Japan
Energy Usage and Policy
Demographics
• Population: 127,078,679
• 0-14 years: 13.5% (male 8,804,465/female 8,344,800)
• 15-64 years: 64.3% (male 41...
Energy Demand
Energy Demand
total consumption: 527.6
Mtoe (2006)
TPES (total primary energy supply): approx. 530 Mtoe
TPES...
Demand cont.
Supply
Japan has almost zero
natural energy resources
and imports most of it’s
resources used for
energy generation
Electricity
production: 957.9 bil kWh (2008)
consumption: 925.5 bil kWh (2008)
Natural Gas
NG cont.
• production: 5.36 bil cu m (2008)
• consumption: 101.1 bil cu m (2008)
• exports: 0
• import: 95.39 bil cu m (20...
Oil
production: 133,100 bbl/day
(2008)
consumption: 4.785 mil bbl/day
(2008)
export: 268,300 bbl/day (2008)
import: 5.263 ...
GDP
• Japan is among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles,
electronic equipment, machi...
Government, Regulatory Institutions
and Other Organizations
• Agency for Natural Resources and Energy
• Japan Oil, Gas and...
Mostly R&D Organizations
• Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports,
Science, and Technology
• The New Energy and Industrial...
Japanese Energy Policy
• Basic Energy Plan, based on the Basic Act on
Energy Policy (2002)
• New National Energy Strategy,...
policy cont. International Involvement
• G8 Presidency in 2008
• Energy Minister’s Meetings
• Cool Earth 50
Energy Taxes and Subsidies
• Petroleum tax introduced, 1978; now includes
LPG, LNG, and coal; revenue used to finance
oil ...
taxes and subsidies cont.
• Energy Taxes in Japan, 2007*
Petroleum and coal tax Other specific indirect taxes
Household se...
taxes and subsidies cont.
• Subsidies with the highest budget:
Energy Utilization Rationalization
Subsidy
82,814,319 thous...
• Japan is a world leader in R&D funding in
energy technology
• Japan places high priority on energy efficiency
and the de...
Energy Efficiency in Japan
• Act on the Rational Use of Energy
• Top Runner Program and labelling
Labelling
Multi-stage rating system
- Energy-saving performance is indicated in 5 stages, from 1 to
5 stars, from low to h...
Top Runner Program
Results of Top Runner Programme in Selected Categories
Product category Improvement Target energy effic...
Renewables
• Renewables account for over 3% of total
primary energy supply
• In 2006, Japan had the 7th
lowest share of
re...
Renewable Primary Energy Supply, 1970 to 2006
Unit:ktoe
Hydro Biomass* Geothermal Solar Wind Renewables TPES Renewables
su...
Hydro Biomass* Geothermal Solar Wind Renewables TPES Renewables
supply (all sources) as share of TPES
2003 8,136 5 260 3 2...
Visual for Renewables
Renewables - Electricity
• Most renewable sources of energy provide
electricity.
Renewables - Nuclear
• 55 commercial reactors in Japan, total
capacity of 49,500MW
• Preparing to construct 11 new plants,...
Fossil Fuels - Coal
• In 2005, coal accounted for 21% of TPES
• >99% of coal is imported, only 8 coal mines in
Japan that ...
Fossil Fuels - Oil
• In 2006, TPES of oil: 240Mtoe
• 46% of TPES, 7th
highest of IEA countries, also
imports highest perce...
Fossil Fuels – Natural Gas
• Natural Gas = approx 15% of TPES
• Approx 4% of consumption is domestically produced
• Majori...
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Japan

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Presentation on Japan and its energy usage and relationship, done for EK133 Wind at Boston University

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Japan

  1. 1. Japan Energy Usage and Policy
  2. 2. Demographics • Population: 127,078,679 • 0-14 years: 13.5% (male 8,804,465/female 8,344,800) • 15-64 years: 64.3% (male 41,187,425/female 40,533,876) • 65 years and over: 22.2% (male 11,964,694/female 16,243,419) (2009 est.) • total population: 82.12 years male: 78.8 years female: 85.62 years (2009 est.) • Japan is an island chain, slightly smaller than California • Natural Resources: negligible mineral resources, fish
  3. 3. Energy Demand Energy Demand total consumption: 527.6 Mtoe (2006) TPES (total primary energy supply): approx. 530 Mtoe TPES/Inhabitant: 4.17 toe
  4. 4. Demand cont.
