Early Action Syllabus

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Preventing Mass Killing and Genocide

Preventing Mass Killing and Genocide

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  • 1. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF INTERNATIONAL AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS EARLY ACTION: PREVENTING MASS KILLING AND GENOCIDE SPRING 2010 Classes meet in the International Affairs Building, Rm. on , :00PM to :00PM. Instructor: Mark Whitlock maw2127@columbia.edu Room 1504 IAB International Affairs Building Office Hours: 420 West 118th Street Background th Mass Killing and Genocide are extraordinarily destructive. The 20 century marked a period of extreme state- orchestrated violence against civilians. Signs of impending mass killing and genocide were not identified, appreciated, or acted upon to sufficiently protect potential victim groups. As these two phenomena are the product of human action, they can be understood, identified, and prevented. Themes Mass Killing and Genocide as distinct phenomena in the 20th Century. Prevention in the 21st Century – challenges and possibilities. Questions animating the course include: What role does identity play in political violence? What are the causes of mass killing and genocide, and how are these phenomena related to war? Why do some states adopt strategies of mass killing and genocide while others do not? Is it possible to prevent genocide, and if so, what would early warning systems look like? What are possible strategies for mitigating the underlying causes of mass killing and genocide, and what prospects do they have in the international arena? Is the world more or less prone to this type of violence in the future? Objectives The objectives of this course are to examine mass, identity-based political violence perpetrated against civilians and non-combatants. By the end of the course, students will be able to: Identify characteristics that define mass killing and genocide as distinct phenomena - Analyze the history of mass killing and genocide with a specific focus on the 20th century - Isolate missed opportunities for prevention from select 20th century case studies - Analyze contemporary early warning indicator systems - Synthesize this knowledge and apply the ‘strategic logic’ methodology to contemporary cases that could - lead to mass killing and genocide Apply policy options for prevention while contextualizing core issues of sovereignty and political will. - *Special emphasis will be placed on understanding insurgency and the strategic logic of mass killing. Requirements and Assessment Students will be required to do assigned readings and participate in class discussion. Page numbers for each reading and each week are included to help with time allocation. There will be a mid-term written exam covering the readings and discussion. Students will also participate in an experimental genocide prevention simulation. Assessment will be based on the quality of thought justifying their decision-making process. Lastly, students will prepare a 15-20 page research paper on a topic of current relevance due at the end of the term. Assessment breakdown is as follows: Class participation 10%, mid-term exam 30%, Simulation 20%, 15-20 page research paper 40%.
  • 2. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY STATEMENT: The School of International & Public Affairs does not tolerate cheating and/or plagiarism in any form. Those students who violate the Code of Academic & Professional Conduct will be subject to the Dean’s Disciplinary Procedures. The Code of Academic & Professional Conduct can be viewed online at: http://sipa.columbia.edu/resources_services/student_affairs/academic_policies/deans_discipline_policy.html Please familiarize yourself with the proper methods of citation and attribution. The School provides some useful resources online; we strongly encourage you to familiarize yourself with these various styles before conducting your research: http://sipa.columbia.edu/resources_services/student_affairs/academic_policies/code_of_conduct.html Violations of the Code of Academic & Professional Conduct should