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Fossil fuels  trey cram
 

Fossil fuels trey cram

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    Fossil fuels  trey cram Fossil fuels trey cram Presentation Transcript

    • Fossil Fuels:Society’s Addictive Habit Trey Cram
    • Main Topics• What are Fossil Fuels• Types of Fossil Fuels• How we use Fossil Fuels• Fossil Fuel Limitation• Aftermath of Fossil Fuels• Fossil Fuels vs. Alternative Fuels• Politics and Fossil Fuels
    • What are Fossil Fuels?•Main Deposits from CarboniferousPeriod (360-286 m.y.a.)-Land was covered with: 1. Large Trees 2. Huge Ferns 3. Grand Leafy Plants- Water and Seas primarily filled with algae• Death of Plants and Trees during this period 1. Plant and Tree waste fell to the bottom of swamps and oceans 2. Waste formed “Peat Layer” 3. Peat layer-sedimentary 4. Rock pile on sedimentary layer• Millions of Years of Pressure 1. Pressure squeezed water out of peat 2. Result- coal, petroleum, or natural gasEnergyquest.ca.gov
    • Types of Fossil Fuels• Coal• Petroleum or Oil• Natural Gas
    • Coal• Constituents: 1. Carbon 2. Hydrogen 3. Oxygen 4. Nitrogen 5. Sulfur• Main Types: 1. Anthracite 2. Bituminous 3. Lignite• Coal Mining 1. Coal Extraction 2. Shafts are dug deep underground 3. Strip Mining• Coal Dispersion 1. Shipped: train, boat, pipeline• Coal Usage 1. Used to fuel power plants and factories to produce energy for the cityEnergyquest.ca.gov
    • Oil or Petroleum: Background• What is it? - Formed over 300 m.y.a. - Tiny Diatoms are source of oil• Diatoms -Organisms that can convert sunlight directly into stored energy -Convesion to Oil 1. Buried under sediment layer 2. Rock pressure on diatoms 3. Carbon => Oil• Transformation of Earth created oil and natural gas pockets within the Earthenergy.quest.ca.gov
    • Oil: History and Modern Applications• Has been used for over 5,000-6,000 years -Used by many civilizations: Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptions, Native Americans, and more• Modern Oil Drilling - Edwin Drake (8/27/1859) - Oil companies drill into deposits - Oil pumped to the surface by Oil Rigs through pipelines or ships• Oil Storage - Transported by large tanker ships - Stored in massive oil tanks - Oil Refineries• Top Oil Deposits - Domestic: California and Alaska - Foreign: Saudi Arabia, Canada, Iraq, U.A.E., Kuwait, I ran - 50% of the oil we use is foreign (majority from the Middle East)energy.quest.ca.govMapsofworld.com
    • Natural Gas: Background• Discovery -Iran (6,000-2,000 BCE) -Gas Seeps in the Middle East• Characteristics -Lighter than air -Mainly composed of Methane -Methane- CH4•Where is it Found? -Found near petroleum underground pockets (near coal beds) -Domestic: 33 States- TX, OK, NM, WY -Globally: U.S., Canada, Mexico, Central and South America, Europe, Middle East, Asia• Global and Domestic Usage -2,464 billion cubic meters of NG is dug, processed, and used globally annually -70% of single-family homes in the U.S. used NG for gas heating-energy.quest.ca.gov-pge.com-eia.gov
    • Natural Gas Processing• Mechanisms 1. Biogenic Mechanism – methanogenic organisms 2. Thermogenic Mechanism – organic material• Processing Plants - Around major pipeline systems 1. Well-Head Processing Plants 2. Centralized Processing Plants - Plant-Complexes are complexes of connecting low-pressure pipelines• Processing - Separate all materials (various hydrocarbons and fluids) from the pure-natural gas - Natural Gas must be purified before transportation• Byproducts - Ethane, Propane, Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor, Helium, and Nitrogen gasnaturalgas.orgeia.gov
