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Criminal Laws
Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><u...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Even the simplest of crimes can be very complex. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the ...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing a memo book (worth less than $950) from a store is “petty theft”.  </li></u...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing the same memo book from a backpack that someone is wearing is “grand theft”...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>If you steal a  calf  or a  sheep  or a  goat  or a  pig  (worth less than $950) you...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>If you steal a  dog  (worth less than $950) you are not guilty of “grand theft”—that...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing a pistol of any value (even if less than $950) is a “grand theft” </li></ul...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing  olives  or  avocados  or  lemons  worth more than only  $250  (not $950)  ...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing domesticated  turkeys  worth $300   is “grand theft” in California. </li></ul>
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing domesticated  rabbits  worth $300   is only “petty theft” in California. </...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing fish worth $300  from your friend’s house  is just a “petty theft” </li></ul>
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing fish worth $300  from a commercial operation producing fish  is “grand thef...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>We just need to know the basics about common crimes. </li></ul>
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>We understand that there’s a lot more to know about crimes that we will cannot learn...
Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>We are not the experts </li></ul>
Okay, let’s get started!
Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><u...
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Infraction </li></ul><ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><li>Felony </li></ul>
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Infraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ticket crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:  littering...
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul>
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor crime </li></ul></ul>
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:  trespassi...
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:  trespassi...
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:  trespassi...
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious crime </li></ul></ul>
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:  Using a gun ...
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:  Using a gun ...
Three types of crimes <ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:  Using a gun ...
“ Wobblers” <ul><li>Crimes that could be charged as a misdemeanor  or  as a felony </li></ul>
“ Wobblers” <ul><li>Crimes that could be charged as a misdemeanor  or  as a felony </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of crimes ar...
“ Wobblers” <ul><li>The prosecutor will decide to charge the defendant with a  misdemeanor   or  a  felony . </li></ul><ul...
“ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or...
“ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or...
“ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or...
“ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or...
“ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or...
Teenager crimes
Teenager crimes <ul><li>“ Delinquent child” vs. “Unruly child” </li></ul>
Delinquent child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would be a crime. </li></ul></ul>
Delinquent child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would be a crime. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Delinquent child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would be a crime. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Delinquent child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would be a crime. </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul>
Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Unruly Example: <ul><li>Every person under the age of 18 years who purchases, receives, or possesses any tobacco, cigarett...
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager who refuses to follow reasonable directions from a school principal. </li></ul>
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager who refuses to follow reasonable directions from a school principal. </li></ul>Unruly
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager draws funny monkeys on the school walls with chalk </li></ul>
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager draws funny monkeys on the school walls with chalk </li></ul>Delinquent
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager beats up his sister’s boyfriend </li></ul>
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager beats up his sister’s boyfriend </li></ul>Delinquent
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager sneaks into a bar to play pool. </li></ul>
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager sneaks into a bar to play pool. </li></ul>Unruly
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>17-year-old teenager who lies about their age to get married without their parent’s consent ...
Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>17-year-old teenager who lies about their age to get married without their parent’s consent ...
Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><u...
Elements of a Crime <ul><li>All crimes have “elements” </li></ul>
Elements of a Crime <ul><li>All crimes have “elements” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Elements” are things that must be  proven  to c...
Elements of a Crime <ul><li>All crimes have “elements” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Elements” are things that must be  proven  to c...
Elements of a Crime <ul><li>For example, California Penal Code 242 defines the crime of  battery : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A...
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any  willful  and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of anothe...
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any  willful  and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of anothe...
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and  unlawful  use of force or violence upon the person of anothe...
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of  force or violence  upon the person of anothe...
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the  person  of anothe...
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWa49pMhbSA
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another....
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>What must a prosecutor prove to convict someone of a crime? </li></ul></ul>
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>What must a prosecutor prove to convict someone of a crime? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The...
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>Where are the elements of each crime written down? </li></ul></ul>
Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>Where are the elements of each crime written down? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California P...
Elements of a Crime <ul><li>Almost all crimes have these 4 general elements: </li></ul>Conduct Intent Concurrence (Intent ...
Elements of a Crime <ul><li>Most of the time a person’s action is not a crime unless it can also be proved that the person...
Elements of a Crime <ul><li>If you punch someone in the face, is that a crime? </li></ul>
Elements of a Crime <ul><li>If you punch someone in the face, is that a crime? </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zg...
Elements of a Crime http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgwewDrvivQ Accidents are not crimes
Elements of a Crime http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vaPRu7fCIE
Elements of a Crime <ul><li>If you punch someone in the face, is that a crime? </li></ul>November 19, 2004  http://www.you...
Elements of a Crime Accidents are not crimes
Elements of a Crime Animals cannot commit crimes
Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><u...
Crimes we’ll learn about <ul><li>Crimes against  people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against  property </li></ul><ul><li>Crime...
Crimes against people <ul><li>Murder </li></ul><ul><li>Manslaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Assault </li></ul><ul><li>Battery </...
Unlawful Killing <ul><li>1 st  Degree Murder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premeditated </l...
“ Murder” and “Manslaughter”
First-degree Murder <ul><li>Unlawful killing that is both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willful   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prem...
First-degree Murder <ul><li>Unlawful killing that is both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willful   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prem...
First-degree Murder <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt.  Three days later, Jim waits behind a tree n...
First-degree Murder <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt.  Three days later, Jim waits behind a tree n...
Second-degree Murder <ul><li>A killing caused by dangerous conduct and the offender's obvious lack of concern for human li...
Second-degree Murder <ul><li>A killing caused by dangerous conduct and the offender's obvious lack of concern for human li...
Second-degree Murder <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt.  At a stoplight the next day, Jim sees Matt...
Second-degree Murder <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt.  At a stoplight the next day, Jim sees Matt...
Voluntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Intended to cause harm  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--no prior intent to kill </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Voluntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt.  In the heat of the moment, Jim picks up ...
Voluntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt.  In the heat of the moment, Jim picks up ...
What about this? <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt.  Jim leaves the bedroom, goes out into the gara...
What about this? <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt.  Jim leaves the bedroom, goes out into the gara...
Involuntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Unintentional  killing that results from recklessness or criminal negligence. </li></ul>
Involuntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt.  Distraught, Jim heads to a local bar t...
Now, 5 questions…
<ul><li>1.  The Los Angeles District Attorney’s Office charged Dr. Conrad Murray with a crime for allegedly administering ...
<ul><li>1.  The Los Angeles District Attorney’s Office charged Dr. Conrad Murray with a crime for allegedly administering ...
<ul><li>2.  Snowmobilers broke onto a farmer’s property in the middle of the night and were circling his house again and a...