be reported to the Associate Dean for Student Affairs. BOOKS TO PURCHASE Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur Ben Kiernan, New • Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2007 Purify and Destroy: The Political Uses of Massacre and Genocide Jacques Semelin, New York: Columbia • University Press, 2007 Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the 20th Century Benjamin A. Valentino, Ithaca, NY: Cornell • University Press, 2004 Keeping the Peace: Lasting Solutions to Ethnic Conflict Daniel L. Byman, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns • Hopkins University Press, 2002 Half of a Yellow Sun Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, New York: Anchor Books, 2007 • RECOMMENDED TO PURCHASE The Order of Genocide: Race, Power, and War in Rwanda Scott Straus, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, • 2006 The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide Gérard Prunier, New York: Columbia University Press, 1997. • A Problem from Hell: America in the Age of Genocide Samantha Power, New York: Perennial, 2003 • Books will be ordered at the Columbia Bookstore and are available online through various websites such as Amazon.com. All other course readings will be available from Butler or Lehman Library or through Courseworks online. I have listed several core documents below that students may also wish to print for future reference. *Note on Half of a Yellow Sun: You should begin reading Half of a Yellow Sun immediately. Students should have read up to chapter 9 by session 5 on Insurgency (the week of October 6). PDFs UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. • www.hrweb.org/legal/genocide.html Sovereignty as Responsibility (link to book website) • http://www.brookings.edu/press/Books/1996/sovrnty.aspx Responsibility to Protect (R2P) http://www.iciss.ca/pdf/Commission-Report.pdf • 2005 UN World Summit - Outcome Document. (Paragraphs 138 and 139 address R2P) • http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N05/487/60/PDF/N0548760.pdf?OpenElement Preventing Genocide: A Blueprint for US Policymakers - The Report of the Genocide Prevention Task Force • http://www.usip.org/genocide_taskforce/ Implementing the Responsibility to Protect – Report of the Secretary General (General Distribution - January • 12, 2009) – Available in PDF on course website. 2
  • 3. Schedule of classes and readings: Sept. 8th Session I: THE CURSE OF “OTHERNESS”? Identity – cultural and political, individual and group. Is it primordial, constructed, manipulable? What role does it play in genocide and mass killing? REQUIRED: [165 total pages] Fredrik Barth, “Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Cultural Difference” Introduction 9-38 [29] (Primordialism) Anthony Smith, The Ethnic Origins of Nations Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1986 ch. 1-3 [60] (Perennialism) Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism New York: Verso, 2006. ch. 1-3 [46] Daniel Byman, Keeping the Peace, ch. 5. 100-124 [30] UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. www.hrweb.org/legal/genocide.html SUPPLEMENTAL: Eugene Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870-1914 Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976. (Modernization School) Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992. David Laitin, Hegemony and Culture: Politics and Religious Change Among the Yoruba Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Alessandro Portelli, The Order has Been Carried Out: History, Memory, and Meaning of a Nazi Massacre in Rome Palgrave Macmillan: New York, 2003. Sept. 15th Session II: MASS KILLING AND GENOCIDE What are mass killing and genocide? What are the causes? Is there a strategic logic? How is prevention different from intervention or stoppage? REQUIRED: [251] Henry R. Huttenbach, “Can Genocide Be Prevented?” A Pessimist’s prescription. In The Aegis Review on Genocide, Vol. 1, no.2. 2003/4, pp.7-9. [2] Ben Kiernan, Blood and Soil Introduction [40] Daniel Byman, Keeping the Peace, ch. 2. 13-43 [30] Benjamin Valentino, Final Solutions Introduction and ch 1 – 3. [90] Jacques Semelin, Purify and Destroy Introduction and ch 1. and 308-324 [67] Joseph Montville, “The Pathology and Prevention of Genocide” in The Psychodynamics of International Relationships: Concepts and Theories Lexington Books pp. 121-143 [22] SUPPLEMENTAL: Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide. Perennial, 2002, ch.1-5. Benjamin Valentino, Final Solutions ch. 4. (skim chapter on Communist Mass Killings) Christopher R. Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution in Poland New York: Harper Perennial, 1998 3
