Presented by: Marlon Mendez
John Carlo Torrecampo
What is GMOs?
GMOs, or “genetically modified
organisms,” are plants or animals created
through the gene splicing techniques of
biotechnology (also called genetic
engineering, or GE). This experimental
technology merges DNA from different
species, creating unstable combinations of
plant, animal, bacterial and viral genes that
cannot occur in nature or in traditional
Are GMOs safe?
Most developed nations do not consider GMOs
to be safe. In more than 60 countries around the
world, including Australia, Japan, and all of the
countries in the European Union, there are
significant restrictions or outright bans on the
production and sale of GMOs. In the U.S., the
government has approved GMOs based on studies
conducted by the same corporations that created
them and profit from their sale. Increasingly,
Americans are taking matters into their own hands
and choosing to opt out of the GMO experiment.
What are the impacts of GMOs
on the environment?
Over 80% of all GMOs grown worldwide are
engineered for herbicide tolerance. As a result, use of
toxic herbicides like Roundup has increased 15 times
since GMOs were introduced. GMO crops are also
responsible for the emergence of “super weeds” and
“super bugs:’ which can only be killed with ever more
toxic poisons like 2,4-D (a major ingredient in Agent
Orange). GMOs are a direct extension of chemical
agriculture, and are developed and sold by the
world’s biggest chemical companies. The long-term
impacts of GMOs are unknown, and once released
into the environment these novel organisms cannot
1. Pesticide resistant rape plants
Scientists have transferred a gene to
the rape plant which enables the
plant to resist a certain pesticide.
When the farmer sprays his
genetically modified rape crop with
pesticides, he or she can destroy most
of the pests without killing the rape
1. The farmer can grow a larger crop
because it is easier to fight pests.
2. In some cases the farmer can use a
more environmentally friendly crop
3. The farmer can also protect the
environment by using less crop spray.
1. Genes from the genetically modified rape
crop could be transferred to the pests. The
pests then become resistant to the crop
spray and the crop spraying becomes
2. Rape plants can pollinate weeds - for
example navew which is found in rape
fields. When rape plants pollinate the
navew their genes are transferred. The
navew then acquires pesticide resistance.
Corn, soya beans and sugar cane have also
been genetically modified by scientists so
they are able to tolerate crop spray.
2. Insecticide sweet corn
Scientists have genetically modified
sweet corn so that it produces a
poison which kills harmful insects. This
means the farmer no longer needs to
fight insects with insecticides. The
genetically modified corn is called Bt-
corn, because the insect-killing gene
in the plant comes from the bacteria
1. The farmer no longer has to use insecticide
to kill insects, so the surrounding
environment is no longer exposed to large
amounts of harmful insecticide.
2. The farmer no longer needs to walk around
with a drum of toxic spray wearing a mask
and protective clothing.
• This type of genetically modified corn will poison the
insects over a longer period than the farmer who
would spray the crops once or twice. In this way the
insects can become accustomed (or resistant) to
the poison. If that happens both crop spraying and
the use of genetically modified Bt-corn become
• A variety of insects are at risk of being killed. It might
be predatory insects that eat the harmful ones or,
perhaps attractive insects such as butterflies. In the
USA, where Bt-corn is used a great deal there is
much debate over the harmful effects of Bt-corn on
the beautiful Monarch butterfly.
Cotton and potatoes are other examples of
plants that scientists have , genetically
modified to produce insecticide.
3. Golden rice
Golden rice is genetically modified rice that
now contains a large amount of A-vitamins. Or
more correctly, the rice contains the element beta-
carotene which is converted in the body into
Vitamin-A. So when you eat golden rice, you get
more vitamin A.
Beta-carotene gives carrots their orange colour
and is the reason why genetically modified rice is
golden. For the golden rice to make beta-carotene
three new genes are implanted: two from daffodils
and the third from a bacterium.
1. The rice can be considered a particular
advantage to poor people in
underdeveloped countries. They eat only
an extremely limited diet lacking in the
essential bodily vitamins. The consequences
of this restricted diet causes many people
to die or become blind. This is particularly
true in areas of Asia, where most of the
population live on rice from morning to
1. Critics fear that poor people in underdeveloped
countries are becoming too dependent on the rich
western world. Usually, it is the large private companies
in the West that have the means to develop genetically
modified plants. By making the plants sterile these large
companies can prevent farmers from growing plant-
seed for the following year - forcing them to buy new
rice from the companies.