<ul><li>2.  Snowmobilers broke onto a farmer’s property in the middle of the night and were circling his house again and a...
<ul><li>3.  Earl sneaks into a 2-story house with a pistol in his pocket.  He is intent on theft and is surprised by the o...
<ul><li>3.  Earl sneaks into a 2-story house with a pistol in his pocket.  He is intent on theft and is surprised by the o...
<ul><li>4.  Carl holds up a liquor store with a gun.  When an employee comes into the store from the back storeroom, Carl ...
<ul><li>4.  Carl holds up a liquor store with a gun.  When an employee comes into the store from the back storeroom, Carl ...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7UgTlhY8Eqo&NR=1
<ul><li>5.  Billy brings a 4-foot 2 × 4 to a fight with Paul.  After Billy punches Paul to the ground, he grabs the 2 × 4 ...
<ul><li>5.  Billy brings a 4-foot 2 × 4 to a fight with Paul.  After Billy punches Paul to the ground, he grabs the 2 × 4 ...
Assault
Assault <ul><li>Does NOT mean “hitting” </li></ul><ul><li>Does NOT mean “unwanted touching” </li></ul><ul><li>Assault has ...
Assault <ul><li>Is an unlawful  attempt ,  </li></ul><ul><li>coupled with a  present ability ,  </li></ul><ul><li>to commi...
Assault <ul><li>John takes a knife out of his backpack and lunges it toward Nancy in a threatening manner.  John says he w...
Assault <ul><li>John takes a knife out of his backpack and lunges it toward Nancy in a threatening manner.  John says he w...
Assault <ul><li>Carl, an 23-year-old man, says, “I’m going to punch your lights out!” and takes a swing at you but misses....
Assault <ul><li>Carl, an 23-year-old man, says, “I’m going to punch your lights out!” and takes a swing at you but misses....
Assault <ul><li>Peggy, an 98-year-old woman, says, “I’m going to punch your lights out!” and takes a swing at you but miss...
Assault <ul><li>Peggy, an 98-year-old woman, says, “I’m going to punch your lights out!” and takes a swing at you but miss...
Assault <ul><li>Maria is mad at her boyfriend, Kevin. </li></ul><ul><li>She throws her cell phone at him but misses. </li>...
Assault <ul><li>Maria is mad at her boyfriend, Kevin. </li></ul><ul><li>She throws her cell phone at him but misses. </li>...
Battery
Battery <ul><ul><li>Any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul>
Battery? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pH1EPF5sY_M
Battery? <ul><ul><li>Any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul>
Battery <ul><ul><li>“ Unwanted touching” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need not be “harmful” or “painful” </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Battery? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrX9Ca7LSyQ
Battery? John Stossel, the reporter, who now works for the Fox News Channel, settled a lawsuit out of court with the WWF f...
Battery <ul><ul><li>Touching your clothing or anything  attached  or  closely connected  to you can be battery </li></ul><...
Kidnapping
Kidnapping <ul><li>You  </li></ul><ul><li>move another person </li></ul><ul><li>a substantial distance </li></ul><ul><li>w...
Kidnapping <ul><li>Does carjacking involve kidnapping? </li></ul>
Kidnapping <ul><li>Does carjacking involve kidnapping? </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of kidnapping in California:  </li></ul>...
Kidnapping <ul><li>Does carjacking involve kidnapping? </li></ul>Maybe not.  If you force the driver out of the driver sea...
Kidnapping <ul><li>Does carjacking involve kidnapping? </li></ul>Maybe.  If you jump in the passenger seat, point a gun at...
Sex Offenses
Sex Offenses <ul><li>It is illegal for anyone under 18 years old to have sexual contact with anyone.  Period. </li></ul><u...
Sex Offenses <ul><li>It is illegal to have sexual contact without mutual consent. </li></ul><ul><li>People under 18 cannot...
Sex Offenses <ul><li>Sexting is illegal </li></ul><ul><li>It is illegal to create, possess, or distribute explicit images ...
Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><u...
Crimes against property <ul><li>Theft Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Arson </li></ul><ul><li>Vandalism </li></ul>
Theft Crimes <ul><li>Larceny </li></ul><ul><li>Shoplifting (Petty Theft) </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Theft </li></ul><ul><li>G...
Larceny <ul><li>Larceny means  stealing </li></ul><ul><li>Taking away someone else’s property without permission </li></ul...
Petty Theft (Shoplifting) <ul><li>Stealing anything worth under $950 (with exceptions) </li></ul>
Grand Theft <ul><li>Stealing anything worth over $950 (with some exceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Theft is a “wobbler” ...
Burglary
Burglary <ul><li>Burglary does  NOT  mean stealing </li></ul>
Burglary <ul><li>Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Enter a structure  </li></ul><ul><li>Intend to commit a crime as you go in. <...
Burglary Do NOT need to  break  in Do NOT need to take anything
Burglary <ul><li>Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Enter a structure  </li></ul><ul><li>Intend to commit a crime as you go in. <...
Burglary:  video 1 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
Burglary:  video 1 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html   If you steal something out of a car, could that be burgla...
Burglary:  video 2 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
Burglary:  video 2 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html   What mental state is an element of burglary?
Burglary:  video 3 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
Burglary Does this picture show one of the elements of burglary?
Burglary:  video 4 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
Burglary:  video 4 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html   How is burglary different than robbery?
Burglary:  video 5 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
Burglary:  video 5 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html   How is a  Residential Burglary  different than a commerci...
Robbery
Robbery:  video 1 of 2 http://www.shouselaw.com/robbery.html
Robbery:  video 1 of 2 http://www.shouselaw.com/robbery.html   CA Penal Code 211:   …taking... property in the  possession...
Robbery:  video 2 of 2 http://www.shouselaw.com/robbery.html
Robbery:  video 2 of 2 http://www.shouselaw.com/robbery.html   Robbery is a “strike” under California’s  3 strikes law (Th...
Embezzlement <ul><li>Fraudulent appropriation of property by a person to whom it has been entrusted </li></ul>California P...
Embezzlement <ul><li>Usually an employee stealing from an employer. </li></ul><ul><li>The employee is trusted with the emp...
Embezzlement http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfnnGLPevkM
<ul><li>Is this cleaning boy guilty of embezzlement? </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wpKSuRsQx2E
Embezzlement <ul><li>You rent an apartment that has a stove and refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>You sell the refrigerator....
Embezzlement <ul><li>You rent an apartment that has a stove and refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>You sell the refrigerator....
Arson
Arson <ul><li>Willfully and maliciously set fire to or burn or cause to be burned or help in the burning of any structure,...
Arson <ul><li>Scorching or blackening is not arson </li></ul><ul><li>Melting a screen door, for example, is not arson  </l...
