BUILDING CAPACITY IN
MARKET SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

INFORMATION
FLOWS
within Market Systems
& Value Chains
Curriculum develop...
Key learning:

Recognize and leverage
multiple formal and informal
points of information
transfer within the market
Recogn...
Part One:

Understanding and
Leveraging
Information Flows
Recognize and leverage multiple formal and
informal points of in...
Multiple Information Sources in markets
x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Want more than just
a single source of
informa...
Information flow: Water flowing through healthy rivers is like the
flow of information through healthy market systems / va...
Accessing Multiple Points of
Information
This is Susan. She is a
subsistence maize farmer in
the western part of Kenya.
Sh...
Accessing Multiple Points of
Information
Where and how
can Susan learn
more about the
inputs?

She wants to learn more
abo...
Accessing Multiple Points of
Information
•
•

•
•
•

•
•
•

•
•
•

Input Shop
Family and friend network
Local leader
Exten...
Accessing Multiple Points of
Information
What if Susan has no access to
quality information?
… It is not easily and readil...
Accessing Multiple Points of
Information
What if Susan has no access to
quality information?


She may purchase the wrong...
Examine Push & Pull of information
PUSH:
Want to identify ways
to PUSH information
through the system

PULL:
Want to ident...
Information
& Influence
Mapping
Map the sources and
flow of information
and influence
between each
market actor in the
mar...
What makes
information flow
between
producers
and their buyers
and suppliers
more or less
effective?
Information flow between producers, buyers & suppliers
Ineffective Information Flow:

Effective Information Flow:

One-off...
Types of
Information
Vehicles
Multiple Information Sources in markets
• What

are sources of information in markets?

All are effective at different tim...
Media Self-Interests
 All

media has its own self-interest

 Can

you think of examples?

 Why

is this important for m...
Leveraging different information channels
INFORMAL
Interpersonal
Communications

FORMAL
Mass Communications



Between tw...
Case Study: Shamba
Shape-Up TV Series,
Kenya
•

What are the messages that Shamba Shape-Up is trying to
share?

•

What be...
Strengthen Push & Pull of information
PUSH:
Want to strengthen
ways to PUSH
information through
the system

PULL:
Want to ...
Case Study: Coffee sector in Uganda
Bulema Coffee Factory
USAID’s LEAD Uganda project
Bulema Coffee Factory
Business as Usual …
•

Bulema coffee factory provides hulling
services to farmers at a price; this s...
Bulema Coffee Factory
Future …
• Use equipment and processes to
transparently assess coffee quality against
standards (i.e...
Bulema Coffee Factory
Future …
• Gives farmers feedback on how they
are performing with respect to coffee
quality standard...
Case Study: Coffee sector
in Uganda
•

What is the role information flows
are playing in this firm’s business?

•

How can...
Project Facilitation Role

What do you think
the role of the project
could be in supporting
access to information?
Part Two:

Using Market Actors
as key information-sharing
mechanisms
Recognize and incentivize the private sector
as key m...
Using Market Actors
as key information-sharing mechanisms
• What are ways that market
actors (public or private) can be
us...
Promotional events that:

Educationbased

• Give smallholder farmers an ability in their
village to learn, see demos, and ...
Education-based promotional events
targeting solutions
Why:
•
•

•

Stimulate information
flow in the marketplace
Create h...
Buying

Discounts

Discounts that are:
• Targeting solutions (not individual
products)
• Driving high volume orders and
bu...
Buying Discounts
Why:
•
•
•
•

Stimulate information flow in the marketplace
Discounts lower the financial risks of farmer...
Contests that are:

Local

Contests

• Targeting solutions (not individual products)
• In local communities (such as at lo...
Local Contests
Why:
•
•

•

•

Stimulate information flow in the
marketplace
Lead to testimonial informationsharing (adver...
Engaging with
consumers and
injecting new
information into
interpersonal
networks

Case Study: Private Sector Leveraging M...
Obuoba FM & Golden Stork
Highly successful agricultural competition:
•

Partnered with Golden Stork (input
company) to off...
Customer
Loyalty
Programs

What:
• E.g. specials for customers with
certain number of repeat purchases
• E.g. part of buye...
Customer Loyalty Programs
Why:
•
•
•

Stimulate information flow in the marketplace
Create a higher comfort level and more...
Leveraging market
actors’

Marketing &
Promotional
activities
Market actors’ marketing & promotions as
information-sharing mechanism
Market systems that function well
have a high degre...
Private sector marketing & promotions as
information-sharing mechanism
Benefits

Example: Benefit to smallholders

Informa...
Marketing & promotions as
information-sharing mechanism
• Think about what information
flows might be needed within
the ma...
Case Study: Input Supply Retailer with Agents
Inputs Sector in Kenya
Dfid’s Market Assistance Program (MAP)
Hand outs: Sum...
Magos the Input Retailer
In the beginning:
• Had one retail outlet with no
other distribution channels
• Accepted cash onl...
Magos the Input Retailer
Expanded retail outlets:
• Has multiple retail outlets
Expanded reach to rural areas by setting
u...
Magos the Input Retailer
Expanded Financial Services:
• Accepts M-PESA is a form on
payment both in the store, at the
open...
Magos the Input Retailer
Setting up management information
system and customer research tool:
• Testing cell phone researc...
Project Facilitation Role

What do you think
the role of the project
was?
Project Facilitation Role
Agent Model:
•
Introduced idea of agent model through
meetings / presentations
•
Organized study...
Incentives

