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Psychosocial Theory of Development (HALF PART)

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  • 1. Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Development
  • 2. Erik Homburger Erikson Born: June 15, 1902, Frankfurt, Germany Died: May 12, 1994, Harwich, Massachusetts, United States Education: University of Vienna Spouse: Joan Erikson (m. 1930–1994) Awards: Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction, Jefferson Lecture, National Book Award for Philosophy and Religion
  • 3. Erik Homburger Erikson was a German-born American developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst known for his theory on psychosocial development of human beings. He maybe most famous for coining the phrase identity crisis.
  • 4. . He first published his eight stage theory of human development in his 1950 book, Childhood and Society. The Stages were included in the chapter entitled “The Eight Ages of Man”
  • 5. He expanded and refined his theory in later books and revisions, mainly: - Identity and the Life Cycle (1959) - Insight and Responsibility (1964) - The Life Cycle Completed: A Review (1982), revised 1996 by Joan Erikson - Vital Involvement in Old Age (1989)
  • 6. Identity and the Life Cycle (1959)
  • 7. Insight and Responsibility(1964)
  • 8. The Life Cycle Completed: A Review (1982), revised 1996 by Joan Erikson
  • 9. Vital Involvement in Old Age (1989)
  • 10. Similar to theory of Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. But unlike the Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson’s theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole life-span.
  • 11. What differs to the work of Erikson to Freud is the element of which gave emphasis on the development of ego identity. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction.
  • 12. According to Erikson, our ego identity constantly changes due to new experiences and information that we acquire in our daily interactions with other individuals in our environment.
  • 13. Furthermore, Erikson also established a belief that a sense of competence also motivates behaviors and actions. Erikson’s theory implies that each stage concerns with becoming competent in an area of life.
  • 14. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery. If the stage is managed poorly , the person will feel a sense of inadequacy.
  • 15. Introduction to the Eight Stages of Human Development
  • 16. Erikson’s psychosocial term is derived from the two source words- namely psychological (or the root, psycho relating to the mind, brain, personality, etc.) and social (external relationships and environment).
  • 17. Erikson’s theory was largely influenced by Sigmund Freud. But Erikson extended the theory and incorporated cultural and social aspects into Freud's biological and sexually-oriented theory.
  • 18. The theory is a basis for broad or complex discussion and analysis of personality and behavior and also for understanding and facilitating personal development of self and others.
  • 19. It can help the teacher in becoming more knowledgeable and at the same time understanding of the various environmental factors that affect his own and his students’ personality and behavior.
  • 20. Erikson’s eight stages theory is a tremendously powerful model because his theory is useful for teaching, parenting, self-awareness, managing and coaching, dealing with conflict and generally for understanding self and others.
  • 21. The Epigenetic Principle. As Boeree, “this priciple says that we develop through a predetermined unfolding of our personalities in eight stages . Our progress through each stage is in part determined by our success, or lack of success, in all the previous stages. C. George Boeree - American psychologist - Born: January 15, 1952 (age 61)
  • 22. Epigenetic theory is an emergent theory of development that includes both the genetic origins of behavior and the direct influence that environmental forces have, over time, on the expression of those genes. The theory focuses on the dynamic interaction between these two influences during development.
  • 23. Each stages involves a psychosocial crisis of two opposing emotional forces. A helpful term used by Erikson for these opposing forces is contrary dispositions.
  • 24. Each crises stages relates to a corresponding life stage and its inherent challenges. Erikson used the words syntonic for the first listed positive disposition in each crises (e.g., Trust) and dystonic for the second- listed negative disposition (e.g., Mistrust). He used the word versus to signify the opposing relationship between each pair of dispositions.
  • 25. If a stage is managed well , we carry away a certain virtue or psychosocial strength which will help us through the rest of the stages of our life.
  • 26. Successfully passing through each crises involves achieving a healthy ratio or balance between the two opposing dispositions that represent each crisis.