Vandalism
Vandalism <ul><li>Maliciously commit any of the following acts with respect to any real or personal property not your own…...
Vandalism <ul><li>A “wobbler” </li></ul><ul><li>Less than $400:  Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><li>More than $400:  Felony </l...
Vandalism <ul><li>If a husband, married for 24 years and going through a divorce, keys his wife’s car, is he guilty of van...
Vandalism <ul><li>If a husband, married for 24 years and going through a divorce, keys his wife’s car, is he guilty of van...
Vandalism <ul><li>If you draw a chalk hopscotch game on the sidewalk in front of your house, are you guilty of vandalism? ...
Vandalism <ul><li>If you draw a chalk hopscotch game on the sidewalk in front of your house, are you guilty of vandalism? ...
Vandalism <ul><li>If you spill paint on the street, are you guilty of vandalism?  </li></ul>
Vandalism <ul><li>If you spill paint on the street, are you guilty of vandalism?  </li></ul>Maliciously commit any of the ...
<ul><li>If you pour paint on the street,  </li></ul><ul><li>are you guilty of vandalism?  </li></ul>
<ul><li>If you pour paint on the street,  </li></ul><ul><li>are you guilty of vandalism?  </li></ul>http://www.trendhunter...
California’s 3 strikes Law
California’s 3 strikes Law For repeat offenders
California’s 3 strikes Law <ul><li>Mandatory sentence of  25 years to life  in prison for repeat offenders. </li></ul>
California’s 3 strikes Law <ul><li>Only certain “serious” or “violent” crimes count as a strike. </li></ul>
California’s 3 strikes Law <ul><li>Only certain “serious” or “violent” crimes count as a strike. </li></ul>Examples : <ul>...
Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><u...
Crimes against business interests <ul><li>Fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Forgery </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery </li></ul><ul><li>Exto...
Fraud “ Criminal  trickery”
Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul>
Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul>
Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was fal...
Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was fal...
Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was fal...
Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was fal...
Fraud <ul><li>A Medi-Cal doctor charges the government: </li></ul><ul><li>for blood tests when no blood samples were drawn...
<ul><li>Fraud </li></ul>Let’s watch a short video that shows a fraud. (The man and the little girl work together to commit...
<ul><li>Fraud </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2B7ersvsAc Paper Moon (1973)
Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was fal...
Forgery
Forgery <ul><li>NOT  just signing someone else’s name </li></ul>
Forgery <ul><li>Make, alter, corrupt, falsify, or imitate objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive ano...
Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>Signatures
Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>Legal documents
Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>Antique furniture
Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>
Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>Art
Forgery <ul><li>Forging money is called “counterfeiting” </li></ul>
Forgery <ul><li>Why isn’t a “pen name” a forgery? </li></ul>
Forgery <ul><li>Make, alter, corrupt, falsify, or imitate objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive ano...
Bribery
Bribery effort to corruptly influence, by way of money or gift, a public official in the course of that official's work.
Bribery Example You give your county supervisor $25,000 to speak for 5 minutes at your investor club’s breakfast meeting. ...
Bribery Example Your mafia family friends give the prosecutor’s wife $500,000.  The prosecutor then drops all charges agai...
Extortion or “Blackmail”
Extortion or “Blackmail”
Extortion or “Blackmail” using force or threats to compel another to give you money or other property,  or  to compel a pu...
Extortion Nice new restaurant you have here.  It’d be a shame if it caught on fire.  If you pay me $100 a week, I can make...
Extortion I have photos of you that you don’t want everyone to see.  If you pay me $100,000 I won’t send them to the Natio...
Extortion A friend of mine is scheduled to testify against you in court.  If you pay me $107,000 I will have my friend lie...
Extortion If you give me $3,000 I’ll help get a law through the State Senate that will help your shrimp company. http://ar...
Crimes against business interests <ul><li>Fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Forgery </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery </li></ul><ul><li>Exto...
Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><u...
Defenses to Crime <ul><li>I didn’t do it! </li></ul><ul><li>It was an accident (not a crime) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Defens...
I didn’t do it!
It was an accident! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlejVWUE1fM
Self-Defense
Self-Defense <ul><li>You committed an act that normally would be a criminal act </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul>...
Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these  3 criteria :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You reasonably believe that...
Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these  3 criteria :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You reasonably believe that...
Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these 3 criteria:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You believe that immediate fo...
Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these 3 criteria:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You use no more force than ne...
Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these 3 criteria:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You use no more force than ne...
Self-Defense <ul><li>3 criteria :  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You reasonably believe that you are in imminent danger of being k...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixYqD4q9mDM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KoopTek6Gi0&NR=1
NOT  Self-Defense <ul><li>Korean store owners during the Rodney King riots in LA, April 1992. </li></ul>http://www.youtube...
NOT  Self-Defense <ul><li>You cannot shoot someone who is running away from you. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=...
Defense of Others
Defense of Others <ul><li>Just like self defense </li></ul><ul><li>You committed an act that normally would be a criminal ...
Defense of Others <ul><ul><li>You reasonably believe that  someone else  is in imminent danger of being killed, seriously ...
<ul><li>Now let’s watch a scene in the stands of the US Open (tennis) from two vantage points… </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll loo...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E19D_-h9MIo
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPelP6HG7ig
Entrapment
Entrapment <ul><li>You committed an act that normally would be a criminal act </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><u...
Entrapment <ul><li>Your act may be excused if you can prove that  the police pressured you into doing something a reasonab...
Entrapment <ul><li>Has to do with the law enforcement officer’s conduct, not yours. </li></ul>
Entrapment <ul><li>Does not mean the police were “sneaky”.  Police can be sneaky. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not mean the poli...
Entrapment <ul><li>Means that the police: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatedly pressured you to commit the crime. </li></ul><ul><l...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHAqoWQFOvc 4:27
Entrapment? Newburgh Four
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmzq81vYzDM
Entrapment? Crosswalk sting operations
Insanity
Insanity <ul><li>Plead “Not guilty by reason of insanity” </li></ul>
Insanity <ul><li>Defense  must prove 2 things: </li></ul>“ Act prong” OR “ Wrongfulness prong” “ Mental Defect prong”
Insanity:  Act prong <ul><li>Defense must prove: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant was “ incapable of knowing or understandi...
Insanity:  Wrongfulness prong <ul><li>Defense must prove: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant was “ incapable of distinguishin...
Insanity:  Wrongfulness prong <ul><li>Defense must prove: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant was “ incapable of distinguishin...
Insanity:  Wrongfulness prong <ul><ul><li>Legally wrong  (unlawful act) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant knew his ...
