History Current Technologies BWR PWR Limitations Resources Thermal Inefficiencies Maintenance New Fission Reactor Designs and Benefits (GFR) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (LFR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor (MSR) Molten Salt Reactor (SFR) Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SCWR) Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor (VHTR) Very-High-Temperature Reactor New Fusion Design Technology Tokamak Results
CHICAGO PILE 1 DECEMBER 2, 1942 Created by Enrico Fermi Consisted of a Pile of Uranium Contained Within Graphite Bricks Control Rods Manually Operated Built on a Racket Court Underneath the Alonzo Stagg Field Stadium of the University of Chicago
EXPERIMENTAL BREEDER BEGIN OPERATINGREACTOR I DECEMBER 20, 1951 World’s First Nuclear Power Plant to Generate Electricity Decommissioned in 1964 Located in Arco Idaho a.k.a (Atomic City) Nuclear Reactor Became Site of Idaho National Labs
(PWR) PRESSURIZED WATER (BWR) BOILING WATERREACTOR REACTOR
CURRENT RESOURCEPROJECTIONS RESOURCE PROJECTIONS USING BREEDER REACTORS AND MOX FUEL
THERMALINEFFICIENCIES MAINTENANCE Current Efficiencies of PWR Every 1 to 2 Years a and BWR Designs are Limited Conventional Nuclear Plant by the Operating Needs to Refuel Portions of Temperatures of Their Rankine Cycles. the Fuel Core Assembly Average Efficiency is 33% Every 5 Years the Turbine- 1500 MWe Nuclear Power Generator Must be Inspected Plant Actually Produces 4500 1-2 Months Spent Offline for MW of Power and Wastes 3000 MW. Each Maintenance Process 3000 MW of Power can Power 876,000 Homes Average Inlet/Outlet Temps: 275˚C/325˚C (525˚F/650˚F) Efficiency = ( 1 – Cold temperature / Hot temperature ) * 100
Members:Argentina, Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, the Republic of Korea,the Republic of South Africa, the United Kingdom, the UnitedStates, Switzerland, Euratom, the People’s Republic of China,and the Russian FederationDesigns:(GFR) Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor(LFR) Lead-Cooled Fast Reactor(MSR) Molten Salt Reactor(SFR) Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor(SCWR) Supercritical-Water-Cooled Reactor(VHTR) Very-High-Temperature Reactor
Medium Size Design Design Appropriate for Hydrogen Production
Fusion is the Process Powering the Sun Recreating Difficulties on Earth Material Limitations Gravitational Limitations Solutions Control Plasma Created From Ionized Atoms Using Super-Cooled Super-Conducting Magnets Named Tokamaks
The Joint European Torus (JET) was Able to Produce a 16 MW Pulse for 1 Second in 1997 The Tora Supra was Able to Sustain Plasma Confinement for 6.5 Minutes in 2003. Current Goal is to Achieve Power Multiplication of 10x
Radioactive Half-life of Tritium is 12.3 Years Instead of the 700 Million Year Half-life of Uranium The Fusion Process Has a Higher Energy/Mass Fuel Ratio Than the Fission Process
Nuclear Power Remains a Very Viable Option Even Without Future Technological Advancements Nuclear Advancements Will be Able to Aid Developing Countries With Both Electrical and Water Generation Capabilities Generation IV Nuclear Plants Allow For the Possibility of a Hydrogen Fueled Future
 (2011, June 29). U.S & World Population Clocks. U.S. Census Bureau. [Online] Available:http://www.census.gov/main/www/popclock.html AREVA Communications Department, All About Nuclear Energy: From Atom to Zirconium. AREVACOM ed. Paris,France: AREVA, April 2008 “Nuclear Energy,” Alternative Energy, vol. 2, N. Schlager and J. Weisblatt, Eds. Detroit, MI: Thompson Gale, 2006,pp. 169-208 An Energy Landmark: Idaho’s Pioneering Experimental Breeder Reactor-I. Idaho National Laboratory. [Online]Available: http://www.inl.gov/ebr/ A. B. Reynolds, Bluebells and Nuclear Energy. Madison, WI: Cogito Books, 1996 New Nuclear Technology Opportunities: Coal Steam from a Nuclear Boiler. Coal2Nuclear. [Online] Available:http://www.coal2nuclear.com/coal_steam_from_a_nuclear_boiler.htm (2002 Dec.). Ten Nations Preparing Today for Tomorrow’s Energy Needs: A Technology Roadmap for GenerationIV Nuclear Energy Systems. U.S. DOE Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee and the Generation IV InternationalForum. [Online] Available: http://www.ne.doe.gov/genIV/documents/gen_iv_roadmap.pdf S. Hough (2009 April). Supercritical Rankine Cycle: A Synopsis of the Cycle, it’s Background, PotentialApplications and Engineering Challenges. University of Idaho. [Online] Available:http://www.if.uidaho.edu/~gunner/ME443-543/HW/rankine.pdf M. Ragheb. (2011, July 1). Chapter 1: Nuclear Reactor Concepts and Thermodynamic Cycles. University of Illinois atUrbana-Champaign. [Online] Available:https://netfiles.uiuc.edu/mragheb/www/NPRE%20402%20ME%20405%20Nuclear%20Power%20Engineering/Nuclear%20Reactors%20Concepts%20and%20Thermodynamic%20Cycles.pdf ITER Organization. (2011) ITER: The Way to New Energy. ITER. [Online] Available: http://www.iter.org/ (2011, March 9). Economics of Nuclear Power. World Nuclear Association. [Online] Available: http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf02.html
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.