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Electricity Notes

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• 1. Electricity Chapters 6-7
• 2. History of Electricity • Greek scientists – 2000 years ago they realized you could create a charge by rubbing two things together. – Discovered electric charges • Ben Franklin – kite experiment in 1752 – Electricity travels through conductors • Alessandro Volta – In 1800, produced the first electric battery & first man-made electric current – He should (but doesn’t) get a lot of the credit for figuring it all out
• 3. History of Electricity • Michael Faraday – Discovered the principals of the electric motor in 1830 – Gets credit for it • Nikola Tesla – Radio & TV transmission, Power transmission, generator, AC motor • Thomas Edison – invented the light bulb in 1879
• 4. Electricity • Energy created by moving electrons (e-) • Flow of electric current through circuits • Electric current moves just like water does, it flows through circuits
• 5. Electricity • Stronger current = more e- /energy flowing • Lower current = less e- /energy flowing • Always flows from higher concentration of charges to lower (+ to - terminal)
• 6. Electric Charge • Electric charge is a fundamental property of matter – Unit – Coulombs (C) – Made of charged particles • Protons (+), Electrons (-), or Neutral (0) – Can tell the overall charge on an object by adding together number of + or - charges
• 7. • Electrically charged – Object with an excess of positive or negative charges – Sometimes described as having static electricity – Build up of these charges BEFORE you get shocked – video
• 8. Static Electricity Ex) Dragging feet on carpet, Rubbing balloon on hair • WHY???? – Electrons (easily given away) are transferred from one object to the other – If one material has excess of electrons, it becomes negative – Other material has a deficiency of electrons and becomes positive – Accumulation of imbalanced charges on objects results in static electricity
• 9. • Forces that cause objects to stick together – Size of electric force depends on: 1. The types of charges interacting Electrical Forces
• 10. 2. The distance between the charges • The farther apart, the weaker the force 3. The amount of the two charges • The greater the charge, the greater the force
• 11. Grounding Objects • Things want to ‘ground’ to become neutral • Earth is a natural ‘ground’ – Has a infinite number or (+) & (-) charges • Lightning rods on top of buildings
• 12. How Lightning Works • Thunderstorm clouds have air inside them rushing up and down • Air causes rain drops to collide and knock electrons off each other • Bottom of cloud becomes negatively charged, ground becomes positively charged (Static electricity) • Both the cloud and ground send out a “leader”, looking for a place to connect and equalize their charges • When they connect, massive amounts of electricity move between cloud and ground, neutralizing both • video