Insanity:  Wrongfulness prong <ul><ul><li>Morally wrong:  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A defendant who is incapable of understan...
Insanity:  Wrongfulness prong <ul><ul><li>Morally wrong:  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A defendant who is incapable of understan...
Insanity:  Mental Defect Prong <ul><li>Defendant incapable by reason of  mental disease or defect  (MDOD). </li></ul><ul><...
Insanity <ul><li>Defense  must prove 2 things: </li></ul>“ Act prong” OR “ Wrongfulness prong” “ Mental Defect prong”
Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><u...
Punishment for Crimes <ul><li>Counseling/Training </li></ul><ul><li>Restitution </li></ul><ul><li>Community service </li><...
<ul><li>Assault:  http://injury.findlaw.com/assault-and-battery/elements-of-assault.html </li></ul><ul><li>Sexting:  https...
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Criminal laws

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Basic criminal laws for high school students in busi

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  1. 1. Criminal Laws
  2. 2. Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against business interests </li></ul><ul><li>Defenses to crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments for crimes </li></ul>
  3. 3. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Even the simplest of crimes can be very complex. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, the crime of “petty theft” (stealing something worth less than $950) can be hard to understand… </li></ul>
  4. 4. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing a memo book (worth less than $950) from a store is “petty theft”. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum punishment: less than a year in jail. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing the same memo book from a backpack that someone is wearing is “grand theft”. </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum punishment: 25 years to life in prison for a repeat offender’s 3 rd conviction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>If you steal a calf or a sheep or a goat or a pig (worth less than $950) you are not guilty of “petty theft”—that is a “grand theft” in California. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>If you steal a dog (worth less than $950) you are not guilty of “grand theft”—that is a “petty theft” in California. </li></ul>Grand theft Petty theft
  8. 8. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing a pistol of any value (even if less than $950) is a “grand theft” </li></ul><ul><li>A pistol theft counts as a strike in California’s three strikes law. If it’s your third strike, you’ll be going to prison for 25 years to life. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing olives or avocados or lemons worth more than only $250 (not $950) is not “petty theft”—it’s “grand theft” in California. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing domesticated turkeys worth $300 is “grand theft” in California. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing domesticated rabbits worth $300 is only “petty theft” in California. </li></ul>Grand theft Petty theft
  12. 12. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing fish worth $300 from your friend’s house is just a “petty theft” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>Stealing fish worth $300 from a commercial operation producing fish is “grand theft” in California. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>We just need to know the basics about common crimes. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>We understand that there’s a lot more to know about crimes that we will cannot learn in this class. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Criminal laws are complicated <ul><li>We are not the experts </li></ul>
  17. 17. Okay, let’s get started!
  18. 18. Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against business interests </li></ul><ul><li>Defenses to crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments for crimes </li></ul>
  19. 19. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Infraction </li></ul><ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><li>Felony </li></ul>
  20. 20. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Infraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ticket crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: littering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: failure to stop at a stop sign </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible punishments: fines; community service; no jail </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul>
  22. 22. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor crime </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: trespassing </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: trespassing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: stealing something worth less than $950 from a store (Petty theft) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minor crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: trespassing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: stealing something worth less than $950 from a store (Petty theft) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible punishments: counseling, restitution, community service, stay-away order, fine, probation, and/or up to 1 year in jail </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious crime </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Using a gun to rob a person (Aggravated robbery) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Using a gun to rob a person (Aggravated robbery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Murder </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Three types of crimes <ul><li>Felony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Using a gun to rob a person (Aggravated robbery) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible punishments: greater than 1 year in prison —maybe even the death penalty </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. “ Wobblers” <ul><li>Crimes that could be charged as a misdemeanor or as a felony </li></ul>
  31. 31. “ Wobblers” <ul><li>Crimes that could be charged as a misdemeanor or as a felony </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of crimes are “wobblers” </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threaten to injure a school employee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burglary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forgery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution or exhibition of lewd material to minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participation in criminal street gang activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiving stolen property </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. “ Wobblers” <ul><li>The prosecutor will decide to charge the defendant with a misdemeanor or a felony . </li></ul><ul><li>Decision based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal history </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seriousness of the crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigating circumstances </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. “ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or lessen the sentence </li></ul>
  34. 34. “ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or lessen the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Example: first offense </li></ul>
  35. 35. “ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or lessen the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Example: first offense </li></ul><ul><li>Example: joining the military and a felony would prevent enlistment </li></ul>
  36. 36. “ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or lessen the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Example: first offense </li></ul><ul><li>Example: joining the military and a felony would prevent enlistment </li></ul><ul><li>Example: defendant is elderly </li></ul>
  37. 37. “ Mitigating” circumstances <ul><li>Things that the prosecutor may take into consideration that would reduce the charge or lessen the sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Example: first offense </li></ul><ul><li>Example: joining the military and a felony would prevent enlistment </li></ul><ul><li>Example: defendant is elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Example: cooperation to prosecute others </li></ul>
  38. 38. Teenager crimes
  39. 39. Teenager crimes <ul><li>“ Delinquent child” vs. “Unruly child” </li></ul>
  40. 40. Delinquent child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would be a crime. </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Delinquent child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would be a crime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: lying to police </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Delinquent child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would be a crime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: lying to police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: vandalism </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Delinquent child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would be a crime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: lying to police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: vandalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: joyriding </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: drinking alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: drinking alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: running away </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: drinking alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: running away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: using tobacco </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: drinking alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: running away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: using tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: violating curfew laws </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Unruly child <ul><ul><li>A child that committed an act that, if an adult did it, would NOT be a crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: drinking alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: running away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: using tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: violating curfew laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: habitually truant from school </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Unruly Example: <ul><li>Every person under the age of 18 years who purchases, receives, or possesses any tobacco, cigarette, or cigarette papers, or any other preparation of tobacco, or any other instrument or paraphernalia that is designed for the smoking of tobacco, products prepared from tobacco, or any controlled substance shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of seventy-five dollars ($75) or 30 hours of community service work. </li></ul>California Penal Code 308 (b)
  51. 51. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager who refuses to follow reasonable directions from a school principal. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager who refuses to follow reasonable directions from a school principal. </li></ul>Unruly
  53. 53. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager draws funny monkeys on the school walls with chalk </li></ul>
  54. 54. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager draws funny monkeys on the school walls with chalk </li></ul>Delinquent
  55. 55. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager beats up his sister’s boyfriend </li></ul>
  56. 56. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager beats up his sister’s boyfriend </li></ul>Delinquent
  57. 57. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager sneaks into a bar to play pool. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>Teenager sneaks into a bar to play pool. </li></ul>Unruly
  59. 59. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>17-year-old teenager who lies about their age to get married without their parent’s consent </li></ul>
  60. 60. Delinquent or Unruly? <ul><li>17-year-old teenager who lies about their age to get married without their parent’s consent </li></ul>Unruly
  61. 61. Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against business interests </li></ul><ul><li>Defenses to crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments for crimes </li></ul>
  62. 62. Elements of a Crime <ul><li>All crimes have “elements” </li></ul>
  63. 63. Elements of a Crime <ul><li>All crimes have “elements” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Elements” are things that must be proven to convict </li></ul>
  64. 64. Elements of a Crime <ul><li>All crimes have “elements” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Elements” are things that must be proven to convict </li></ul>To be convicted of a crime, the prosecutor must prove you are guilty of each and every element of the crime.