Buying Down
Risk

Demonstration
Effect

Upgrading

Crowding In

Exit Strategy
Incentives
• Understanding and
building on the drivers
(interests and motivations)
of the actors to take on a
new behaviou...
Buy-down risk
• To demonstrate the benefits of
new market behaviours, a
project might decide to
decrease (“buy down”) the ...
Demonstration Effect
• Effects on the behaviour of
individuals or firms caused by
observation of the actions of
others and...
Upgrading
Investing time, money or
other resources into
improving the enterprise

• Invested in new technology to
improve ...
Crowding-in
• Interventions catalyze or
bring in other players and
functions into the market
system so that it works
bette...
Exit Strategy
• Stopping investments in a
certain activity once a certain
level of uptake or behaviour
change has been rea...
Part Three:

Media market system
as a leverage for change
Recognize and strengthen media as
its own value chain to leverag...
Radio

Mobile Phones

Broadcast Television

Poorest

Cable/Satellite TV

Media
Poor

Newspapers

Media
Rich

Internet

Wea...
Potential of rural radio to impact
poverty through behaviour change in
market systems
Why the focus on radio?
 Among thre...
Media … traditional role for media providers
in rural areas


Content driven by advertizers paying for advertizing space
...
Media … new Influence-Advocacy
model to strengthen market systems
• Educator /
Information
Provider

• Investigator
•Value...
Media … new Influence-Advocacy
model to strengthen market systems
Understanding characteristics of their Audience:
What me...
Media … new Influence-Advocacy
model to strengthen market systems
Understanding their Clients:
Content

What media needs t...
Media … new Influence-Advocacy
model to strengthen market systems
Content Ownership and Quality Control:
Advertizers respo...
Media … new Influence-Advocacy
model to strengthen market systems
Advocacy:
Content
Audience
What rural media (eg radio) h...
Media in the role of Advocator for it’s
audience
Listeners are engaging with the
identity of the station
An influential st...
Radio as an
effective outreach
medium among
the rural poor
Media market system value chain map
Sources of
Information

Government

Legislation Lobbying

Journalist
Associations/Free...
Engaging with
Consumers and
Injecting New
Information into
Interpersonal
Networks

Case Study: Strengthening Radio sector ...
Radio Nam lolwe
In the beginning …
Audience:
•
Had minimal understanding of audience.
•
No focused effort to begin to enga...
Radio Nam lolwe
Now / near future …
Audience
• Starting to realize that don’t have very
much information about audience
• ...
Radio Nam lolwe
Now / near future …
Content / Advocacy
• Engaging audience through offering diversified
content
• Educatio...
Radio Nam lolwe
Now / near future …
Relationships with Advertisers/
Sponsors
• Redesigning offers to be more
concise and v...
Project Facilitation Role

What do you think
the role of the project
was?
Project Facilitation Role
Relationships with Advertisers:
• Linked to market actors to approach for
advertising/sponsorshi...
Engaging with
consumers and
injecting new
information into
interpersonal
networks

Case Study: Private Sector Leveraging M...
Obuoba FM & Golden Stork
Highly successful agricultural competition:
•

Partnered with Golden Stork (input
company) to off...
Obuoba FM & Golden Stork
In the beginning …
Content:
• Program content always presented in same format
• No support from m...
Obuoba FM & Golden Stork
Now / near future …

Relationships with Advertisers/
Sponsors
• Developed tailored pitch to add
v...
Obuoba FM & Golden Stork
Now / near future …
Audience
• Engaged with clients through phone-in and
SMS for contest, and int...
Obuoba FM & Golden Stork
Now / near future …

Content
• Golden Stork was expert panelist on
program. Sales rep interviewed...
Project Facilitation Role

What do you think
the role of the project
was?
Project Facilitation Role
Relationships with Private Sector Advertisers:
•

Linked to private sector actors

•

Technical ...
Project Facilitation Role
Audience:
•

Technical support:
•

•

Gathered information about callers and number of
callers f...
Constraints in media market systems
that market facilitators can support
 Market

facilitators (practitioners) can
streng...
Dealing with constraints in media
market systems
Bayer Crop Sciences



Western region field representative
from Bayer Cr...
Dealing with constraints in media
market systems
Bayer Crop Sciences



Bayer’s marketing department utilizes
Media Buyer...
Dealing with constraints in media
market systems


Local radio station has not been
able to generate marketable data
on i...
Case Study: Radio Mangelete
Dfid’s Market Assistance Program (MAP)
Radio Mangelete
•
•
•
•
•
•

•

Only truly community-owned radio
station in Kenya
Owned by a network of 33 women’s
groups ...
Radio Mangelete
Audience:
• Highly dedicated, regular listeners
• Deep trust of Radio Mangelete
content
• Likely to amplif...
Radio Mangelete
Relationship with Clients
(Advertisers/Sponsors):
• Limited capacity to quantify
listenership
• Limited ca...
Radio Mangelete
Content:
• Well-targeted to listener needs
and interests
• Focused on issues of particular
interest to wom...
Radio Mangelete

•
•

How might the project work with
this type of media firm?
What are the key areas that they
might addr...
Case Study: West FM, Kenya
West FM
•
•

