Paulo Reglus Neves Freire, Ph.D was a Brazilian educator andphilosopher who was a leading advocate of critical pedagogy“Paulo Freire, dialogue, praxis and education. Perhaps the most influential thinker abouteducation in the late twentieth century, Paulo Freire has been particularly popular withinformal educators with his emphasis on dialogue and his concern for the oppressed.”Infed.orgWHO WAS HE?
REFLECTION•What do you think the purpose of education is? Draw from the readings from this course, inaddition to your own experiences.•Think about your relationship with your students. How do you perceive your role in yourstudents‟ education? How do you perceive their role in their education?•Think about your work in the classroom (reality). How does this match up (or not) to your idealssurrounding your philosophy of education? What factors (if any) lead to this discrepancybetween your ideals vs. reality (e.g. structure of school, limited resources, etc.)?
1. Emphasis on dialogue. Informal education requires dialoguebetween people working together. Too much education,” Freireargues, “involves „banking‟ – the educator making „deposits‟ in theeducatee.”2. Dialogue is a way of making a difference in the world. Thisdialogue can be seen as a way of improving society.CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION
3. Freire‟s attention to naming the world has been of greatsignificance to those educators who have traditionally workedwith those who do not have a voice, and who are oppressed. Theidea of building a „pedagogy of the oppressed‟ or a „pedagogy ofhope‟ and how this may be carried forward has formed asignificant impetus to work. An important element of this was hisconcern with conscientization – developing consciousness, butconsciousness that is understood to have the power to transformreality‟ (Taylor 1993: 52).CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION (CONT’D)
4. Freire believes educational activities must relate to real world experiences.This gives more value to informal education.5. Several supporters of informal education have connected with PauloFreire‟s use of metaphors drawn from Christian sources.CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION (CONT’D)
Click here to watch the last public interview with Freire“I would say to you that I am a curious being…”“The virtue of tolerance it is through the exercise of tolerance that I discoverthe rich possibility of doing things and learning different things with differentpeople.”THE MAN HIMSELF
•Freire talks about the word tolerance. What does this word mean for youin the context the classroom and your students? What does this meanfor you in the context of the world? How do you teach tolerance?•How is power defined in your classroom? Who defines the culture of power?REFLECTION ON VIDEO
“Who are better prepared than the oppressed to understand the terrible significance of anoppressive society?”They must recognize the need to fight for this.It is a rare peasant, who then becomes promoted, who does not become a tyrant.The oppressed fear freedom.It would require them to replace their image with autonomy and responsibility. Freedom isacquired by “conquest, not by gift. It must be pursued constantly and responsibly.”“Violence is initiated by those who oppress, who exploit, who fail to recognize others as persons– not by those who are oppressed, exploited, and unrecognized.”Oppressors feel that the oppressed are the violent ones.“It is only the oppressed who, by freeing themselves, can free their oppressors.”FOCUS ARTICLE:PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED CH. 1
The “banking” concept of education – “The scope of actions allowed to thestudents extends only as far as receiving, filing, and story the deposits.”** Teachers deposit information into students whom “they consider to knownothing.”This approach dehumanizes students and teachers alike. Students andteachers must use education to shape a person.No oppressive society would want the oppressed to question. Yet that is whateducation must do.Conscientization – Education should consciously shape both people, andsociety.FOCUS ARTICLE:PEDAGOGY OF THE OPPRESSED CH. 2
In his work Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Freire writes:“No pedagogy which is truly liberating can remain distant from the oppressedby treating them as unfortunates and by presenting for their emulation modelsfrom among the oppressors. The oppressed must be their own example in thestruggle for their redemption” (Freire, 1970, p. 54).**QUESTION - How do you think the oppressed can be their own examplein the struggle for their redemption? That is, what does this look like?WHAT’S YOUR TAKE?
http://www.thefreireschool.org/This new charter school is named after the educator, Paulo Freire, because his ideas areinspirational. Paulo Freire believed in the value of a classical education (liberal arts and sciences)yet argued that most schools failed to provide such learning in an effective manner. In his mind,most schools instead promoted the values of the dominant class, creating a “culture of silence”where underserved individuals were deprived the means to think critically about their place in theworld.Freire pushed teachers and administrators to reconsider their role in learning. Are studentsvessels, needing only to be passively filled with facts and numbers to achieve competency? Or, arethey active participants in a process built on equality, diversity, and critical thought? It was, and is,novel to consider students as learners and teachers.“At Freire Charter School, we believe students have much to learn and experience but, also, muchto teach – to each other and our educators. This growth begins in the classroom and continuesthrough the hallways and into our community. The students of FCS carry the responsibility oftheir scholarship along with administrators, teachers, support staff, and parents. We believe thisholistic approach, which values autonomy, equity, and community, honors the legacy of PauloFreire.”THE FREIRE CHARTER SCHOOL
Click here to read one student‟s response to Freire‟s Pedagogy of theOppressed“Your words are an inspiration to me as I constantly reflect on my teachingand struggle to be a teacher who facilitates problem posing education ratherthan propagating an educational system that values the “bank- clerk”mode…‟”RECEPTION
Freire, P. (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Harmondsworth: Penguin. Importantexploration of dialogue and the possibilities for liberatory practice. Freireprovides a rationale for a pedagogy of the oppressed; introduces the highlyinfluential notion of banking education; highlights the contrasts betweeneducation forms that treat people as objects rather than subjects; and exploreseducation as cultural action. See, also:Freire, P. (1995) Pedagogy of Hope. Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed, New York:Continuum. This book began as a new preface to his classic work, but grewinto a book. It‟s importance lies in Freire‟s reflection on the text and how itwas received, and on the development of policy and practice subsequently.Written in a direct and engaging way.PAULO FREIRE’S KEY TEXTS
•Pedagogy & Theatre of the Oppressed, Inc. – a non-profit that works tochallenge oppressive systems by promoting critical thinking and social justice,as put forth by Freire. They host an annual conference. They also recentlystarted publishing research journals.ANOTHER RESOURCE…
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. [New York]: Herder and Herder, 1970Gibson, Richard. Paulo Freire and Revolutionary Pedagogy for Social Justice. (nd).http://www.pipeline.com/~rougeforum/freirecriticaledu.htmThe Encyclopedia of Informal Education. Paulo Freire: Dialogue, Praxis andEducation. www.infed.orgTaylor, P. (1993) The Texts of Paulo Freire, Buckingham: Open University Press.WORKS CITED