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  • 1. Deforestation &Deforestation in Malaysia Malaysia Bat Education Adventure Texas Tech University Dr. Mark A. McGinley
  • 2. Deforestation► Deforestation is defined as the loss of forests that occurs when people cut down trees.
  • 3. Why do people cut down trees?Use wood for building
  • 4. Why do people cut down trees? ► Use wood for fuel
  • 5. Why do people cut down trees? ► Toclear land for farming
  • 6. Why do people cut down trees?► Small farms to feed families  Often formed by “slash and burn” ► Slash -Cut down the trees ► Burn the trees to clear the land for farming  Generally cut down only small areas at a time
  • 7. Why do people cut down trees? ► Plantations  Clear large areas to plant crops Banana Plantation
  • 8. Why do people cut down trees?► Toclear land for grazing
  • 9. Why do people cut down trees?► Toclear land for building
  • 10. Reasons for Deforestation What is the major cause of deforestation?
  • 11. Amount of Deforestation Has Increased Over Time► Why?► Better tools  From stone axes to chainsaws
  • 12. Amount of Deforestation Has Increased Over Time► Why?► More People  More people to feed means we need more and larger farms  So people cut down more trees
  • 13. Where is Most Deforestation Occurring?
  • 14. Where is Most Deforestation Occurring? Which country has the highest rate of deforestation?
  • 15. Where is Most Deforestation Occurring?► Today, most deforestation is occurring in tropical regions.► Tropical rainforests are found in tropical rainforests  Most deforestation in tropical rainforests
  • 16. Results of Deforestation► Clear cutting- cutting down all trees in an area
  • 17. Clear Cutting► Loss of all habitat for wildlife  If animals have no place to live then it is possible that they will all die► Habitat loss is the leading cause of species becoming extinct.
  • 18. The number of birds in Brazil is predicted to decrease in the future asthe amount of deforestation increases.
  • 19. Habitat Loss and Extinction► Many species on the earth are at risk of extinction caused by deforestation
  • 20. Clear Cutting► Soil erosion  Without plant roots to hold the soil in place soil particles are easily eroded away by water when it rains.  When soil is lost the soil is not as good for farming.
  • 21. Clear Cutting ► Soil erosion causes siltation  Eroded soil particles end up in rivers ► Rivers become muddy  Harms the animals and plants that live in the river  Rivers carry eroded particles into the ocean ► Siltcan damage coral reefs
  • 22. Deforestation in Malaysia
  • 23. Deforestation in Malaysia► Tropical Rainforests are found in Malaysia► Rates of deforestation in Malaysia are some of the highest in the world
  • 24. Deforestation in Malaysia
  • 25. Logs are transported by floating them in the river ► These logs can sometimes escape to the sea and damage coral reefs when they are washed ashore by storms.
  • 26. Reasons for Deforestation in Malaysia► Trees are cut in Malaysia for  Lumber  Fuel  To clear land for agriculture
  • 27. Oil Palm Plantations
  • 28. Forest cut to plant oil palm plantation
  • 29. Oil Palm ► Thefruits of oil palm are used to produce oil  Used in cooking  Used as fuel ► Palm oil can be added to gasoline and used to drive your car  biofuel
  • 30. Oil Palm Plantations in Malaysia► Deforestation to clear land for oil palm plantations  Habitat loss  Erosion
  • 31. The amount of undisturbed foresthas been decreasing rapidly in the last sixty years in Borneo The part of the map shaded in green contains undamaged forest
  • 32. Habitat Loss and Extinction in Malaysia ► The Four Most Endagered Terrestrial Species in Malaysia  Tiger  Asian rhinoceros  Asian elephant  Orangutan ► Allare at risk because of habitat loss caused by deforestation
  • 33. Deforestation in West Texas?► Today we think of deforestation as being a problem that is occurring in the tropical regions.► Do you think that deforestation has occurred in West Texas?
  • 34. Deforestation in West Texas► Sand shinnery oak  Quercus havardii  Short (1 – 1.5 meters tall)  Spread by underground branches ► Individuals plants can be 100m x 70m in size (that’s one of the largest individual plants in the world!!)
  • 35. Deforestation in West Texas ► Before the white settlers reached the high plains, 5 – 7 million acres of sand shinnery oak was spread across the high plains of New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma ► It was the largest oak forest in area in the United States ► (About the size of the state of Maryland)
  • 36. Deforestation in West Texas► Todaymost of the sand shinnery oak has been destroyed  Removed by ►chopping down the trees and digging up the roots ►Poisoning with herbicide  poisons that kill plants
  • 37. Deforestation in West Texas ► Sand shinnery oak was removed  To grow pasture ► Cattle don’t like to eat the oak leaves so they cut down the trees and plant grass instead  To grow cotton
  • 38. Deforestation in West Texas► Deforestation has caused the loss of what once was the largest oak forest in the US!!► Who knew that deforestation was important on the prairie in West Texas!!
  • 39. Habitat loss has harmed some of the species that lived in the shin oak habitat Lesser Prairie Chicken
  • 40. Deforestation► Do you  Live in a house built with wood?  Burn wood in your fireplace?  Eat food grown on farms?  Eat food or drink milk that comes from pastures?  Ride in a car powered by gasoline?
  • 41. Deforestation► If you answered yes to any of these questions then you have probably benefited from the results of deforestation
  • 42. Deforestation► Are you sad when  Trees are cut?  When species go extinct?  The soil washes away?  When rivers become full of silt?  When fish die in silty rivers?  When coral reefs are destroyed by silt
  • 43. Deforestation► Ifyou answered yes to any of these questions then you have probably been harmed by deforestation.
  • 44. Is deforestation good or bad?► This is a complex question  Deforestation both helps and harms us  Different people have different opinions about this ►Who might favor deforestation? ►Who might be against deforestation?
  • 45. How do you think deforestation in Malaysia affects bats?