•
•
•

•
•

•

Family-owned and privately
financed station
One of only two stations that
broadcasts programmi...
West FM
Audience:
• Not geographically limited by
local language dialects
• National and international
following as a resu...
West FM
Relationship with
Advertisers/Sponsors:
• Limited capacity to describe the
characteristics of listenership
and fol...
West FM
Content:
• Does not always meet the needs
of local listenership
• Emphasis on national and
international issues dr...
West FM
•
•

How might the project work
with this type of media firm?
What are the key areas that
they might address?
Prepare a roleplay showing
how you will make your offer

Selling the Offer to
Media Buyers

Selling the Offer to
Media Sta...
Media & information flow in market systens development
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Media & information flow in market systens development

  1. 1. BUILDING CAPACITY IN MARKET SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION FLOWS within Market Systems & Value Chains Curriculum developed by: Mike Field, Adam Smith International Margie Brand, EcoVentures International Richelle Matthews Delivered in Mombasa, Kenya at the Kenya BDS Donor Coordination Group Pre-Conference Training December 2012 Trainers: Mehrdad Ehsani, Kenya Markets Trust Clement Tulezi, Kenya Markets Trust
  2. 2. Key learning: Recognize and leverage multiple formal and informal points of information transfer within the market Recognize and encourage private sector promotions as central mechanism to sharing market information Recognize and strengthen media as its own value chain to leverage change in markets
  3. 3. Part One: Understanding and Leveraging Information Flows Recognize and leverage multiple formal and informal points of information transfer within the market / value chain
  4. 4. Multiple Information Sources in markets x x x x x x x x x x x x Want more than just a single source of information x x x x Want multiple sources of information that together build a picture of the message • All the sources do not have to give all the information • All the sources do not have to be ongoing, but could act as a stepping stone to change
  5. 5. Information flow: Water flowing through healthy rivers is like the flow of information through healthy market systems / value chains Good quality: • Clear (transparent, honest) • Readily available • Constantly flowing (not held as • Tried and tested paths source of power) (evidence-based)
  6. 6. Accessing Multiple Points of Information This is Susan. She is a subsistence maize farmer in the western part of Kenya. She is semi-literate. She lives in a rural area about 50 km from a large town. She heard from her neighbour that there is a new type of input that she could use on her maize.
  7. 7. Accessing Multiple Points of Information Where and how can Susan learn more about the inputs? She wants to learn more about this. Her questions are ... • What are these inputs? • How and where can she access them? • How must she use them?
  8. 8. Accessing Multiple Points of Information • • • • • • • • • • • Input Shop Family and friend network Local leader Extension worker NGO Community training Posters Television Radio Newspaper At the market
  9. 9. Accessing Multiple Points of Information What if Susan has no access to quality information? … It is not easily and readily available … It is not a good quality … It is not clear and transparent (it is dishonest) … It is not constantly flowing (but is held by some sources as a show of power or influence) … It is not based on tried-andtested evidence
  10. 10. Accessing Multiple Points of Information What if Susan has no access to quality information?  She may purchase the wrong type of inputs, which would affect her production  Someone could cheat her  There could be no feedback back to retailers or others on the inputs  She could negatively impact her neighbours’ crops and create poor social capital  She may spend more than she needs to … and on the wrong inputs
  11. 11. Examine Push & Pull of information PUSH: Want to identify ways to PUSH information through the system PULL: Want to identify incentives to PULL information through the system and provide feedback back into the system
  12. 12. Information & Influence Mapping Map the sources and flow of information and influence between each market actor in the market system / value chain in which you are operating. Global Enabling Environment Global Retailers National Enabling Environment Sector specific providers Cross-cutting providers National Retailers Exporters Wholesalers Processors/Traders Producers Financial (cross cutting) Input Suppliers • Tried and tested paths • Clear (transparent, honest) (evidence-based) • Readily available • Constantly flowing (not held as source of power) Good quality:
  13. 13. What makes information flow between producers and their buyers and suppliers more or less effective?
  14. 14. Information flow between producers, buyers & suppliers Ineffective Information Flow: Effective Information Flow: One-off communication Long-term with repeat communication Limit upgrading (investments and improvements) Promote upgrading (investments and improvements) Do not guide effective upgrading: Information provides no clarity to time and resources investments Guide effective upgrading: Information provides guidance for where time and resources should be invested Lack open communication and transparency Have open lines of communication and transparency Information retained as source of power in market Information shared Is not mutually beneficial Is mutually beneficial Increase cost inefficiencies Reduce costs Limit ability to respond to changes in market Support greater responsiveness to changing market Reduce market confidence Building market confidence (e.g. enhancing access to better quality or more affordable information can shift self-perceptions from being price-takers)
  15. 15. Types of Information Vehicles
  16. 16. Multiple Information Sources in markets • What are sources of information in markets? All are effective at different times for different purposes… All have their own interests!
  17. 17. Media Self-Interests  All media has its own self-interest  Can you think of examples?  Why is this important for market facilitation practitioners to recognize?  How could we subtly work with or work to change this for the benefit of the poor?
  18. 18. Leveraging different information channels INFORMAL Interpersonal Communications FORMAL Mass Communications  Between two people or smaller group of people   Generally immediate feedback   Better understanding of recipient  Hard to confirm recipient of message • • • • • • Telephone Face-to-face Small meetings Letters Formal reports Community meetings • • • Television Radio Print (e.g. newspaper) • Firm-to-firm feedback & communication Addresses large/ diverse group of people Feedback not immediate • • • SMS platforms Internet Outdoor media (e.g. billboard) Equally powerful for influencing market actors BUT scale and replication differences