  • 4. Sept. 22nd Session III: ETHNIC MASS KILLING Genocide as a distinct phenomenon Armenia, Nazi Germany, Serbia REQUIRED: [165] Benjamin Valentino, Final Solutions Chapter 5: pp. 152-178 and 187-195. [33] Ben Kiernan, Blood and Soil, ch. 10-11 (pp. 395-454) [59] Jacques Semelin, Purify and Destroy ch. IV 165-238 [73] SUPPLEMENTAL: Vakan N. Dadrian, The History of the Armenian Genocide Oxford: Berghan, 1995. Pp. 113-176 and 201-247 Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide Perennial, 2002, ch. 9 (Bosnia) and ch. 11 (Srebrenica). Sept. 29th Session IV: RWANDA – A CASE STUDY The 1994 Mass Killing in Rwanda occurred in the context of a civil war. The class session will explore the background to the genocide by examining the history of the conflict, the motivations of the perpetrators in 1994, and attempt to frame this event at the center of the ongoing violence in the Great Lakes Region of Central Africa. REQUIRED: [229] Gérard Prunier, The Rwandan Crisis New York: Columbia University Press, 1995 Scott Straus, The Order of Genocide, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006 Introduction, ch. 1 and 6 (pp. 1-40 and 153-174). [61] (skim ch. 2-3) Benjamin Valentino, Final Solutions Chapter 5: pp. 178-187. [9] Séverine Autesserre, “The Trouble with Congo: How local Disputes Fuel Regional Conflict” Foreign Affairs May/June 2008 [9]. SUPPLEMENTAL: Gérard Prunier, Africa’s World War: Congo, The Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe New York: Oxford University Press, 2009 (Regional events since 1994) Jean-Pierre Chrétien The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History New York: Zone Books, 2003 Christopher Taylor, Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 New York: Berg, 1999. Alison Des Forges et al, Genocide in Rwanda, New York: Human Rights Watch, 1999 http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda/ René Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnocide as Discourse New York: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1994 African Rights: Rwanda: Death, Despair, Defiance London: African Rights, 1994 Ben Kiernan, Blood and Soil, ch. 15. Mahmood Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2001 Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide. Perennial, 2002, ch. 10 (Rwanda) Gil Courtemanche Un Dimanche à la piscine à Kigali Montréal: Editions du Boréal, 2000 translated as A Sunday at the Pool in Kigali New York: Knopf, 2003. (Novel) 4
  • 5. October 6th Session V: INSURGENCY What are the causes of insurgency? The logic of violence in civil war. REQUIRED: [215] The US Army * Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manuel: US Army Field Manual No. 3-24 Marine Corps Warfighting Publication No. 3-33.5. University of Chicago Press, 2007 Foreword by John Nagle, Introduction by Sarah Sewall, Foreword, Preface, Introduction [41] Stathis Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006 ch. 1 and 6 [54] James D. Fearon and David D. Laitin, “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 97, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 75-90 [15] http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/3118222.pdf Jeremy Weinstein, Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007 Introduction (pp. 1-24) and ch. 6 (pp. 198-259) [85] Macartan Humphreys and Jeremy Weinstein. “Who Fights? The Determinants of Participation in Civil War”, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2008), pp. 436-455 [20] http://www.columbia.edu/~mh2245/papers1/who_fights.pdf *Check-in on Half of a Yellow Sun SUPPLEMENTAL: Jeremy Weinstein, Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007 