  65. 65. Elements of a Crime <ul><li>For example, California Penal Code 242 defines the crime of battery : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the elements of “battery”? </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The prosecutor must prove: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your action was willful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(It was not an accident) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The prosecutor must prove: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your action was unlawful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(It was not self-defense, for example) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The prosecutor must prove: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You used force or violence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The prosecutor must prove: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your action was toward another person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(This includes anything attached or closely connected to a person) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the elements of “battery”? </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the elements of “battery”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force or violence </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another person </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I punch a guy in the face because I feel he disrespected me, have I committed the crime of battery? </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LWa49pMhbSA
  75. 75. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I punch a guy in the face because I feel he disrespected me, have I committed the crime of battery? </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I punch a guy in the face because I feel he disrespected me, have I committed the crime of battery? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willful? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force or violence? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another person? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a person is attacking my wife and I hit them over the head with my fist, have I committed the crime of battery? </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a person is attacking my wife and I hit them over the head with my fist, have I committed the crime of battery? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willful? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force or violence? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another person? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  79. 79. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I kick a raccoon, have I a committed the crime of battery? </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If I kick a raccoon, have I a committed the crime of battery? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willful? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force or violence? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another person? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a woman on the street drops her purse and I grab it and run away, have I committed the crime of battery? </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>A battery is any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a woman on the street drops her purse and I grab it and run away, have I committed the crime of battery? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Willful? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawful? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force or violence? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another person? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>What must a prosecutor prove to convict someone of a crime? </li></ul></ul>
  84. 84. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>What must a prosecutor prove to convict someone of a crime? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They must prove the person has committed each and every element of the crime. </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>Where are the elements of each crime written down? </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Elements of a Crime <ul><ul><li>Where are the elements of each crime written down? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California Penal Code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery example </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. Elements of a Crime <ul><li>Almost all crimes have these 4 general elements: </li></ul>Conduct Intent Concurrence (Intent & Conduct happened at or near the same time) Causation (Often the “but for” test)
  88. 88. Elements of a Crime <ul><li>Most of the time a person’s action is not a crime unless it can also be proved that the person had the mental state of mind, or intent, to commit a crime. </li></ul>
  89. 89. Elements of a Crime <ul><li>If you punch someone in the face, is that a crime? </li></ul>
  90. 90. Elements of a Crime <ul><li>If you punch someone in the face, is that a crime? </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgwewDrvivQ
  91. 91. Elements of a Crime http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgwewDrvivQ Accidents are not crimes
  92. 92. Elements of a Crime http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8vaPRu7fCIE
  93. 93. Elements of a Crime <ul><li>If you punch someone in the face, is that a crime? </li></ul>November 19, 2004 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mz6Hc8ZJG1s
  94. 94. Elements of a Crime Accidents are not crimes
  95. 95. Elements of a Crime Animals cannot commit crimes
  96. 96. Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against business interests </li></ul><ul><li>Defenses to crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments for crimes </li></ul>
  97. 97. Crimes we’ll learn about <ul><li>Crimes against people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against business interests </li></ul>
  98. 98. Crimes against people <ul><li>Murder </li></ul><ul><li>Manslaughter </li></ul><ul><li>Assault </li></ul><ul><li>Battery </li></ul><ul><li>Kidnapping </li></ul><ul><li>Sex Offenses </li></ul>
  99. 99. Unlawful Killing <ul><li>1 st Degree Murder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premeditated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evil intent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voluntary Manslaughter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intend to do harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provoked & fit of rage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No evil intent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd Degree Murder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evil intent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Involuntary Manslaughter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unintentional harm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No evil intent </li></ul></ul>
  100. 100. “ Murder” and “Manslaughter”
  101. 101. First-degree Murder <ul><li>Unlawful killing that is both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premeditated (meaning “planned”, or at least “thought out before the act”) </li></ul></ul>
  102. 102. First-degree Murder <ul><li>Unlawful killing that is both: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premeditated (meaning “planned”, or at least “thought out before the act”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, any killing during the commission of a felony (such as arson, robbery, residential burglary, rape, or kidnapping) </li></ul></ul>
  103. 103. First-degree Murder <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt. Three days later, Jim waits behind a tree near Matt's front door. When Matt comes out of the house, Jim shoots and kills him. </li></ul>
  104. 104. First-degree Murder <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt. Three days later, Jim waits behind a tree near Matt's front door. When Matt comes out of the house, Jim shoots and kills him. </li></ul>Willful and premeditated
  105. 105. Second-degree Murder <ul><li>A killing caused by dangerous conduct and the offender's obvious lack of concern for human life </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Driving like a speeding maniac </li></ul><ul><li>Dropping bowling balls from a highway overpass </li></ul>
  106. 106. Second-degree Murder <ul><li>A killing caused by dangerous conduct and the offender's obvious lack of concern for human life </li></ul><ul><li>OR an intentional killing that is </li></ul><ul><li>not premeditated </li></ul><ul><li>not planned </li></ul><ul><li>not or committed in a reasonable &quot;heat of passion“ </li></ul>
  107. 107. Second-degree Murder <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt. At a stoplight the next day, Jim sees Matt riding in the passenger seat of a nearby car. Jim pulls out a gun and fires three shots into the car, missing Matt but killing the driver of the car. </li></ul>
  108. 108. Second-degree Murder <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt. At a stoplight the next day, Jim sees Matt riding in the passenger seat of a nearby car. Jim pulls out a gun and fires three shots into the car, missing Matt but killing the driver of the car. </li></ul>“ A killing caused by dangerous conduct and the offender's obvious lack of concern for human life”
  109. 109. Voluntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Intended to cause harm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>--no prior intent to kill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(a killing that occurs in a rage or the &quot; heat of passion .&quot;) </li></ul></ul>
  110. 110. Voluntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt. In the heat of the moment, Jim picks up a golf club from next to the bed and strikes Matt in the head, killing him instantly. </li></ul>
  111. 111. Voluntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt. In the heat of the moment, Jim picks up a golf club from next to the bed and strikes Matt in the head, killing him instantly. </li></ul>Intentional killing in a rage or the “heat of passion”
  112. 112. What about this? <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt. Jim leaves the bedroom, goes out into the garage, finds a golf club, takes it back into the house as Matt is coming out of the bedroom and strikes Matt in the head, killing him instantly. </li></ul>
  113. 113. What about this? <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt. Jim leaves the bedroom, goes out into the garage, finds a golf club, takes it back into the house as Matt is coming out of the bedroom and strikes Matt in the head, killing him instantly. </li></ul>Jim is likely to be charged with first-degree murder.
