Animal Agriculture in
Developing Countries
       Mark Tapper
        Agron 342
      Summer 2009
Contributions of Livestock
Production in Developing Countries
   Fiber (Wool, Leather)                         Rural, fa...
Organic Agriculture
     Diverse
     Global
     Focus on economic, environmental, and social sustainability
     Lan...
Biotechnology Opportunities in
  Developing Countries
      “any technique that uses living organisms or substances
     ...
Challenges for Livestock Production
in Developing Countries
   Increasing human population – more demand
   Market price...
Population
  “Before the dawn of agriculture, the
   hunter–gatherer lifestyle supported about
   4 million people global...
Issues affecting developing farmers
     Industrialized Agriculture
        “mass production of genetically uniform, hig...
“Livestock Revolution”
   Increase in consumption of meat and milk = increased
    production of livestock
      “By 202...
Ethical Discussion
   More stress is placed on developing countries to feed
    themselves, but industrialized agricultur...
How can we help?
     Help people help themselves!
        Policies that allow/assist people own and manage their
      ...
References
   German NGO Forum Environment & Development. “Livestock Production in the
    South (leaflet).” 2001.
    ht...
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Animal Agriculture In Developing Countries

  1. 1. Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries Mark Tapper Agron 342 Summer 2009
  2. 2. Contributions of Livestock Production in Developing Countries  Fiber (Wool, Leather)  Rural, farming culture and  Fertilizer social network  Food  Livestock are adaptable  Various feedstuff,  Savings account = Reproducible Assets climates, environments, housing  Cash – Buying Power  “In India livestock  Sustainable use of natural resources contributes about 30%  Graze un-farmable land of the total farm output, and 80% of  Relatively low input livestock products come costs from small farmers with  Sustainable cycle 3-5 animals and less  Feed animals crop than 2 hectares of land.” residues, animals fertilize croplands  Transportation  Employment http://www.forum-ue.de/58.0.html?&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=208&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid %5D=43&cHash=9805659135
  3. 3. Organic Agriculture  Diverse  Global  Focus on economic, environmental, and social sustainability  Land-based livestock systems can have more emphasis on:  Species-specific animal husbandry  Housing  Nutrition  Breed selection  Stockmanship  Can have lower variable costs and more premium prices = Higher profitability  Other types of livestock agriculture, specifically in developing world:  Solely Livestock  Mixed/Diversified Production  Any/all livestock systems can be ‘organic’ (‘natural’ production – without use of chemical or other un-organic production practices) http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php? requester=gs&collection=TRD&recid=200807350063737CE&q=&uid=787414183&setcookie=yes
  4. 4. Biotechnology Opportunities in Developing Countries  “any technique that uses living organisms or substances from such organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals or to develop micro-organisms for specific purposes.“  Increase agricultural productivity  Protect the environment (Less chemicals)  Improve health (humans and animals)  Considers production constraints (available land, costs, knowledge)  Developing countries = highest improvement potential  Setbacks: Expensive, lack of knowledge/know-how, hard to implement new technology (culturally, socially) http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/ilri/x5473b/x5473b05.htm
  5. 5. Challenges for Livestock Production in Developing Countries  Increasing human population – more demand  Market prices  Competition with developed countries’ products on global market  Sustainability (economic, and social)  Environmental issues  Soil erosion  Land use and competition with crops  Climate change  Temperature changes  Changes in rainfall patterns  Production issues  Productivity and efficiency  Health and welfare  Feed availability and prices  Knowledge (production, marketing)
  6. 6. Population  “Before the dawn of agriculture, the hunter–gatherer lifestyle supported about 4 million people globally. Modern agriculture now feeds 6,000 million people.”  “By 2050, global population is projected to be 50% larger than at present and global grain demand is projected to double.” http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v418/n6898/full/nature01014.html
  7. 7. Issues affecting developing farmers  Industrialized Agriculture  “mass production of genetically uniform, high-yielding breeds…needs huge inputs of energy and water, industrially produced feed, antibiotics and growth stimulants.”  Decreasing biodiversity  Bottom-dollar focus, not sustainability  Developed overproduction ‘dumped’ into developing countries  Lower global prices  Undermine local production http://www.forum-ue.de/58.0.html?&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=208&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=43&cHash=98
  8. 8. “Livestock Revolution”  Increase in consumption of meat and milk = increased production of livestock  “By 2020, developing countries will have to import twice as much grain just to feed intensively kept animals.”  Potential effects on developing countries:  Increased dependence on imported grain  Industrialized agricultural production may squeeze out subsistence farmers  Drop in rural incomes and employment  Increased rural migration to cities  Decreased livestock biodiversity  Intensive farming = increased manure – environmental implications
  9. 9. Ethical Discussion  More stress is placed on developing countries to feed themselves, but industrialized agriculture has diluted global markets with excess  Natural Law – Strong (developed countries) dominate the weak (developing world)  Industrialized agriculture  Categorical Imperative – Developed countries have had success with mass production, therefore, EVERYONE should produce the same way  Utilitarian – Produce the most, fastest, and ‘most’ efficiently without regard to more efficient smaller-scale subsistence agriculture  Autonomy – Developing countries should be able to make their own decisions about their own agriculture  Paternalism – developed countries = parent making decisions for the developing nations (goes along with autonomy)
  10. 10. How can we help?  Help people help themselves!  Policies that allow/assist people own and manage their own livestock  Economic  Credit – purchasing power  Access to markets (local, national, and global)  Knowledge/Husbandry  Basic knowledge increases efficiency, animal health, and maximized production  Preventive measures (vaccinations and hygiene)  Support of local cooperatives – competition for subsistence farmers with industrialized agriculture  “Supporting livestock production based on local resources (including feeds, breeds, indigenous knowledge and institutions) can make a major contribution to eradicating hunger in rural areas.” http://www.forum-ue.de/58.0.html?&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=208&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=43&cHash=98 .
  11. 11. References  German NGO Forum Environment & Development. “Livestock Production in the South (leaflet).” 2001. http://www.forum-ue.de/58.0.html?&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=208&tx_ttnews%5BbackP . Accessed on 5 July 2009.  Kruska, R.L., R.S. Reid, P.K. Thornton, N. Henninger. P.M. Kristjanson. “Mapping livestock-oriented agricultural production systems for the developing world.” Agricultural Systems 77: 39-63. 2003. http:// citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.120.343&rep=rep1&type=pdf. Assessed on 5 July 2009.  Rege, J.E.O., “Biotechnology options for improving livestock production in developing countries, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa.” International Livestock Centre for Africa (ILCA). http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/ilri/x5473b/x5473b05.htm. Assessed on 3 July 2009.  Stockdale, E.A., N.H. Lampkin, M. Hovi, R. Keatinge, E.K.M. Lennartsson, D.W. MacDonald, S. Padel, F.H. Tattersall, M.S. Wolfe, C.A. Watson. “Agronomic and environmental implications of organic farming systems.” Advances in Agronomy. 70: 261-262. 2001. http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester= gs&collection=TRD&recid=200807350063737CE&q=&uid =787414183&setcookie=yes. Assessed on 3 July 2009.  Tilman, D., K. G. Cassman, P. A. Matson, R. Maylor, S. Polasky. “Agricultural Sustainability and Intensive Production Practices.” Nature. 418: 671-677. 8 August 2002. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v418/n6898/full/nature01014.html. Assessed on 5 July 2009.

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