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Adjectives (8 PARTS OF SPEECH)

Adjectives (8 PARTS OF SPEECH)

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  • 1. Adjectives
  • 2. Adjectives - are words that are used to describe (what kind of?) nouns and pronouns and to quantify (how much of?) and identify (which one?) them. In a nutshell, Adjectives are what define nouns and give them characteristics to differentiate them from other nouns.
  • 3. Types of Adjectives
  • 4. Adjectives of Quality These adjectives are used to describe the nature of a noun. They give an idea about the characteristics of the noun by answering the question ‘what kind’.
  • 5. Examples:  Honest, Kind, Large, Bulky, Beautiful, Ugly etc.  New Delhi is a large city with many historical monuments.  Sheila is a beautiful woman.
  • 6. Adjectives of Quantity These adjectives help to show the amount or the approximate amount of the noun or pronoun. These adjectives do not provide exact numbers; rather they tell us the amount of the noun in relative or whole terms.
  • 7. Examples: All, Half, Many, Few, Little, No, Enough, Great etc. They have finished most of the rice. Many people came to visit the fair.
  • 8. Adjectives of Number These adjectives are used to show the number of nouns and their place in an order. There are three different sections within adjectives of number; they are
  • 9. Definite Numeral Adjective - Those which clearly denote an exact number of nouns or the order of the noun. Examples:  One, Two, Twenty, Thirty-Three etc. also known as Cardinals.  First, Second, Third, Seventh etc. also known as Ordinals.
  • 10. Indefinite Numeral Adjective - Those adjectives that do not give an exact numerical amount but just give a general idea of the amount. Examples:  Some, Many, Few, Any, Several, All etc.  There were many people present at the meeting.
  • 11. Distributive Numeral Adjective -Those adjectives that are used to refer to individual nouns within the whole amount. Examples:  Either, Neither, Each, Another, Other etc.  Taxes have to be paid by every employed citizen.
  • 12. Demonstrative Adjectives These adjectives are used to point out or indicate a particular noun or pronoun using the adjectives - This, That, These and Those.
  • 13. Examples: That bag belongs to Neil. Try using this paintbrush in art class. I really like those shoes. These flowers are lovely.
  • 14. Interrogative Adjectives These adjectives are used to ask questions about nouns or in relation to nouns, they are - Where, What, Which and Whose.
  • 15. Examples: Where did he say he was going? What assignment did I miss out on? Which is your favorite author? Whose pen is this?
  • 16. Comparison of Adjectives When we want to compare two or more nouns using adjectives, we use the comparative and superlative forms of the adjective to show the comparison between the nouns.
  • 17. Examples:  Honey is sweet, sugar is sweeter but victory is the sweetest.  In this sentence, we are comparing the three nouns using the positive, comparative and superlative forms of the word ‘sweet’.
  • 18. Positive Form These are the simple adjectives that simply describe the noun without comparing it to another - big, sweet, clean, etc.
  • 19. Examples:  She has a big black dog.  He is a sweet boy.  The cupboard is clean.
  • 20. Comparative Form These are used when we are comparing two nouns and need to show which noun possesses the adjective or character in a greater or lesser amount, when compared with the other. - bigger, sweeter, cleaner, etc.
  • 21. Examples:  I have a big dog but hers is bigger.  He is sweeter than the other boys.  The cupboard is cleaner than before.
  • 22. Superlative Form This form is used when three or more nouns are being compared and we need to show that one or more of the nouns posses the adjective or characteristic to the highest amount possible. We usually add ‘the’ before the superlative form. - biggest, sweetest, cleanest, etc.
  • 23. Examples:  She has the biggest dog in the colony.  He is the sweetest boy in his class.  The cupboard is the cleanest thing in the house.
  • 24. Making Comparatives and Superlatives There are certain rules that must be followed in the making of the comparatives and superlatives of the adjectives. Not all adjectives form their comparatives and superlatives in the same way and there are also some irregular adjectives that form completely different comparative and superlative forms.
  • 25. Single Syllable Words and Double Syllable Words ending with -y, -er, -ow, -le - We use ‘-er’ to make the comparative and ‘- est’ to make the superlative.
  • 26. Examples: Positive Comparative Superlative Black Blacker Blackest Fair Fairer Fairest Clever Cleverer Cleverest
  • 27. When there is a silent ‘e’ at the end of the positive form, we remove that and add ‘-er’ and ‘-est’
  • 28. Examples: Positive Comparative Superlative Nice Nicer Nicest Late Later Latest
  • 29. When the adjective ends with a ‘y’, we convert the ‘y’ into ‘i’ before adding ‘-er’ and ‘-est’
  • 30. Examples: Positive Comparative Superlative Pretty Prettier Prettiest Lazy Lazier Laziest
  • 31. If the adjective is a small one with little stress on the vowel, we double the last consonant.
  • 32. Examples: Positive Comparative Superlative Hot Hotter Hottest Wet Wetter Wettest
  • 33. Other Words with Two or More Syllables For other double syllable words that do not end with -y, -er, -ow, -le, and for adjectives with more than two syllables we use more and most to form the comparatives and superlatives.
  • 34. Examples: Positive Comparative Superlative Difficult More Difficult Most Difficult Careful More Careful Most Careful Handsome More Handsome Most Handsome Interesting More Interesting Most Interesting
  • 35. Special Adjectives There a few adjectives that can use both ‘-er and -est’ and ‘more’ and ‘most’ to form their comparative and superlative forms. The distinction between these is that ‘-er and -est’ are used when we are comparing the noun to another noun and ‘more’ and ‘most’ is used when we are comparing characteristics within the noun.
  • 36. Examples: Positive Comparative Superlative Example Clever Cleverer/ More Clever Cleverest/Most Clever He is cleverer than her. He is more clever than studious. Quiet Quieter/ More Quiet Quietest/ Most Quiet This is the most quiet place. This is the quietest place. Brave Braver/ More Brave Bravest/ Most Brave She is braver than other girls. She was more brave than afraid. Sure Surer/ More Sure Surest/ Most Sure He was surer of the result than others. You’ll be more sure about the concept after you read the chapter.
  • 37. Irregular Comparisons These adjectives do not make their comparative and superlative forms using the rules above. Their comparative and superlative forms are different words altogether.
  • 38. Examples: Positive Comparative Superlative Bad Worse Worst Good Better Best Far (place & time) Further Furthest Far (place) Farther Farthest Old (people) Elder Eldest Little (amount) Less Least Late (order) Latter Last
  • 39. Exercises 1.1 Direction: Determine what type of Adjective are the following. 1.) honest 6.) five 2.) many 7.) beautiful 3.) these 8.) best 4.) what 9.) dozen 5.) few 10.) who
  • 40. Exercises 1.2 Direction: Give the Positive, Comparative and Superlative form of the following Adjectives. Positive Comparative Superlative prettier good least more brave tall
  • 41. Exercises 1.3 Direction: Identify the following. ________ 1.) are words that are used to describe nouns and pronouns. ________ 2.) These adjectives are used to describe the nature of a noun. ________ 3.) These adjectives are used to show the number of nouns and their place in an order.
  • 42. Exercises 1.3 Direction: Identify the following. ________ 4.) These adjectives are used to ask questions about nouns or in relation to nouns, they are - Where, What, Which and Whose. ________ 5.) These are the simple adjectives that simply describe the noun without comparing it to another - big, sweet, clean, etc. End 