    • Natural Gas Transportation• Complex network of pipelines near the storage facility – Small Diameter/Low-Pressure Pipelines – Transport the natural gas from the wellhead to the processing plants• 3 Major Pipelines 1. Gathering System 2. Interstate Pipeline System 3. Distribution System• Ocean - LNG Carriers – ships carry Liquefied Natural Gas• Land - Pipelines - Tank Trucks - carry Compressed Natural GasNaturalgas.org
    • Natural Gas Storage• Held in underground pressure facilities 1. Depleted Reservoirs in oil/gas fields 2. Aquifers 3. Salt Cavern Formations• Facility Characteristics 1. Capacity to hold natural gas for future use 2. Withdrawn Inventory Rate and Deliverability Rate• Problems - Low density of the natural gas makes it hard to store efficiently and transportpge.org & naturalgas .org
    • How we use Fossil Fuels: Converting Fossil Fuels to Energy• Overview - Energy from burning fossil fuels is converted to electricity and heat in power plants• Basic Process - CH4[g] + 2 O2[g] -> CO2[g] + 2 H2O[g] + energy - Electricity is generated a) Mechanical Energy is transformed to Electrical Energy b) Energy is converted through a generator or turbine c) Process normally takes place within power plantsLenntech.com
    • Fossil Fuel Applications• Provide Energy - Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas provide the energy to power our society and economy everyday• Main Energy Products 1. Providing Electricity 2. Fueling Transportation 3. Heating and CoolingIptv.orgElmhurst.edu
    • Fossil Fuel Limitation• Reserves (R) and Production (P) Ratio 1. Oil – 46 years (2055) 2. Natural Gas – 63 years (2072) 3. Coal – 119 years (2128)• Growth vs. Depletion Date - Avg. Growth Rate (since 1981)/ Depletion Date 1. Oil – 1% / 2046 2. Natural Gas – 2.6% / 2046 3. Coal – 2.2% / 2068 Science20.com
    • Fossil Fuel Depletion vs. Population Growth• Growth Rate depends on socioeconomic factors - Policy-making, Fuel Prices, Demographics, Te chnical Advancements• Predicting “the end” 1) Uncertainty in Growth Rate 2) Uncertainty in ReservesScience20.com
    • World Energy Model• International Energy Agency• Mathematical Model composed of 6 modules 1. Final Energy Demand 2. Power Generation 3. Refinery and Other Transformation 4. Fossil Fuel Supply 5. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 6. Investment• Main Goal - WEM is a model composed of ~16,000 equations, to help replicate how energy markets workIea.orgScience20.com
    • World Energy Model
    • World Energy Model• Oil Depletion 1. Earliest: 2033 (4.7%, 1) 2. Latest: 2146 (0%, 3) 3. AVG: 2070 (1.3%, 2) – 2105 (0.7%, 3)• Natural Gas Depletion 1. Earliest: 2038 (4.9%, 1) 2. Latest: 2165 (0%, 2.5) 3. AVG: 2061 (2.1%, 1.5) – 2095 (1.3%, 2.5)• Coal Depletion 1. Earliest: 2049 (5%, 1) 2. Latest: 2448 (0%, 4) AVG: 2079 (2.5%, 1.5) – 2155 (1.4%, 4)Science20.com
    • Petroleum Aftermath1. Collapse of Nations - Domino Effect2. Medical Concerns - Power & Medical Supplies3. National/Domestic Power - Society and Life based off of energy4. Economic Downfall - Transportation and World Market - 74% of our oil is used for transportation5. Import/Export - Transporting Goods Energyquest.ca.gov
    • Collapse of Nations• Domino Effect - GVT Communications Foreign and Domestic - Import/Export Supplies Food, Water, Medicine, W ork Labor - Transportation Planes, Boats, Cars - Domestic Energy Power Homes
    • Medical Concerns• Transportation 1. Patient Transfer 2. Medical Supplies• Domestic Energy 1. Hospital Building 2. Life-Support Machines 3. Imaging Systems
    • Economic Downfall• National/Domestic Power 1. Lifestyle 2. Society 3. Government• Economic Collapse 1. Petroleum Based Jobs 2. Tourism & Travel 3. Stock Market 4. International Trade
    • What Is Our Plan?