2. Some opposers of genetic modification see the "golden
rice" as a method of making genetic engineering more
widely accepted. Opponents fear that companies will
go on to develop other genetically modified plants from
which they can make a profit. A situation could
develop where the large companies own the rights to
all the good crops.
Long-lasting, genetically modified
tomatoes came on to the market in
1994 and were the first genetically
modified food available to consumers.
The genetically modified tomato
produces less of the substance that
causes tomatoes to rot, so remains firm
and fresh for a long time.
1. Because the GM tomatoes can remain fresh
longer they can be allowed to ripen in the sun
before picking - resulting in a better tasting
2. GM tomatoes can tolerate a lengthier
transport time. This means that market gardens
can avoid picking tomatoes while they are
green in order that they will tolerate the
3. The producers also have the advantage that
all the tomatoes can be harvested
1. Scientists today can genetically modify
tomatoes without inserting genes for
antibiotic resistance. However the first
genetically modified tomatoes contained
genes that made them resistant to
antibiotics. Doctors and vets use antibiotics
to fight infections. These genes spread to
animals and people, doctors would have
difficulties fighting infectious diseases.
organism tested in our
Modern biotech help
1. Increasing crops yield
2. Enjoying and Producing crops which are resistant
to pest and diseases
3. Enjoy rice which are tolerant to drought, excessive
temperature, soil acidity, salinity and other abiotic
4. Has GM products which has improved nutritional
quality, processing and storage and post harvest
• Corn is one of the most important grain in the world.
• Herbicide-tolerant corn
-these corn varieties work in a similar manner to
herbicide-tolerant soybean. It allows growers better
flexibility in using certain herbicide to control weeds
that can damage crops.
-insect resistant corn
The modified corn contains a built-in insecticidal
protein from a naturally acquiring soil microorganism
(Bt) that gives a corn plants season-long protection
from corn borers.
• The Bt protein has been used safely as an
inorganic insect control agent for over 4o
years. This means that most of the farmers
need not to spray insecticides to protect
corn from those insects which cause
significant damage and yield loss in many
• Bt corn also reduces toxin contamination
arising from fungal attack on the damage
• Canola is a genetic variation of rapeseed and was
developed by Canadian Plant breeders specifically
for its nutritional qualities, particularly its low level of
• Herbicide tolerant canola
-herbicide-tolerant canola works similarly to other
• High laurate canola
• These canola varieties contain high level of laurate.
Oil processed from this navel varieties is similar to
coconut and palm oil.
• This new canola oils
being sold to the food
industry for use in
frostings, and whipped
toppings. Also in
• Canola oil provides
• Insect resistant potato
-this biotech potato works similarly with those insect-
resistant corn. It contains a protein that provides the
plant with well built-in protection from the Colorado
potato beetle, thus, this potato needs no additional
protection for these pest, benefiting farmers,
consumers and environment.
Virus resistant potato
- Several potato varieties have been modified to
resist potato leafroll virus and potato virus Y.
• Just as people get inoculations to prevent
varieties are protected through
biotechnology through certain viruses.
Further, virus resistance often results in
reduced insecticides use, which is needed
to control insect vectors that transmit viruses
• Herbicide tolerant cotton
-this cotton work similarly to such other crops,
Insect resistant cotton
-this modified cotton work similarly to insect-
resistant t corn. It contains a protein that
provides the plant with season-long protection
from budworms and ball worms. The need for
additional insecticide applications for these
pests is reduced or eliminated.
• Virus-resistant squash-
-a biotech yellow crookneck squash is now
able to resist watermelon mosaic virus and
zucchini yellow mosaic virus. These new
varieties contain the coat protein genes of
both viruses. This biotech approach bypasses
aphid control and therefore, it may reduce or
eliminate the use of insecticide.
• Delayed ripening tomato
• -the delayed ripening tomato became the first
genetically modified food crop to be produced in a
developed country. These tomato varieties have
extended shelf life. They contain a gene that slows
the natural softening processes that accompanies
• These tomatoes spend more days on the vine other
than tomatoes thus resulting in a better flavor.
Further, the longer shelf life has a commercial
advantages in harvesting and shipping that can
reduce the cost of production.
• Virus resistant papaya
• This Hawaiian developed
papaya contains a viral
gene that encodes for the
coat protein of papaya
ringspot virus. This protein
provides the papaya
provides the papaya plant
with built in protection
against PRSV. This biotech
papaya works similarly to
virus resistant papaya.