  5. 5. Supply Japan has almost zero natural energy resources and imports most of it’s resources used for energy generation
  6. 6. Electricity production: 957.9 bil kWh (2008) consumption: 925.5 bil kWh (2008)
  7. 7. Natural Gas
  8. 8. NG cont. • production: 5.36 bil cu m (2008) • consumption: 101.1 bil cu m (2008) • exports: 0 • import: 95.39 bil cu m (2008) • reserves: 20.9 bil cu m (Jan 2009) • Japan is the largest importer of liquefied natural gas in the world
  9. 9. Oil production: 133,100 bbl/day (2008) consumption: 4.785 mil bbl/day (2008) export: 268,300 bbl/day (2008) import: 5.263 mil bbl/day (2008) proven reserves: 40 mil barrels (Jan 2008) Japan is the third-largest oil consumer in the world, in spite of its limited domestic oil reserves and production
  10. 10. GDP • Japan is among world's largest and technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles, processed foods • GDP purchasing power parity: $4.137 trillion (2009 est) • Growth: -5.9% (2009 est) • GDP per capita (PPP): $32,600 (2009 est) • GDP - composition by sector: Field info displayed for all countries in alpha order. agriculture: 1.6% industry: 23.1% services: 75.4% (2009 est.) • numbers in 2009 USD •
  11. 11. Government, Regulatory Institutions and Other Organizations • Agency for Natural Resources and Energy • Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (JOGMEC) • Ministry of the Environment • Ministry of foreign Affairs • Energy Conservation Centre, Japan (ECCJ) • New Energy Foundation (NEF) • Petroleum Association of Japan • Federation of Electric Power Companies of Japan • Japan Gas Association
  12. 12. Mostly R&D Organizations • Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology • The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)
  13. 13. Japanese Energy Policy • Basic Energy Plan, based on the Basic Act on Energy Policy (2002) • New National Energy Strategy, May 2006 • Kyoto Protocol • Science and Technology Basic Plan
  14. 14. policy cont. International Involvement • G8 Presidency in 2008 • Energy Minister’s Meetings • Cool Earth 50
  15. 15. Energy Taxes and Subsidies • Petroleum tax introduced, 1978; now includes LPG, LNG, and coal; revenue used to finance oil stockpiling, conservation, ect. • Gasoline tax started post-WWII; revenue used to finance road construction • Aviation fuel tax introduced: 1972 • Power Source Development Tax; taxes electricity consumption, used to finance R&D on nuclear power, ect.
  16. 16. taxes and subsidies cont. • Energy Taxes in Japan, 2007* Petroleum and coal tax Other specific indirect taxes Household sector Electricity JPY 0.345/kWh Natural gas JPY 1 080/t LPG JPY 1 080/t Kerosene JPY 2.04/L Non-commercial use Unleaded gasoline JPY 2.04/L JPY 53.8/L** Diesel JPY 2.04/L JPY 32.1/L*** Industry Electricity JPY 0.345/kWh Natural gas JPY 1 080/t All oil products JPY 2.04/L Industry and commercial use LPG JPY 1 080/t Diesel JPY 2.04/L JPY 32.1/L*** Industry, electricity generation and steam coal industry Coking coal JPY 700/t * Taxes as indicated do not include the 5% consumption tax, which is applied to the post-tax price for all client groups. For diesel oil, the consumption tax is applied before the diesel oil delivery tax. ** gasoline tax of JPY 48.6 per L and a local road tax of JPY 5.2 per L. *** diesel oil delivery tax. $1 USD (2007) approx = JPY 120
  17. 17. taxes and subsidies cont. • Subsidies with the highest budget: Energy Utilization Rationalization Subsidy 82,814,319 thousand JPY Energy Conservation Technology Subsidy 16,630,056 thousand JPY Power Facilities Promotion Subsidy 16,294,611 thousand JPY CO2 Emission Reduction Subsidy 14,097,500 thousand JPY Subsidy for Promoting Regional Energy Development and Utilization 13,295,000 thousand JPY
  18. 18. • Japan is a world leader in R&D funding in energy technology • Japan places high priority on energy efficiency and the development of low-carbon energy technologies • Japanese companies take their voluntary agreements very seriously
  19. 19. Energy Efficiency in Japan • Act on the Rational Use of Energy • Top Runner Program and labelling
  20. 20. Labelling Multi-stage rating system - Energy-saving performance is indicated in 5 stages, from 1 to 5 stars, from low to high performance of products offered on the market. - In order to clarify the compliance level with the Top Runner standard, arrows are placed under the stars, showing achievement and non-achievement Energy-saving labeling system - Products which achieved the Top Runner standard carry a green“e” mark, while others carry an orange“e” mark. - Achievement level and energy consumption efficiency(annual electricity consumption)are also indicated. Estimated annual electricity rates - The estimated annual electricity rates are indicated to show the energy Consumption efficiency (annual electricity consumption)clearly.