Mao Tse-Tung On Guerrilla Warfare New York: Praeger, 1961 Franklin A. Lindsey “Unconventional Warfare” Foreign Affairs Vol. 40, No. 2 (January 1962) October 13th Session VI: COUNTERINSURGENCY Counterinsurgency and anti-insurgency – characteristics and delineation. Do the nature of anti-insurgency campaigns incentivize mass killing? REQUIRED: [237] Robert Harkavy and Stephanie Neuman, Warfare and the Third World New York: Palgrave, 2001 ch. 5 (pp. 189–254). [65] The US Army * Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manuel: US Army Field Manual No. 3-24 Marine Corps Warfighting Publication No. 3-33.5. University of Chicago Press, 2007 ch. 1 [52] Gérard Prunier, Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007 ch. 3–4 (pp. 54-123) [69] (skim first two chapters for history of Darfur) Mahmood Mamdani, “The Politics of Naming: Genocide, Civil War, Insurgency” London Review of Books, March 8, 2007 [14] http://www.lrb.co.uk/v29/n05/mamd01_.html Benjamin Valentino, Final Solutions Ch 6. (pp. 196-233) [37] SUPPLEMENTAL: Gebru Tareke, “From Lash to Red Star: The Pitfalls of Counter-Insurgency in Ethiopia, 1980-82”, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3 (September 2002) pp. 465-498. [33] Hugo Slim, Killing Civilians: Method, Madness, and Morality in War New York: Columbia University Press, 2008 Session VII Tuesday, October 20: Mid-Term Examination 5
  • 6. October 27th Session VIII: EARLY WARNING How is early warning for mass killing and genocide different from conflict early warning? What systems for early warning exist? What role does political will play in decision making, and moving from early warning to early action? Office of the Special Advisor to the Secretary General (SASG) for the Prevention of Genocide. REQUIRED: [110] Barbara Harff, “No Lessons Learned from the Holocaust?”, The American Political Science Review, Vol. 52, No. 2 (Apr., 2003), pp. 436-455 [20] Greg Stanton quot;The Eight Stages of Genocidequot; [10] http://www.genocidewatch.org/8stages1996.htm Robert Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Politics Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976 Ch. 11 (pp. 382–406). [24] (on Cognitive Dissonance) Lawrence Woocher, quot;Deconstructing 'Political Will': Explaining the Failure to Prevent Deadly Conflict and Mass Atrocitiesquot;, Journal of Public and International Affairs (2001). pp. 179-206 [27]. http://www.princeton.edu/~jpia/pdf2001/Vol12_Spring01_10.pdf Benjamin Valentino quot;Still Standing By: Why America and the International Community Fail to Prevent Genocide and Mass Killingquot; Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 1, No. 3 (Sep., 2003), pp. 565-578 [13] ‘Statement by the Special Adviser of the Secretary General on the Prevention of Genocide, Mr. Francis Deng, on the situation in the Democratic Republic of Congo – 12 December 2008’ and ‘Response from the Global Center for the Responsibility to Protect’ (Provided in Class) The Report of the Genocide Prevention Task Force Ch. 2 (pp. 17-33) [16] SUPPLEMENTAL: Robert David Steele, “Virtual Intelligence: Conflict Avoidance and Resolution Through Information Peacekeeping” United States Institute of Peace. http://www.usip.org/virtualdiplomacy/publications/papers/virintell.html Peter Wallensteen and Frida Moeller, “Conflict Prevention: Methodology for Knowing the Unknown.” Uppsala Peace Research Paper, no.7, 2004. http://www.pcr.uu.se/publications/UPRP_pdf/UPRP_No._7.pdf John G. Cockell “Early Warnings Analysis and Policy Planning in UN preventive Action.” In David Carment and Albrecht Schnabel (eds) Conflict Prevention United Nations University Press, 2003, pp.182-206. Fund For Peace: Failed States Index – CAST system http://www.fundforpeace.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=105&Itemid=141 SASG Framework for Early Warning Minority Rights Group: http://www.minorityrights.org/publications November 3rd Session IX: EARLY WARNING CONTINUED ECOWARN – A sub-regional case study Do regional and sub-regional response mechanisms hold greater promise for prevention than the UN Security Council? What role can Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) play in early warning, prevention, and peacebuilding? REQUIRED: [187] Adekeye Adebajo, Liberia’s Civil War: Nigeria ECOMOG and Regional Security in West Africa Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Reinner Publishers, 2002. [80] Adekeye Adebajo and Michael E. O'Hanlon, quot;Africa: Toward a Rapid-Reaction Forcequot;, SAIS Review 17.2 (1997) 153-164 [10] “Protocol Relating to the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Securityquot; Lomé, Togo, December 10, 1999. [15] 6