  114. 114. Involuntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Unintentional killing that results from recklessness or criminal negligence. </li></ul>
  115. 115. Involuntary Manslaughter <ul><li>Jim comes home to find his wife in bed with Matt. Distraught, Jim heads to a local bar to drown his sorrows. After having five drinks, Jim jumps into his car and drives down the street at twice the posted speed limit, unintentionally hitting and killing a pedestrian. </li></ul>
  116. 116. Now, 5 questions…
  117. 117. <ul><li>1. The Los Angeles District Attorney’s Office charged Dr. Conrad Murray with a crime for allegedly administering lethal doses of an anesthetic to Michael Jackson while treating him for insomnia. Did the District Attorney charge Dr. Murray with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>
  118. 118. <ul><li>1. The Los Angeles District Attorney’s Office charged Dr. Conrad Murray with a crime for allegedly administering lethal doses of an anesthetic to Michael Jackson while treating him for insomnia. Did the District Attorney charge Dr. Murray with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>Unintentional killing that results from recklessness or criminal negligence.
  119. 119. <ul><li>2. Snowmobilers broke onto a farmer’s property in the middle of the night and were circling his house again and again. The farmer and his wife woke up. The farmer grabbed his shotgun and shot at the snowmobilers attempting to scare them away. One of the snowmobilers was killed. The farmer was probably charged with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>
  120. 120. <ul><li>2. Snowmobilers broke onto a farmer’s property in the middle of the night and were circling his house again and again. The farmer and his wife woke up. The farmer grabbed his shotgun and shot at the snowmobilers attempting to scare them away. One of the snowmobilers was killed. The farmer was probably charged with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>Intentional killing in a rage.
  121. 121. <ul><li>3. Earl sneaks into a 2-story house with a pistol in his pocket. He is intent on theft and is surprised by the owner of the house, whom Earl knocks down a flight of stairs, killing him. Earl is probably charged with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>
  122. 122. <ul><li>3. Earl sneaks into a 2-story house with a pistol in his pocket. He is intent on theft and is surprised by the owner of the house, whom Earl knocks down a flight of stairs, killing him. Earl is probably charged with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>any killing during the commission of a felony
  123. 123. <ul><li>4. Carl holds up a liquor store with a gun. When an employee comes into the store from the back storeroom, Carl shoots at him. The liquor store clerk shoots at Carl but kills an innocent customer. Carl runs away but is later caught. Carl will probably be charged with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>
  124. 124. <ul><li>4. Carl holds up a liquor store with a gun. When an employee comes into the store from the back storeroom, Carl shoots at him. The liquor store clerk shoots at Carl but kills an innocent customer. Carl runs away but is later caught. Carl will probably be charged with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>any killing during the commission of a felony
  125. 125. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7UgTlhY8Eqo&NR=1
  126. 126. <ul><li>5. Billy brings a 4-foot 2 × 4 to a fight with Paul. After Billy punches Paul to the ground, he grabs the 2 × 4 and hits Paul in the back. Paul is not moving. Paul dies an hour later in the hospital. Billy will be probably be charged with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>
  127. 127. <ul><li>5. Billy brings a 4-foot 2 × 4 to a fight with Paul. After Billy punches Paul to the ground, he grabs the 2 × 4 and hits Paul in the back. Paul is not moving. Paul dies an hour later in the hospital. Billy will be probably be charged with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second-degree murder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involuntary manslaughter </li></ul></ul>“ A killing caused by dangerous conduct and the offender's obvious lack of concern for human life”
  128. 128. Assault
  129. 129. Assault <ul><li>Does NOT mean “hitting” </li></ul><ul><li>Does NOT mean “unwanted touching” </li></ul><ul><li>Assault has more to do with attempting than it does with attacking </li></ul>
  130. 130. Assault <ul><li>Is an unlawful attempt , </li></ul><ul><li>coupled with a present ability , </li></ul><ul><li>to commit a violent injury on the person of another. </li></ul><ul><li>(California Penal Code 240) </li></ul>
  131. 131. Assault <ul><li>John takes a knife out of his backpack and lunges it toward Nancy in a threatening manner. John says he was “just playing”. </li></ul><ul><li>Is John guilty of assault? </li></ul>
  132. 132. Assault <ul><li>John takes a knife out of his backpack and lunges it toward Nancy in a threatening manner. John says he was “just playing” </li></ul><ul><li>Is John guilty of assault? </li></ul>Assault: An unlawful attempt , coupled with a present ability , to commit a violent injury on the person of another.
  133. 133. Assault <ul><li>Carl, an 23-year-old man, says, “I’m going to punch your lights out!” and takes a swing at you but misses. </li></ul><ul><li>Is Carl guilty of assault? </li></ul>
  134. 134. Assault <ul><li>Carl, an 23-year-old man, says, “I’m going to punch your lights out!” and takes a swing at you but misses. </li></ul><ul><li>Is Carl guilty of assault? </li></ul>Assault: An unlawful attempt , coupled with a present ability , to commit a violent injury on the person of another.
  135. 135. Assault <ul><li>Peggy, an 98-year-old woman, says, “I’m going to punch your lights out!” and takes a swing at you but misses. </li></ul><ul><li>Is Peggy guilty of assault? </li></ul>
  136. 136. Assault <ul><li>Peggy, an 98-year-old woman, says, “I’m going to punch your lights out!” and takes a swing at you but misses. </li></ul><ul><li>Is Peggy guilty of assault? </li></ul>Assault: An unlawful attempt , coupled with a present ability , to commit a violent injury on the person of another.
  137. 137. Assault <ul><li>Maria is mad at her boyfriend, Kevin. </li></ul><ul><li>She throws her cell phone at him but misses. </li></ul><ul><li>Is Maria guilty of assault? </li></ul>
  138. 138. Assault <ul><li>Maria is mad at her boyfriend, Kevin. </li></ul><ul><li>She throws her cell phone at him but misses. </li></ul><ul><li>Is Maria guilty of assault? </li></ul>Assault: An unlawful attempt , coupled with a present ability , to commit a violent injury on the person of another.