    • Fossil Fuels vs. Alternative Fuels Fossil Fuels Alternative Fuels1. Oil or Petroleum • Wind Power2. Natural Gas • Solar Power3. Coal • Nuclear Fission • Biofuels • Hydrogen Power
    • Wind Power• Process: 1. Heat from the Sun 2. Earth’s uneven surface 3. Rotation of Earth• Energy Storage 1. Wind = Mechanical Energy = Power 2. Wind Turbines produce energy• Wind Turbine 1. Wind turns propellers 2. Electric Generator• Utilization 1. Free Renewable Source 2. Clean Energy• Cons 1. High Initial Investment 2. LocationWindeis.anl.gov
    • Hydrogen Power• History - Gaffron and Rubin 1939• Major Processes 1. Steam Reforming 2. Hydrogen Electrolysis High Pressure High Temperature 3. Algae Utilization• Transport and Storage• Pros and Cons
    • Hydrogen Power Processes: Steam Reforming• Leading Hydrogen Process• Natural Gas 1. Methane Reaction 2. Carbon Monoxide + Steam = Exothermic Reaction 3. Carbon Monoxide Removal• Cons 1. Cost 2. Carbon Dioxide Emissions 3. Storage FossilEnergy.gov
    • Hydrogen Power Processes: Coal Technology• Hydrogen Produced by: 1. Gasification 2. Subsequent processing of resulting gas• Process: 1. Coal + Oxygen Reaction 2. Synthesis Gas Formation 3. Cleansing 4. Hydrogen Recovery• Cons 1. Cost 2. Storage 3. Lack of ResearchFossilfuelenergy.gov
    • Hydrogen Power Processes: Hydrogen Electrolysis• Definition - The breakdown of water through an electric current - Separation of Hydrogen from Oxygen - Fuel cell combines hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, heat, and water• Methods 1. High-Pressure 2. High-Temperature 3. Industrial ElectrolysisFossil.energy.govhydrogencars.now.com Fossil.energy.gov
    • Hydrogen Power Pros and Cons Pros Cons1. Produces a “cleaner” process to 1. Still produces carbon produce energy - Help climate change dioxide and other - Better Lifestyle greenhouse gases2. Renewable Energy - Better future and less stress on the 2. Fuel cell batteries are economy expensive to:3. Hydrogen is very abundant - Money expenditure on foreign drilling transport, store, and sites can be used elsewhere in a country’s society produce4. Reduce dependence on foreign 3. Less energy to travel oil further distances than - Spend less time on conflict in drilling in foreign countries fossil fuels Keyframe5.com
    • Fossil Fuels Pros and Cons Pros Cons1. High Calorific Value 1. Climate Change2. Easier to refine and - Releases Greenhouse Gases produce 2. Acid Rain3. 50% of factories and mills 3. Health Hazards are powered by coal - Water contamination energy - Polluted Air4. Easy Storage and 4. Land Degredation Transportation 1. Strip MiningBuzzle.com 2. Toxic work envrionment
    • When Will We Change?• Why aren’t we being progressive? 1. Politics 2. Greed 3. Time vs. Cost
    • Alternate Fuel Progression upheld by Politics and Greed• Government and Petroleum ties – Officials and political parties sponsored by petroleum businesses• Poor management of the nation’s budget – Alternative Fuels should be the #1 priority• Foreign Conflicts• “Oil” on Capital Hill – Bush and Cheney Campaign Pbs.org
    • What is our Plan?• Fossil Fuels will deplete eventually and soon• Climate Change’s damage will become worse each year• Earth’s population ill continue to grow
    • Questions• What can we do?• Are the ties between government officials and “big” oil companies hindering progression in alternative fuels?• Persevere through a decade of change now or suffer through decades of mass chaos later?• What will it take for a massive change to happen?
    • Source Cited• Source Cited• http://www.energyquest.ca.gov/story/chapter08.html• http://www.lenntech.com/greenhouse-effect/fossil-fuels.htm• http://www.iptv.org/exploremore/energy/profiles/fossil_fuels.cfm• http://www.science20.com/absentminded_professor/peak_uncertainty_when_wil l_we_run_out_fossil_fuels-70294• http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/tech/hydrogen• http://www.fossil.energy.gov/programs/fuels/hydrogen/currenttechnology.html• http://www.hydrogencarsnow.com/hydrogen-electrolysis.htm• http://www.awea.org/learnabout/utility/index.cfm• http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/next-generation/4199381• http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/energy/next-generation/4199381• http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/347/oil-politics.html• http://www.buzzle.com/articles/fossil-fuels-pros-and-cons.html• http://windeis.anl.gov/guide/basics/index.cfm• http://www.keyframe5.com/hydrogen-pros-and-cons/
    • “Collapse” Video• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- Q1oDmANIXc&feature=relmfu