  19. 19. Case Study: Shamba Shape-Up TV Series, Kenya • What are the messages that Shamba Shape-Up is trying to share? • What behaviour is it trying to change? • Is it an effective or less effective form of communication to poor, smallholder farmers by market actors? • What could even more effective strategies or channels be that could be used by market actors?
  20. 20. Strengthen Push & Pull of information PUSH: Want to strengthen ways to PUSH information through the system PULL: Want to strengthen incentives to PULL information through the system and provide feedback back into the system
  21. 21. Case Study: Coffee sector in Uganda Bulema Coffee Factory USAID’s LEAD Uganda project
  22. 22. Bulema Coffee Factory Business as Usual … • Bulema coffee factory provides hulling services to farmers at a price; this service costs more to operate when the coffee is wet. Bulema also buys coffee from farmers • Buying agents travel to the field at harvest time and buy coffee from farmers; they bring it back to the factory warehouse • Buying agents who work for Bulema offer subjective prices to farmers (e.g. based on observations, biting the bean)
  23. 23. Bulema Coffee Factory Future … • Use equipment and processes to transparently assess coffee quality against standards (i.e. moisture meters, screens for bean size) • Use various channels (media and radio, inperson outreach events, market days) to communicate pricing and quality parameters. • Offers training and public information services to farmers. • Offers premium pricing for quality coffee – prices are differentiated based on specific end-market requirements • Establishes strong trust relationship between agents and farmers • Provides support, advice, connections to input services and suppliers - to improve volume and quality of coffee supplied
  24. 24. Bulema Coffee Factory Future … • Gives farmers feedback on how they are performing with respect to coffee quality standards, and specific advice on how to improve in the following season • Gives performance incentives – cows, goats, recognition, and prizes – to high-performing suppliers • Markets coffee aggressively to buyers, meets their requirements, and is able to secure higher prices because meeting end-market requirements • Expands hulling operation, improves its management and achieves lower operating costs for factory • As market requirements change over the years, Bulema is able to manage supply chain and meet current market demands
  25. 25. Case Study: Coffee sector in Uganda • What is the role information flows are playing in this firm’s business? • How can the business use media to address some of the information flow issues? • What are the benefits of using media this way?
  26. 26. Project Facilitation Role What do you think the role of the project could be in supporting access to information?
  27. 27. Part Two: Using Market Actors as key information-sharing mechanisms Recognize and incentivize the private sector as key mechanisms to sharing market information
  28. 28. Using Market Actors as key information-sharing mechanisms • What are ways that market actors (public or private) can be used to share information into the market system? Examples Marketing Promotions Competitions Discounts Demonstrations Embedded technical support Customer loyalty programs
  29. 29. Promotional events that: Educationbased • Give smallholder farmers an ability in their village to learn, see demos, and ask questions Promotional Events • Targeting solutions (not individual products) • Education-based (contain educational info) • In local communities (such as local open-air markets)
  30. 30. Education-based promotional events targeting solutions Why: • • • Stimulate information flow in the marketplace Create higher comfort level and more trust with the market actor Lead to testimonial information-sharing (advertising) that is high effective with smallholders
  31. 31. Buying Discounts Discounts that are: • Targeting solutions (not individual products) • Driving high volume orders and bulking of orders • In local communities (such as at local open-air markets)
  32. 32. Buying Discounts Why: • • • • Stimulate information flow in the marketplace Discounts lower the financial risks of farmers to try new products and services Lead to testimonial information-sharing (advertising) that is high effective with smallholders Discounts that incentivize trialing new products create a higher comfort level and more trust with the market actor (e.g. with the input provider)
  33. 33. Contests that are: Local Contests • Targeting solutions (not individual products) • In local communities (such as at local openair markets) • In-person (e.g. planting, picking, or ploughing contests) or local radio-show contests
  34. 34. Local Contests Why: • • • • Stimulate information flow in the marketplace Lead to testimonial informationsharing (advertising) that is high effective with smallholders In-person contests create more diffused and effective demonstrations by having multiple farmers test a product / service under supervision of input firm Create a higher comfort level and more trust with the market actor (e.g. with the input provider)
  35. 35. Engaging with consumers and injecting new information into interpersonal networks Case Study: Private Sector Leveraging Media Obuoba FM and Golden Stork ADVANCE project Ghana Primary implementer: ACDI/VOCA. Donor: USAID
  36. 36. Obuoba FM & Golden Stork Highly successful agricultural competition: • Partnered with Golden Stork (input company) to offer a radio contest on inputs • Winners answered questions on air from content that had been discussed in the program, won product (inputs, and a backpack sprayer • To receive the prize all winners needed to attend a training at the radio station on how to use the inputs properly • Gifty had never learned how to use inputs, and was so happy with knowledge that she shared this with the rest of community network • Gifty established herself as a distributor of the product within her community
  37. 37. Customer Loyalty Programs What: • E.g. specials for customers with certain number of repeat purchases • E.g. part of buyer clubs
  38. 38. Customer Loyalty Programs Why: • • • Stimulate information flow in the marketplace Create a higher comfort level and more trust with the input provider Lead to testimonial information-sharing (advertising) that is high effective with smallholders
  39. 39. Leveraging market actors’ Marketing & Promotional activities
  40. 40. Market actors’ marketing & promotions as information-sharing mechanism Market systems that function well have a high degree of marketing and promotional activities Marketing & Promotional Activities benefit the flow of information in the system because they are: Informational Cost effective Help customers have choices More informed buying decisions Build relationships & ongoing source of information Supports application of information through decreasing risk of trying new things