  • 7. http://www.comm.ecowas.int/sec/index.php?id=protocole&lang=en “Protocol on Democracy and Good Governance Supplementary to the Protocol Relating to the Mechanism for Conflict Prevention, Management, Resolution, Peacekeeping and Securityquot; Dakar, Senegal, December 2001. [10] http://www.comm.ecowas.int/sec/index.php?id=ap101299&lang=en Siddhartha Mitter, “Ebony and Ivoirité: War and Peace in Ivory Coast” Transition Magazine Issue 94 (Volume 12, Number 4), 2003, pp. 30-55 [25] http://www.transitionmagazine.com/articles/ebony.htm Kwesi Aning, “Africa: Confronting Complex Threats” IPI: Coping with Crisis Working Paper series, Feb. 2007 [12] http://www.ipacademy.org/asset/file/139/IPA_P-RPT-AFRICA_Final.pdf John Mark Opoku, quot;West African Conflict Early Warning and Early Response System: The Role of Civil Society Organizations” Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) Paper, No. 19 September 2007 [15] http://www.kaiptc.org/_upload/general/KAIPTC_11.pdf SUPPLEMENTAL: ECOWAS website: http://www.ecowas.int West Africa Network for Peace (WANEP) website: http://www.wanep.org November 10th Session X: SIMULATION BEGINS Introduction and complete background to the early warning simulation. Students will receive documentation related to the simulation and be assigned roles. November 17th Session XI: AN INTERNATIONAL NORMATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR THE PREVENTION OF MASS KILLING AND GENOCIDE? Two intellectual paths in the 1990s - Humanitarian Intervention and Sovereignty as Responsibility - have paved the way for the current debate surrounding the Responsibility to Protect. A Pragmatic Approach to Human Rights. Simulation continues (Feedback and Turn 2) REQUIRED: [341] Thomas Weiss, Humanitarian Intervention, London: Polity Press, 2007 introduction, ch. 1, 3, and 4. [92] “Report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty” ICISS 2001. Responsibility to Protect (R2P) Forward, Synopsis and pages 1-37 [37] (skim rest) http://www.iciss.ca/pdf/Commission-Report.pdf 2005 UN World Summit - Outcome Document. (Paragraphs 138 and 139 address R2P) [1] http://daccessdds.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N05/487/60/PDF/N0548760.pdf?OpenElement Gareth Evans The Responsibility to Protect: Ending Mass Atrocity Crimes Once and For All Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2008 [91] (more to come) Martha Finnemore and Kathryn Sikkink, “International Norm Dynamics and Political Change” International Organization, Vol. 52, No. 4, Autumn, 1998, pp. 887-917 [31] Suzanne Katzenstein and Jack Snyder “Expediency of the Angels” The National Interest; Mar/Apr 2009; 100; pg. 58 – 65 [8] Alan Kuperman quot;The Moral Hazard of Humanitarian Intervention: Lessons from the Balkans” International Studies Quarterly Vol. 52 2008 pp. 49-80 [31] The Report of the Genocide Prevention Task Force Ch. 6 (pp. 93-110) [17] Implementing the Responsibility to Protect – Report of the Secretary General [33] 7
  • 8. SUPPLEMENTAL : Francis Deng, Sadikiel Kimaro, Terrence Lyons, Donald Rothchild, and William I. Zartman Sovereignty as Responsibility Conflict Management in Africa Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 1996. Ramesh Thakur The United Nations, Peace and Security: From Collective Security to the Responsibility to Protect Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006 Victoria Holt and Tobias Berkman The Impossible Mandate? Military Preparedness, the Responsibility to Protect and Modern Peace Operations Washington, DC: Stimson Center, 2006 Edward C. Luck “Prevention: Theory and Practice” In From Reaction to Conflict Prevention: Opportunities for the UN System Lynne Rienner, 2002, (pp. 251-271) [20] Gary J. Bass Freedom’s Battle: The Origins of Humanitarian Intervention New York: Knopf, 2008 November 24th Session XII: POLICY OPTIONS Preventive Diplomacy, Elite Cooptation, Identity Manipulation, Powersharing, Partition, Military Intervention Simulation continues (Feedback and Turn 3) REQUIRED: [268] Daniel Byman, Keeping the Peace, ch. 3-4 (pp. 44-99) and 6-8 (pp. 125-212) [142] (review ch. 5 as well) Benjamin Valentino, Final Solutions Conclusion pp. 234-253. [19] Richard Betts, “The Delusion of Impartial Intervention” Foreign Affairs Vol. 73 Nov/Dec 1994 pp. 20-33 [13]. Edward Mansfield and Jack Snyder Electing to Fight: Why Emerging Democracies Go to War, Ch.1 and 9. (pp. 1-19 and 265-283) [37] (Introduction and sequencing the democratic peace) The Report of the Genocide Prevention Task Force Ch. 3-5 (pp. 35-92) [57] SUPPLEMENTAL : Chaim Kaufmann “Possible and Impossible Solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars” International Security Vol. 20, No. 4 (Spring, 1996), pp. 136-175. Rudha Kumar, quot;The Troubled History of Partitionquot; Foreign Affairs January/February 1997. Nicholas Sambanis, quot;Partition as a Solution to Ethnic Warquot; World Politics, July 2000 Donald Horowitz Ethnic Groups in Conflict Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. ch. 14-16 Kenneth J. Campbell Genocide and the Global Village. New York: Palgrave, 2001, pp.1-53. “On the Brink: Weak States and the US National Security” a Report of the Commission on Weak States and US National Security, Stuart E. Eizenstadt, Co-Chair, John Edward Porter, Co-Chair, Jeremy M. Weinstein, Project Director. December 1st Session XIII: THE FUTURE OF PREVENTION Research Papers Due and Evaluation Possibilities for Prevention. UN membership as a privilege? A look at current events in Sri Lanka, Côte d’Ivoire, DR Congo, Sudan, and Iraq. Studies and the future of scholarship Simulation wrap-up (Feedback and outcome) REQUIRED [118] Thomas Weiss Humanitarian Intervention London: Polity Press, 2007, ch. 2 (pp. 31-58) and 5 (pp. 119-154) [62] 8
  • 9. Jacques Semelin, Purify and Destroy skim pp. 327-383 [56] Ben Kiernan, Blood and Soil, Epilogue (pp. 571-606) [35] SUPPLEMENTAL: David Carment and Albrecht Schnabel. Conflict Prevention United Nations University Press, 2003, pp.11-46. December 8th Session XIV: SIMULATION DEBRIEF (optional) 20th Century Case Studies – (Threshold according to Benjamin Valentino) Afghanistan Angola Burundi Rene Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnocide as Discourse Cambodia Ben Kiernan The Pol Pot Regime. Yale University Press, New Haven, 2000, pp.1-64. Ethiopia Gebru Tareke, “From Lash to Red Star: The Pitfalls of Counter-insurgency in Ethiopia, 1980-82”, Journal of Modern African Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3 (September 2002) pp. 465-498 Guatemala Victoria Sanford, Buried Secrets, Columbia University Press: New York, 1995 Beatrice Manz, Paradise in Ashes, University of California Press: Berkeley, 2004 Francisco Goldman, The Art of Political Murder: Who Killed the Bishop? Grove Press, 2007 Itsembabwoko (Rwanda) Gerard Prunier, The Rwandan Crisis New York: Columbia University Press, 1995 Peter Gourevitch, We Wish To Inform You that Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 1998 Christopher Taylor, Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994 Alison Des Forges et al, Genocide in Rwanda, Human Rights Watch, New York, 1999 http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda/ Scott Straus, The Order of Genocide, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2006 Metz Yeghern (Armenia) Vakhan N. Dadrian “The Determinants of the Armenian Genocide,” working paper, Yale University, Genocide Studies seminar, February 26, 1998. Peter Balakian The Burning Tigris, Harper, New York, 2003, pp.159-215. Vakhan N. Dadrian Warrant for Genocide, Translation, New Brunswick, 1999, pp.5-46. Shoa (Holocaust) Helen Fein Accounting for Genocide. New York: Free Press, 1979, pp.3-92. Nora Levine The Holocaust. New York: Schocken, 1973. Pp.164-193 and 290-316. Soviet Union Robert Conquest, Harvest of Sorrow Sudan Gerard Prunier, Darfur: The Ambiguous Genocide Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2007 On the Prevention of Genocide: • Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, Preventing Deadly Conflict. Final Report with Executive Summary, Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1997. • Chester Crocker, Fen Hampson, and Pamela Aall (eds.) Turbulent Peace, USIP, Washington, D.C., 2001 • Louis Kriesberg, Constructive Conflicts, Rowman, Lanham, 1998 • Michael Lund, Preventing Violent Conflicts, USIP, Washington, D.C., 1996. • John Paul Lederach, Building Peace. Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies, USIP, Washington, D.C., 1997. 9
  • 10. David Hamburg, No More Killing Fields, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2002 • David Malone and Fen Hampson (eds), From Reaction to Conflict Prevention: Opportunities for the UN • System, Lynne Rienner, 2002 Barnett Rubin, Blood on the Doorstep: The Politics of Preventive Action, Century Foundation/Council of • Foreign Relations, New York, 2003 Peter Wallensteen, Understanding Conflict Resolution. War, Peace and the Global System, Sage, London, • 2002 A Note on the Simulation DESIGN RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS We propose an early warning simulation that will offer students of the genocide prevention course an opportunity to explore the intricacies of policy formulation and implementation, as information is made available to them. A resulting course take-away will be a unique learning experience in the context of moving from genocide early warning to genocide early action and prevention. The simulation project is an integral part of the course transformation from a theoretical exploration of genocide, to an applied course that will inform and direct future policy-makers, security personnel, media members, and conflict resolution practitioners. The simulation also will enhance the instructor's capacity to gain further insight into the student's understanding, and depth of knowledge, when applying class lessons to realistic scenarios. This insight could support the instructor when preparing and evaluating sessions focused on conceptualizing genocide prevention systems. The simulation will not have a quot;winningquot; or quot;losingquot; scenario. It will illustrate the complexity of managing and acting upon large volumes of information – complete with the requisite disinformation - related to genocidal violence from the perspectives of the diplomatic, intelligence, military, and civil society communities. It will improve learning by: Enabling students to see that there is no single model that leads to, or prevents genocide. • Helping the students purposefully process large amounts of information. • Increasing the student’s ability to make conclusions on what are situations more, or less • likely to lead to genocide. Improving the understanding of the ambiguity involved in early warning detection. • Re-purposing and mobilizing various lessons on historical genocides. • Supporting the professor in preparing and evaluating course sessions around genocide • prevention systems. PROPOSED CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES • Knowledge of Genocide (Sessions 2-4) • Early Warnings (Sessions 5-9) • Towards a Genocide Prevention System (Session 10-13): Simulation The simulation will place students in the middle of a scenario where genocide, or near genocide is occurring. Students will participate in the simulation over four weeks, with a certain number of quot;turnsquot; occurring per week. • Conclusion (Session 14): Simulation debrief Evaluating the variables of the completed simulation, the students will argue why they left the simulation in a state where genocide is more or less likely to occur. It is important to point out that this is not the time where quot;correctquot; answers are revealed in the environment or the instructor. Certainly, there will be quot;more informedquot; arguments to be made based on the state of the variables but the ultimate take-away will be understanding that there is not a blue-print solution for genocide prevention. 10