  • 27. On the other hand, if we don’t do so well, we may develop maladaptation and malignancy , as well as endanger all our future development.
  • 28. A malignancy is the worse of the two. If involves too little of the positive and too much of the negative aspect of the task, such as a person who can’t trust others.
  • 29. A maladaptation is not quite as bad and involves too much of the positive and too little of the negative, such as a person who trusts too much.
  • 30. Erikson also emphasized the significance of mutuality and generativity in his theory. The terms are linked . Mutuality reflects the effect of generations on each other, especially among families, and particularly between parents and children and grand children.
  • 31. Generativity, actually a named disposition within one of the stages (Generativity vs Stagnation), reflects the significant relationship between adults and the best interests of children.
  • 32. The Eight Psychosocial Stages of Development
  • 33. Stage 1 Infancy -birth to 18 months
  • 34. Developments
  • 35. Physical Development - roll over, crawl, walk, grasp object
  • 36. Mental Development -respond to cold, hunger and pain by crying -begin to recognize surroundings and become aware of surroundings and people
  • 37. Emotional Development -show anger, distrust, happiness, excitement, etc.
  • 38. Social Development -self-centeredness concept of the newborn to recognition of others in their environment
  • 39. Psychosocial Crisis -Trust vs Mistrust
  • 40. Important Event (Feeding)
  • 41. Outcome Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
  • 42. Maladaptation (Sensory Maladjustment) Over trusting Gullible Cannot believe anyone would mean them harm.
  • 43. Malignancy (Withdrawal) Characterized by depression, paranoia and possibly psychosis.
  • 44. Virtue (Hope) The strong belief that even things are not going well, they will work out well in the end.
  • 45. Stage 2 Toddler -2 to 3 years old
  • 46. Developments
  • 47. Physical Development -growth slower than in infancy -muscle coordination allows the child to run, climb, move freely -can write , draw, use a spoon and fork
  • 48. Mental Development -verbal growth progresses, short attention span, at end of stage ask questions, recognize letters and some words
  • 49. Emotional Development -develop self-awareness and recognize the effect they have on the other people and things
  • 50. Social Development -at the beginning of stage very self-centered one year old to sociable six year old -strong attachment to parents. -needs are food , shelter, protection, love and security
  • 51. Psychosocial Crisis -Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
  • 52. Important Event (Toilet Training)
  • 53. Outcome Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feeling of autonomy, failure results in feeling of shame and doubt.
  • 54. Maladaptation (Impulsiveness) A sort of shameless willfulness that leads you in later childhood and even adulthood to jump into things without proper consideration of your abilities.
  • 55. Malignancy (Compulsiveness) Too much shame and doubt. The compulsive person feels as if their entire being rides on everything they do and so everything they do and so everything must be done perfectly.
  • 56. Virtue (Will power) “Can do attitude”
  • 57. Stage 3 Preschool - 3 to 5 years old
  • 58. Developments
  • 59. Physical Development -growth slower than in infancy -muscle coordination allows the child to run, climb, move freely -can write , draw, use a spoon and fork
  • 60. Mental Development -verbal growth progresses, short attention span, at end of stage ask questions, recognize letters and some words
  • 61. Emotional Development -develop self-awareness and recognize the effect they have on the other people and things
  • 62. Social Development -at the beginning of stage very self-centered one year old to sociable six year old -strong attachment to parents -needs are food , shelter, protection, love and security
  • 63. Psychosocial Crisis -Initiative vs Guilt
  • 64. Important Event (Exploration)
  • 65. Outcome Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval resulting in a sense of guilt.
  • 66. Maladaptation (Ruthless) To be heartless or unfeeling or to be “without mercy”
  • 67. Malignancy (Inhibition) The inhibited person will not try things because nothing ventured, nothing lost, and particularly nothing to feel guilty about.
  • 68. Virtue (Courage) The capacity for action despite a clear understanding of your limitations and past failings.
  • 69. End Thank You!

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