  41. 41. Private sector marketing & promotions as information-sharing mechanism Benefits Example: Benefit to smallholders Informational Provide information to smallholders on what is available in the market (e.g. what new herbicides or soil testing services are available) and even how to use it (e.g. when the promotion involves demonstrations) Cost effective Are absorbed by the firms as part of their targeted promotional activities directly to their new or existing customer base, rather than being separate general information campaigns Help customers have choices Provide comparisons on different products and services available from one retailer or even between retailers (e.g. what are different types of seeds or pesticides that smallholders might choose from) Informed buying decisions Provide comparisons on characteristics of products/services and which situations they are most useful for. Helps smallholders make more informed choices (e.g. which sprays to use when) Build relationships Develops ongoing relationships with smallholders as customers and therefore an ongoing information source Supports application Promotions could mean that products or services are available at lower cost through discounts to smallholders, incentivizing them to try out the new info as there is less financial risk in doing so
  42. 42. Marketing & promotions as information-sharing mechanism • Think about what information flows might be needed within the market systems that you are working in Benefits • Discuss examples of where a private (or public sector) promotion or marketing tactic by a retailer, buyer or other market actor may be able to provide this information and influence Informational Cost effective Help customers have choices More informed buying decisions Build ongoing info source Supports application of information
  43. 43. Case Study: Input Supply Retailer with Agents Inputs Sector in Kenya Dfid’s Market Assistance Program (MAP) Hand outs: Summary of Magos Input Supply case
  44. 44. Magos the Input Retailer In the beginning: • Had one retail outlet with no other distribution channels • Accepted cash only • Had no regular promotional activities • Had links to a small spray team which did not use much • Had no embedded information as part of his product and service offering • Was product not customerfocused
  45. 45. Magos the Input Retailer Expanded retail outlets: • Has multiple retail outlets Expanded reach to rural areas by setting up field agent network: • Has field agent teams • Field agents accept orders • Field agents discuss inputs with the farmers • Farmers can pre-order the inputs Runs Promotions: • Input stalls (demonstration, ordering and sales) set-up in different rural towns on their open-air market days Makes deliveries: • Has invested in a van to make deliveries to rural areas
  46. 46. Magos the Input Retailer Expanded Financial Services: • Accepts M-PESA is a form on payment both in the store, at the open-air market promotional stores, and at the delivery van Links to 3rd-party Suppliers: • Refers farmers to spray services and directly signs farmers up for appointments during open-air market days • Starting to distribute soil testing kits and collect soil testing samples on commission basis for soil testing company
  47. 47. Magos the Input Retailer Setting up management information system and customer research tool: • Testing cell phone research tool to keep in contact with customers, take orders, and research usage and needs Provide Technical Assistance through Embedded Services: • Provides information on how to use and apply inputs effectively and safely as part of the sale of products through sales agents
  48. 48. Project Facilitation Role What do you think the role of the project was?
  49. 49. Project Facilitation Role Agent Model: • Introduced idea of agent model through meetings / presentations • Organized study tour to Zambia to see model at work (smart subsidy to cover travel costs) • Will be supporting trainers on how to train agent network Promotions: • Introduced idea of input stalls at open-air market days • Covered initial transport costs (smart subsidy that had a rapidly decreasing cost share model) 3rd-party Supplier Linkages: • Introduced idea of promoting linkages to spray service teams to increase customers for his other inputs • Introduced to soil testing facility Management information system and customer research tool: • Introduced to SMS research tool
  50. 50. Incentives Buying Down Risk Demonstration Effect Upgrading Crowding In Exit Strategy
  51. 51. Incentives • Understanding and building on the drivers (interests and motivations) of the actors to take on a new behaviour (take on or participate in a new activity) • May be social, personal, financial, etc. • Agrovet and 3rd-party support services want to grow their businesses and make higher profits, by: • developing better relationships with customers (for repeat sales from farmers) • reaching new customers (by selling to new farmers in rural areas) • making more sales (by making it easier to order, access and pay for their products)
  52. 52. Buy-down risk • To demonstrate the benefits of new market behaviours, a project might decide to decrease (“buy down”) the risk of a market actor trying out the new behaviour - using strategic “smart” subsidies. • It may seem too risky for the market actor to bear the cost and time of taking on the behaviour/activity on their own for the first time • A cost share was used by the project to share costs for the open-air market day promotional stalls as a demonstration to agrovet that this would indeed bring in more customers and sales. • The project covered a rapidly decreasing % of the cost of transport for the first 10 openair market days
  53. 53. Demonstration Effect • Effects on the behaviour of individuals or firms caused by observation of the actions of others and their consequences • Uses early behaviour change adopters as examples / models • Goal: deepen ownership of behaviour changes in the value chain actors, and broaden the change throughout the value chain so that it becomes a “norm” • Other input suppliers (agrovets) see how successful the agent network and rural market day promotions are, and start setting up services to reach poorer farmers in rural areas.
  54. 54. Upgrading Investing time, money or other resources into improving the enterprise • Invested in new technology to improve his business (M-PESA payments, cell phone customer research tool) - • Invested in bringing in new partners to be able to offer a more sophisticated range of products and services - - Process upgrading (new production techniques or improved technology) Product upgrading (improving the product or other product lines) Functional upgrading (improving skills) • Invested in improving skills and buying new equipment to run local promotional events