  139. 139. Battery
  140. 140. Battery <ul><ul><li>Any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul>
  141. 141. Battery? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pH1EPF5sY_M
  142. 142. Battery? <ul><ul><li>Any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul>
  143. 143. Battery <ul><ul><li>“ Unwanted touching” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need not be “harmful” or “painful” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spitting on someone, for example, is battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any willful and unlawful use of force or violence upon the person of another. </li></ul></ul>
  144. 144. Battery? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zrX9Ca7LSyQ
  145. 145. Battery? John Stossel, the reporter, who now works for the Fox News Channel, settled a lawsuit out of court with the WWF for $425,000
  146. 146. Battery <ul><ul><li>Touching your clothing or anything attached or closely connected to you can be battery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If someone grabs your tie and pulls it, that’s battery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If someone kicks your dog while you’re walking it on a leash, that’s battery </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If someone slaps the coffee cup out of your hand, that’s battery </li></ul></ul></ul>
  147. 147. Kidnapping
  148. 148. Kidnapping <ul><li>You </li></ul><ul><li>move another person </li></ul><ul><li>a substantial distance </li></ul><ul><li>without that person's consent </li></ul><ul><li>by using force or fear. </li></ul>
  149. 149. Kidnapping <ul><li>Does carjacking involve kidnapping? </li></ul>
  150. 150. Kidnapping <ul><li>Does carjacking involve kidnapping? </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of kidnapping in California: </li></ul><ul><li>move another person </li></ul><ul><li>a substantial distance </li></ul><ul><li>without that person's consent </li></ul><ul><li>by using force or fear. </li></ul>
  151. 151. Kidnapping <ul><li>Does carjacking involve kidnapping? </li></ul>Maybe not. If you force the driver out of the driver seat so you can sit there and then you drive away, the victim has not moved “a substantial distance”. No kidnapping.
  152. 152. Kidnapping <ul><li>Does carjacking involve kidnapping? </li></ul>Maybe. If you jump in the passenger seat, point a gun at the driver and force the driver to drive a substantial distance, this would be kidnapping.
  153. 153. Sex Offenses
  154. 154. Sex Offenses <ul><li>It is illegal for anyone under 18 years old to have sexual contact with anyone. Period. </li></ul><ul><li>It is illegal for two people under 18 years old to have sexual contact. </li></ul><ul><li>California Penal Code: Section 261.5 </li></ul>
  155. 155. Sex Offenses <ul><li>It is illegal to have sexual contact without mutual consent. </li></ul><ul><li>People under 18 cannot give consent. Period. </li></ul><ul><li>Adults who are asleep, or unconscious, or unlawfully restrained, or incapacitated, or institutionalized cannot give consent. </li></ul><ul><li>California Penal Code: Section 243.4 </li></ul>
  156. 156. Sex Offenses <ul><li>Sexting is illegal </li></ul><ul><li>It is illegal to create, possess, or distribute explicit images of a minor. </li></ul><ul><li>This is considered child pornography. </li></ul><ul><li>Under current federal sentencing guidelines, you can get up to 10 years in federal prison for a first offense. </li></ul>
  157. 157. Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against business interests </li></ul><ul><li>Defenses to crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments for crimes </li></ul>
  158. 158. Crimes against property <ul><li>Theft Crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Arson </li></ul><ul><li>Vandalism </li></ul>
  159. 159. Theft Crimes <ul><li>Larceny </li></ul><ul><li>Shoplifting (Petty Theft) </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Theft </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Theft Auto </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Theft Firearm </li></ul><ul><li>Receipt of Stolen Property </li></ul><ul><li>Burglary </li></ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul><ul><li>False Pretenses </li></ul><ul><li>Embezzlement </li></ul><ul><li>Identity Theft </li></ul>
  160. 160. Larceny <ul><li>Larceny means stealing </li></ul><ul><li>Taking away someone else’s property without permission </li></ul><ul><li>Called “theft” in California </li></ul><ul><li>2 types of “theft” in California </li></ul><ul><li>Theft is a “wobbler” </li></ul>
  161. 161. Petty Theft (Shoplifting) <ul><li>Stealing anything worth under $950 (with exceptions) </li></ul>
  162. 162. Grand Theft <ul><li>Stealing anything worth over $950 (with some exceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>Grand Theft is a “wobbler” </li></ul>http://law.onecle.com/california/penal/487.html
  163. 163. Burglary
  164. 164. Burglary <ul><li>Burglary does NOT mean stealing </li></ul>
  165. 165. Burglary <ul><li>Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Enter a structure </li></ul><ul><li>Intend to commit a crime as you go in. </li></ul>
  166. 166. Burglary Do NOT need to break in Do NOT need to take anything
  167. 167. Burglary <ul><li>Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>Enter a structure </li></ul><ul><li>Intend to commit a crime as you go in. </li></ul>(Perhaps this is why burglars do not bring empty bags with them. Empty bags may indicate intent.)
  168. 168. Burglary: video 1 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
  169. 169. Burglary: video 1 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html If you steal something out of a car, could that be burglary?
  170. 170. Burglary: video 2 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
  171. 171. Burglary: video 2 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html What mental state is an element of burglary?
  172. 172. Burglary: video 3 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
  173. 173. Burglary Does this picture show one of the elements of burglary?
  174. 174. Burglary: video 4 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
  175. 175. Burglary: video 4 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html How is burglary different than robbery?
  176. 176. Burglary: video 5 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html
  177. 177. Burglary: video 5 of 5 http://www.shouselaw.com/burglary.html How is a Residential Burglary different than a commercial burglary?
  178. 178. Robbery
  179. 179. Robbery: video 1 of 2 http://www.shouselaw.com/robbery.html
  180. 180. Robbery: video 1 of 2 http://www.shouselaw.com/robbery.html CA Penal Code 211: …taking... property in the possession of another …by means of force or fear .
  181. 181. Robbery: video 2 of 2 http://www.shouselaw.com/robbery.html
  182. 182. Robbery: video 2 of 2 http://www.shouselaw.com/robbery.html Robbery is a “strike” under California’s 3 strikes law (Third strike gets you 25 years to life in prison.)
