#Middle_Triassic"/> 22 <gts:upperThan rdf:resource="#Lopingian"/> 23 <gts:upperBoundaryTime>~245.9 Ma</gts:upperBoundaryTime> 24 <gts:lowerBoundaryTime>251.0±0.4 Ma</gts:lowerBoundaryTime> 25 <gts:basalGsspInfo> https://engineering.purdue.edu/stratigraphy/gssp/detail.php?periodid=76-top_parentid=35 [Subcommission for Stratigraphic Information of ICS, 2010, GSSP Table]</gts:basalGsspInfo> 26 </gts:Series> Annotation & Animation
  • 53. Interactions with online geological maps RDF / OWL Pilot data courtesy of BGS & OneGeology 1 <gts:Series rdf:ID="Lower_Triassic"> 2 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="en">Lower Triassic</skos:prefLabel> 3 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="de">Untertrias</skos:prefLabel> 4 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="es">Triásico Inferior</skos:prefLabel> 5 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="fr">Trias Inférieur</skos:prefLabel> 6 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="cn">下三叠统</skos:prefLabel> 7 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="jp">下部三畳系</skos:prefLabel> 8 <skos:prefLabel xml:lang="nl">Onder Trias</skos:prefLabel> 9 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="en">Early Triassic</skos:altLabel> 10 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳紀前期</skos:altLabel> 11 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">前期三畳紀</skos:altLabel> 12 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="jp">三畳系下部</skos:altLabel> 13 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="cn">早三叠世</skos:altLabel> 14 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="nl">Vroeg Trias</skos:altLabel> 15 <skos:altLabel xml:lang="es">Triasico Inferior</skos:altLabel> 16 <rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">The lower series of the Triassic System of the Standard Global Chronostratigraphic Scale, above the Permian System of the Paleozoic Erathem and below the Middle Triassic Series. Also the time during which these rocks were formed, the Middle Triassic Epoch.</rdfs:comment> 17 <gts:cgmwRgbColor>983999</gts:cgmwRgbColor> 18 <gts:subsetOf rdf:resource="#Triassic"/> 19 <gts:supersetOf rdf:resource="#Olenekian"/> 20 <gts:supersetOf rdf:resource="#Induan"/> 21 <gts:lowerThan rdf:resource="#Middle_Triassic"/> 22 <gts:upperThan rdf:resource="#Lopingian"/> 23 <gts:upperBoundaryTime>~245.9 Ma</gts:upperBoundaryTime> 24 <gts:lowerBoundaryTime>251.0±0.4 Ma</gts:lowerBoundaryTime> 25 <gts:basalGsspInfo> https://engineering.purdue.edu/stratigraphy/gssp/detail.php?periodid=76-top_parentid=35 [Subcommission for Stratigraphic Information of ICS, 2010, GSSP Table]</gts:basalGsspInfo> 26 </gts:Series> Filter & generalize geological time features using the legend (online) Annotation & Animation
  • 54. Pragmatics
  • 55. Pragmatic interoperability (PI) Pragmatics • Definition of PI: Consensus on understanding, use and potential result of shared geodata between geodata contexts Machine Local ontology Local database Equivalent domain knowledge System, syntactic, schematic & semantic interoperability Machine Local database Local ontology Standardization & consistency Geodata sharing Conceptualization of domain & local knowledge Using Representation of observation & understanding Human Human Observing & studying [Ma et al., Under revision, C&G] Nature Understanding
  • 56. Approach PI with semantic negotiations Pragmatics Semantic negotiation (N ) Local machine information agent Local machine information agent A ( I Mi ) A ( I Mj ) Local database v1 Local ontology v1 S ( DCi .v1) S (OCi .v1) Update Update Semantic negotiation v1 ( N .v1) Common ontology v1 Local ontology v1 Local database v1 S (OCj .v1) S ( DCj .v1) Update Update Pilot data courtesy of China Geological Survey S (OCn.v1) Local database v1’ Local ontology v1’ Local ontology v1’ Local database v1’ S ( DCi .v1' ) S (OCi .v1' ) S (OCj .v1' ) S ( DCj .v1' ) Evolution Evolution Evolution Evolution Local database v2 Local ontology v2 Local ontology v2 Local database v2 S (OCj .v 2) S ( DCj .v2) S ( DCi .v2) S (OCi .v2) Update Semantic negotiation v2 ( N .v2) Update Update Common ontology v2 S (OCn.v2) Correlating Participating Resulting Consensuses between evolving geodata contexts Underpinning Update Evolving
  • 57. Conclusions (1) • Geological ontologies and geological data are evolving in a long-term perspective • Common understanding of subjects in geology requires semantic negotiations among stakeholders
  • 58. Conclusions (2) • Different types of ontologies in an ontology spectrum can be used to encode commonly agreed domain models in geology • By using ontologies, innovative applications can be developed to promote geological data interoperability at local, regional and global levels
  • 59. Acknowledgements Kristine Asch Thomas V. Loudon John Laxton Ian Jackson Ernst Schetselaar Boyan Brodaric Bruce Simons Simon Cox Guillaume Duclaux Jan Jellema Jeroen Schokker Jan Kooijman François Robida Koji Wakita Steve Richard Frits Agterberg Peter Fox Stanley Finney Marcus Ebner Bernd Ritschel Gang Liu Rob Lemmens Barend Köbben Dongpo Deng ……
  • 60. Thank you Full dissertation accessible at: http://www.itc.nl/library/papers_2011/phd/ma.pdf

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