  55. 55. Crowding-in • Interventions catalyze or bring in other players and functions into the market system so that it works better for the poor. Can result in: • Expanded breadth (more transactions in the market) • Expanded depth (supporting functions) • Expanded reach (new areas or markets) • Increasing number of agrovets may see the success of a business strategy to target rural farmers, and start copying or adapting the activities of the agrovet • Increasing number of support service providers are seeing the benefit of partnering with agrovets to target poorer producers (spraying, soil testing, …)
  56. 56. Exit Strategy • Stopping investments in a certain activity once a certain level of uptake or behaviour change has been reached. • “Rolling exit strategies” stop cost-sharing, using a wait-andsee approach, to see if a market actor self selects to take on an activity by themselves, showing that they have the ownership and capacity to continue without the project’s support. • The project stopped costsharing open-air market day stalls as the agrovet started seeing value and demonstrated the ownership, capacity and means to take on the activity • The project planted the idea of an agent network, but waited to see if the agrovet took the initial steps to put this in place before investing more time and money into strengthening the network.
  57. 57. Part Three: Media market system as a leverage for change Recognize and strengthen media as its own value chain to leverage change in markets
  58. 58. Radio Mobile Phones Broadcast Television Poorest Cable/Satellite TV Media Poor Newspapers Media Rich Internet Wealthiest Magazines Media: People see and hear information … but what actually influences them?
  59. 59. Potential of rural radio to impact poverty through behaviour change in market systems Why the focus on radio?  Among three main categories of mass media tools - radio, television and print media - influence of rural radio at a local level cannot be denied  Improving the content, listener orientation, and proactive advocacy of radio on behalf of its listenership is a critical piece to achieving sustainable poverty reduction  Interventions in rural radio and media can provide attributable gains to income in select market systems / value chains
  60. 60. Media … traditional role for media providers in rural areas  Content driven by advertizers paying for advertizing space (e.g. Radio’s Pay-to-Air Model) • • • • CONTENT: Limited ownership over content AUDIENCE: Limited value placed on audience ADVERTIZERS / SPONSORS: Limited understanding of needs of clients ADVOCACY: Limited advocating on behalf of their audience
  61. 61. Media … new Influence-Advocacy model to strengthen market systems • Educator / Information Provider • Investigator •Value placed on audience • Ownership over content Content Clients (Advertizers / Sponsors) Audience Advocacy • Market Connector • Advocate / Watchdog • Understand needs of clients • Advocate on behalf of audience
  62. 62. Media … new Influence-Advocacy model to strengthen market systems Understanding characteristics of their Audience: What media needs to sell: • Audience segment • Ability to influence that audience! Audience Clients What media needs to do: • Gain an in-depth understanding of the characteristics of audience through market research and strategic interaction • to understand who precisely is listening and what they want to hear (interests, demographics, needs) • Become more responsive to needs of the audience, in sectors that are working Content Advocacy
  63. 63. Media … new Influence-Advocacy model to strengthen market systems Understanding their Clients: Content What media needs to do: • View sponsorship and advertising relationships as core to their business model and sustainability • Understand range of client segments in order to have tailored pitches / proposals • Create client relationships and mechanism to track on-going clients’ perceptions, expectations, and satisfaction Audience Clients Advocacy
  64. 64. Media … new Influence-Advocacy model to strengthen market systems Content Ownership and Quality Control: Advertizers respond to content, therefore … What media needs to do: • Building quality and credible content that will promote strong relationships with their audience Content Audience Clients Advocacy • Actively take on information provider/educator, watchdog/advocate, and market connector roles, by owning their content, as opposed to sponsors/advertisers directing it • Generating content that is demanded by audience segment to increase number of listeners, build trust, loyalty, and ultimately influence
  65. 65. Media … new Influence-Advocacy model to strengthen market systems Advocacy: Content Audience What rural media (eg radio) has potential for: • Shape public dialogues that form community rules / standards Clients Advocacy • Influence masses and act as advocate or watchdog on behalf of audience • Give poor people a voice to make their opinions, grievances and ideas known • Reveal hidden public or private sector wrongdoing or incompetence, point out important, but ignored, community issue that require resolution, or highlight unfair or unjust treatment of particular groups or individuals • Deepen trust levels and increase ability to influence audience
  66. 66. Media in the role of Advocator for it’s audience Listeners are engaging with the identity of the station An influential station becomes a part of the listeners community
  67. 67. Radio as an effective outreach medium among the rural poor
  68. 68. Media market system value chain map Sources of Information Government Legislation Lobbying Journalist Associations/Free lance Quality Info Service $ Services ICT companies $ $ Skill Centre: Universities /institutes News Agencies $ Media Houses Services Private sector eg. input suppliers, banks Services Advertising Agencies Readers Statistics Advertising Agencies $ Services $ Consumer Associations Time/ Attention Information/Advocacy/market linkages $ Info on Media Habit Media Research Companies Advertisers Media Consumption Data Audience Improved Programming
  69. 69. Engaging with Consumers and Injecting New Information into Interpersonal Networks Case Study: Strengthening Radio sector in Kenya Radio Nam lolwe, Nyanza Dfid’s Market Assistance Project (MAP) Kenya Markets Trust