  21. 21. Top Runner Program Results of Top Runner Programme in Selected Categories Product category Improvement Target energy efficiency Actual energy efficiency Period improvement improvement Televisions 1997-2003 16.4% 25.7% Video-cassette recorders 1997-2003 58.7% 73.6% Air-conditioners 1997-2004 66.1% 67.8% Electric refrigerators 1998-2004 30.5% 55.2% Electric freezers 1998-2004 22.9% 29.6% Gasoline passenger vehicles* 1995-2005 22.8% 22.8% Diesel freight vehicles* 1995-2005 6.5% 21.7% Vending machines 2000-2005 33.9% 37.3% Computers 1997-2005 83.0% 99.1% Magnetic disk units 1997-2005 78.0% 98.2% Fluorescent lights 1997-2005 16.6% 35.6% * The energy efficiency improvement estimate is based on a simple average of the fuel efficiency of all vehicles offered for sale. In contrast, the energy efficiency target is based on a sales-weighted average. Please note that the effects of reducing consumption are indicated as inverse numbers because the coefficient of performance of fuel economy (km/L) is used as an energy consumption efficiency index. Source: ECCJ, “Top Runner programme”, October 2006, p. 9.
  22. 22. Renewables • Renewables account for over 3% of total primary energy supply • In 2006, Japan had the 7th lowest share of renewables in its TPES among IEA countries • Relatively, Japan uses more geothermal in relation to its TPES than most of the IEA countries.
  23. 23. Renewable Primary Energy Supply, 1970 to 2006 Unit:ktoe Hydro Biomass* Geothermal Solar Wind Renewables TPES Renewables supply (all sources) as share of TPES 1970 6,484 0 0 0 0 6 484 257 585 2.5% 1980 7,593 0 774 0 0 8 367 345 846 2.4% 1990 7,680 4 775 1 576 1 168 0 15 199 443 788 3.4% 2000 7,504 5 180 3 099 808 9 16 600 526 663 3.2% 1 7,238 4 847 3 175 747 22 16 029 518 163 3.1% 2002 7 085 5 078 3 128 740 36 16 066 518 622 3.1%
  24. 24. Hydro Biomass* Geothermal Solar Wind Renewables TPES Renewables supply (all sources) as share of TPES 2003 8,136 5 260 3 224 636 72 17 328 514 190 3.4% 2004 8 089 5 245 3 122 579 113 17 148 530 826 3.2% 2005 6 576 5 610 2 987 568 151 15 893 528 383 3.0% 2006 7 375 6 117 2 848 568 151 17 059 527 560 3.2% Share of renewables supply in 2006 43.2% 35.9% 16.7% 3.3% 0.9% Share of TPES (total) in 2006 1.4% 1.2% 0.5% 0.1% 0.0% 3.2%
  25. 25. Visual for Renewables
  26. 26. Renewables - Electricity • Most renewable sources of energy provide electricity.
  27. 27. Renewables - Nuclear • 55 commercial reactors in Japan, total capacity of 49,500MW • Preparing to construct 11 new plants, 2 plants are under construction (as of 2008)
  28. 28. Fossil Fuels - Coal • In 2005, coal accounted for 21% of TPES • >99% of coal is imported, only 8 coal mines in Japan that produce negligible resources • Coal trade is free from gov’t restiction; no floor or ceiling • Gov’t no longer subsidizes domestic coal • Government policy is to support clean coal technologies
  29. 29. Fossil Fuels - Oil • In 2006, TPES of oil: 240Mtoe • 46% of TPES, 7th highest of IEA countries, also imports highest percentage of oil from Middle East
  30. 30. Fossil Fuels – Natural Gas • Natural Gas = approx 15% of TPES • Approx 4% of consumption is domestically produced • Majority of natural gas is used by electric companies for power production • Largest LNG import capacity in the world • Liberalization of LNG • Two pipelines to be completed in 2010, 1 in 2012, one in 2013 • LNG prices for residential customers higher in relation to Europe and US
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