  70. 70. Radio Nam lolwe In the beginning … Audience: • Had minimal understanding of audience. • No focused effort to begin to engage with audience • No data on audience based on reputable research Relationships with Advertisers / Sponsors: • Not developing tailored marketing proposals for clients • Not actively seeking out advertisers • Proposals were lengthy and convoluted • Focused on Pay-to-Play - so did not focus on building long-term relationships with advertisers • No strong revenues from program – believed that no high interest amongst sponsors to advertise Content: • Content generated mostly from the internet - read by a presenter • Existing agricultural radio show • Focus on a Pay-to-Play business model, so did not have control or ownership over their content, unsustainable • Used SMS technology to interact with audience • Not actively developing content that put them in role of educator/ information provider, advocate/investigative or market linker
  71. 71. Radio Nam lolwe Now / near future … Audience • Starting to realize that don’t have very much information about audience • Beginning to understand that need that information to develop tailored marketing proposals to clients • Expressed interest in buying listenership data from Synovate • Presenting offers to advertizers that add value and offer multiple touch-points with audience • Have piloted Frontline Radio SMS platform to engage audience through polling and feedback • Engaging with audience to maintain and increase listenership e.g. voting process for attending Equity Bank promotional event
  72. 72. Radio Nam lolwe Now / near future … Content / Advocacy • Engaging audience through offering diversified content • Education on pesticide control (by chemical company) • Weekly financial tips (by bank) • Farming tips (by seed company) • Educational campaigns on entrepreneurship targeting fishermen, sugarcane, rice and cotton farmers • Weather and soil fertility tips • Trying out new strategies for content • Radio contest (with chemicals company) • Drama (with ag radio) • Talk show (with MOA) • Radio contest (with agro vet) • Campaign to nominate farmer representatives live-on-air for a forum sponsored by a bank • Trying out promotional events as a new information source for program ie. live coverage and gathering interviews • Outdoor promotions on good farming practices
  73. 73. Radio Nam lolwe Now / near future … Relationships with Advertisers/ Sponsors • Redesigning offers to be more concise and visually focused to clearly and effectively communicate the pitch • Developing offers that are tailored to align with business objectives of advertisers/ sponsors • Understand value and opportunity for increased revenue by proactively seeking out advertiser relationships
  74. 74. Project Facilitation Role What do you think the role of the project was?
  75. 75. Project Facilitation Role Relationships with Advertisers: • Linked to market actors to approach for advertising/sponsorship and content involvement • Technical support (Staff subsidy) • Helped refine commercial (marketing) offers to be tailored to business objectives of clients • Reformatted offers/proposals to be simplified and visually focused so that pitches are clear and concise Content: • Technical Support: Built capacity on how to take ownership of content, and new program formatting • Provided technical resources on developing radio dramas • Linked to technical experts for interviews • Technical Support: Supported integration of promotional events into product offering to improve content and to take on role of market linker, information provider/ educator Advocacy: • Introduced idea of investigative reporting that would support a stronger advocacy role
  76. 76. Engaging with consumers and injecting new information into interpersonal networks Case Study: Private Sector Leveraging Media Obuoba FM and Golden Stork ADVANCE project Ghana Primary implementer: ACDI/VOCA. Donor: USAID
  77. 77. Obuoba FM & Golden Stork Highly successful agricultural competition: • Partnered with Golden Stork (input company) to offer a radio contest on inputs • Winners answered questions on air from content that had been discussed in the program, won product (inputs, and a backpack sprayer • To receive the prize all winners needed to attend a training at the radio station on how to use the inputs properly • Gifty had never learned how to use inputs, and was so happy with knowledge that she shared this with the rest of community network • Gifty established herself as a distributor of the product within her community
  78. 78. Obuoba FM & Golden Stork In the beginning … Content: • Program content always presented in same format • No support from management to do field interviews • No tactics to actively engage listeners except call-ins Relationships with Advertisers/Sponsors: • Despite popularity, had trouble securing advertisers • Advertisers only wanted ad spots during sports programs • Did not develop proposals tailored to clients • Not proactive in identifying prospective advertisers • No value placed on developing relationships with clients Audience: • No strategy to build trust and loyalty with audience • No strategy to focus on demand-driven content • Content was one dimensional / studio driven • Single touch-points with client call-ins Advocacy • Management unsupportive of host investigating issues • Management did not understand opportunity to leverage passion of presenter to investigate issues and continue to build trust, loyalty and influence
  79. 79. Obuoba FM & Golden Stork Now / near future … Relationships with Advertisers/ Sponsors • Developed tailored pitch to add value to Golden Stork’s strategy • Developed content that offered multiple client touch-points • Developed pitch for radio contest, ad spots and educational event • Focused on developing long-term relationship • Collected data on number of phonein’s/ inquires for client • Prepared second offer to client prior to completion of first to leverage momentum and success of current promotion
  80. 80. Obuoba FM & Golden Stork Now / near future … Audience • Engaged with clients through phone-in and SMS for contest, and interpersonal interaction at education and training event opportunity for planned and casual communication • Leveraged word-of-mouth networks to build brand of radio station and their client (Golden Stork) • Educated audience on proper use of inputs throughout radio contest, and training on how to use products. Embedded information through providing information and creating a feedback channel through phone-ins, SMS and interpersonal communication • Took on role of market linker and educator/information provider • Built trust with Gifty who has shared information. Contest was able to leverage word-of-mouth promotion
  81. 81. Obuoba FM & Golden Stork Now / near future … Content • Golden Stork was expert panelist on program. Sales rep interviewed and audience could ask questions, in order to engage with audience - provided market relevant information on the use and purchase of inputs • Station still "owned” content by interviewing Golden Stork as opposed to Golden Stork directing content • Contest improved content through multiple touch-points, and increased incentives to listen • Generated content through interviews at education event
  82. 82. Project Facilitation Role What do you think the role of the project was?
  83. 83. Project Facilitation Role Relationships with Private Sector Advertisers: • Linked to private sector actors • Technical support: • Developed tailored marketing proposals (showing insights into clients marketing objectives) • Gathered data and information to provide to client for feedback on success of promotion • Coached on strategies to develop and add value to client relationship Content: • Helped develop idea for contest and promotion e.g. having input demonstration as part of prize • Supported setting up promotional event • Smart subsidy: • • Paid for cost of participants to attend input training (Golden Stork paid for prize, Obuoba FM hosted promotional event at their facility) Project field staff attended training to support Golden Stork staff
  84. 84. Project Facilitation Role Audience: • Technical support: • • Gathered information about callers and number of callers for contest to provide to client Audience engagement: • • • Attempted to introduce SMS platform management didn't want to pay for the platform despite cost share offer - host increased use of SMS on personal mobile phone Built trust/ loyalty with audience through providing them with valuable knowledge Program Design: • Supported on how to create more engaging and relevant content, opportunities to gather content and link in market actors and experts • Created opportunity to engage with audience in meaningful way e.g. input training, and as a result tapped into family and friend network. Gifty took on role of star and brought new information into her network
  85. 85. Constraints in media market systems that market facilitators can support  Market facilitators (practitioners) can strengthen media market systems by recognizing key constraints to overcome  In this way media can become an active leverage point to support market and value chain development activities • Example of constraint: Lack of listenership profile and numbers required by private firms prevents quick buy-in to local radio stations that are closer to smallholder listeners
  86. 86. Dealing with constraints in media market systems Bayer Crop Sciences  Western region field representative from Bayer Crop Sciences identified local radio station as primary communication medium for agricultural information to people in his sales territory however…  Bayer’s marketing department preferred to advertise with Nation Media Group why might this have been?
  87. 87. Dealing with constraints in media market systems Bayer Crop Sciences  Bayer’s marketing department utilizes Media Buyers whose research focus on listener demographics and number of listeners  Media Buyers do not have research on the local radio’s listenership  Media Buyers place greater emphasis on number of listeners compared to how listeners may absorb information differently
  88. 88. Dealing with constraints in media market systems  Local radio station has not been able to generate marketable data on its listener demographics or its total listener base  Local radio station does not have relationships with Media Buyers used by firms like Bayer  Local radio station has not been able to generate a marketable pitch on why its listeners are more likely to absorb information compared to national stations Local Radio Station
  89. 89. Case Study: Radio Mangelete Dfid’s Market Assistance Program (MAP)
  90. 90. Radio Mangelete • • • • • • • Only truly community-owned radio station in Kenya Owned by a network of 33 women’s groups (837 women) Not managed by radio or media professionals Content generated by women with emphasis on empowerment issues Content driven by listener needs and interests Nature of programming creates personal and trusted relationship with listeners BUT … struggle to generate revenue through advertising or outside content
  91. 91. Radio Mangelete Audience: • Highly dedicated, regular listeners • Deep trust of Radio Mangelete content • Likely to amplify Radio Mangelete messages through interpersonal communication
  92. 92. Radio Mangelete Relationship with Clients (Advertisers/Sponsors): • Limited capacity to quantify listenership • Limited capacity to market airtime to advertisers or content generators • Disconnected from formal media system
  93. 93. Radio Mangelete Content: • Well-targeted to listener needs and interests • Focused on issues of particular interest to women • Often deals with highly personal issues • Limited in the breadth of issues covered
  94. 94. Radio Mangelete • • How might the project work with this type of media firm? What are the key areas that they might address?
  95. 95. Case Study: West FM, Kenya
  96. 96. West FM • • • • • • • • Family-owned and privately financed station One of only two stations that broadcasts programming in KiSwahili and English Listener base is not limited by local language dialects National and international following Technologically advanced with professional website and streaming content Active social media presence Global audience interests not always connection to needs of local constituents Limited advertising revenue
  97. 97. West FM Audience: • Not geographically limited by local language dialects • National and international following as a result of professional website and social media presence • Not always well-connected to local listenership Ownership: • Family-owned and privately financed
  98. 98. West FM Relationship with Advertisers/Sponsors: • Limited capacity to describe the characteristics of listenership and followers • Quantitative measures of social media followers, but limited capacity to quantify local listenership • Limited capacity to segment followers into distinct groups by geography, demographics, or media platform followed • Has not successfully marketed to Media Buyers
  99. 99. West FM Content: • Does not always meet the needs of local listenership • Emphasis on national and international issues driven by wide network of followers • Brings national and international issues to local listeners • Local issues for local listeners underrepresented among content programming • Little emphasis on pushing local issues out to national and international audiences
  100. 100. West FM • • How might the project work with this type of media firm? What are the key areas that they might address?
  101. 101. Prepare a roleplay showing how you will make your offer Selling the Offer to Media Buyers Selling the Offer to Media Stations • • You work for a development project You want to make the case to a radio station that they could take on an advocacy and information-giving role which would be better for their business and their audience • You work for a radio show • You want to make the case to media buyers (companies or other stakeholders who could sponsor programs or buy advertising space) to be involved in your advocacy and information-giving strategy

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