  183. 183. Embezzlement <ul><li>Fraudulent appropriation of property by a person to whom it has been entrusted </li></ul>California Penal Code 503
  184. 184. Embezzlement <ul><li>Usually an employee stealing from an employer. </li></ul><ul><li>The employee is trusted with the employer’s property or money and the employee takes the property or money for themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>A type of theft </li></ul>
  185. 185. Embezzlement http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfnnGLPevkM
  186. 186. <ul><li>Is this cleaning boy guilty of embezzlement? </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wpKSuRsQx2E
  187. 187. Embezzlement <ul><li>You rent an apartment that has a stove and refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>You sell the refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>Are you guilty of embezzlement? </li></ul>
  188. 188. Embezzlement <ul><li>You rent an apartment that has a stove and refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>You sell the refrigerator. </li></ul><ul><li>Are you guilty of embezzlement? </li></ul>Fraudulent appropriation of property by a person to whom it has been entrusted
  189. 189. Arson
  190. 190. Arson <ul><li>Willfully and maliciously set fire to or burn or cause to be burned or help in the burning of any structure, forest land, or property. </li></ul>&quot;maliciously&quot; it means that you (1) wish to annoy or injure another person, or (2) intentionally commit a wrongful act.
  191. 191. Arson <ul><li>Scorching or blackening is not arson </li></ul><ul><li>Melting a screen door, for example, is not arson </li></ul>
  192. 192. Vandalism
  193. 193. Vandalism <ul><li>Maliciously commit any of the following acts with respect to any real or personal property not your own… </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Defaces with graffiti or other inscribed material. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Damages. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Destroys. </li></ul></ul></ul>&quot;maliciously&quot; it means that you (1) wish to annoy or injure another person, or (2) intentionally commit a wrongful act.
  194. 194. Vandalism <ul><li>A “wobbler” </li></ul><ul><li>Less than $400: Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><li>More than $400: Felony </li></ul>
  195. 195. Vandalism <ul><li>If a husband, married for 24 years and going through a divorce, keys his wife’s car, is he guilty of vandalism? </li></ul>
  196. 196. Vandalism <ul><li>If a husband, married for 24 years and going through a divorce, keys his wife’s car, is he guilty of vandalism? </li></ul>Maliciously commit any of the following acts with respect to any real or personal property not your own… (1) Defaces with graffiti or other inscribed material. (2) Damages. (3) Destroys.
  197. 197. Vandalism <ul><li>If you draw a chalk hopscotch game on the sidewalk in front of your house, are you guilty of vandalism? </li></ul>
  198. 198. Vandalism <ul><li>If you draw a chalk hopscotch game on the sidewalk in front of your house, are you guilty of vandalism? </li></ul>Maliciously commit any of the following acts with respect to any real or personal property not your own… (1) Defaces with graffiti or other inscribed material. (2) Damages. (3) Destroys.
  199. 199. Vandalism <ul><li>If you spill paint on the street, are you guilty of vandalism? </li></ul>
  200. 200. Vandalism <ul><li>If you spill paint on the street, are you guilty of vandalism? </li></ul>Maliciously commit any of the following acts with respect to any real or personal property not your own… (1) Defaces with graffiti or other inscribed material. (2) Damages. (3) Destroys.
  201. 201. <ul><li>If you pour paint on the street, </li></ul><ul><li>are you guilty of vandalism? </li></ul>
  202. 202. <ul><li>If you pour paint on the street, </li></ul><ul><li>are you guilty of vandalism? </li></ul>http://www.trendhunter.com/trends/iepe-rubingh
  203. 203. California’s 3 strikes Law
  204. 204. California’s 3 strikes Law For repeat offenders
  205. 205. California’s 3 strikes Law <ul><li>Mandatory sentence of 25 years to life in prison for repeat offenders. </li></ul>
  206. 206. California’s 3 strikes Law <ul><li>Only certain “serious” or “violent” crimes count as a strike. </li></ul>
  207. 207. California’s 3 strikes Law <ul><li>Only certain “serious” or “violent” crimes count as a strike. </li></ul>Examples : <ul><li>Arson </li></ul><ul><li>Robbery </li></ul><ul><li>Carjacking </li></ul><ul><li>Stealing a gun </li></ul><ul><li>Shooting at a house or car </li></ul><ul><li>Residential burglary </li></ul><ul><li>Selling meth to a minor </li></ul><ul><li>Felonies with “gang enhancement” </li></ul><ul><li>Assault on a police officer </li></ul>
  208. 208. Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against business interests </li></ul><ul><li>Defenses to crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments for crimes </li></ul>
  209. 209. Crimes against business interests <ul><li>Fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Forgery </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery </li></ul><ul><li>Extortion </li></ul>
  210. 210. Fraud “ Criminal trickery”
  211. 211. Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul>
  212. 212. Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul>
  213. 213. Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was false </li></ul>
  214. 214. Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was false </li></ul><ul><li>Intent that the statement will be relied on </li></ul>
  215. 215. Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was false </li></ul><ul><li>Intent that the statement will be relied on </li></ul><ul><li>Victim must rely on the falsehood </li></ul>
  216. 216. Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was false </li></ul><ul><li>Intent that the statement will be relied on </li></ul><ul><li>Victim must rely on the falsehood </li></ul><ul><li>Victim must suffer a loss </li></ul>
  217. 217. Fraud <ul><li>A Medi-Cal doctor charges the government: </li></ul><ul><li>for blood tests when no blood samples were drawn </li></ul><ul><li>for x-rays when none were taken </li></ul><ul><li>for a dental filling when one was not done </li></ul>
  218. 218. <ul><li>Fraud </li></ul>Let’s watch a short video that shows a fraud. (The man and the little girl work together to commit a fraud)
  219. 219. <ul><li>Fraud </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2B7ersvsAc Paper Moon (1973)
  220. 220. Fraud <ul><li>5 ELEMENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>A false representation of fact </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal must know it was false </li></ul><ul><li>Intent that the statement will be relied on </li></ul><ul><li>Victim must rely on the falsehood </li></ul><ul><li>Victim must suffer a loss </li></ul>
  221. 221. Forgery
  222. 222. Forgery <ul><li>NOT just signing someone else’s name </li></ul>
  223. 223. Forgery <ul><li>Make, alter, corrupt, falsify, or imitate objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive another out of money, an interest in property, and/or other legal rights. </li></ul>
  224. 224. Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>Signatures
  225. 225. Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>Legal documents
  226. 226. Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>Antique furniture
  227. 227. Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>
  228. 228. Forgery <ul><li>Things that can be “forged”: </li></ul>Art
  229. 229. Forgery <ul><li>Forging money is called “counterfeiting” </li></ul>
  230. 230. Forgery <ul><li>Why isn’t a “pen name” a forgery? </li></ul>
  231. 231. Forgery <ul><li>Make, alter, corrupt, falsify, or imitate objects, statistics, or documents with the intent to deceive another out of money, an interest in property, and/or other legal rights. </li></ul>
  232. 232. Bribery
  233. 233. Bribery effort to corruptly influence, by way of money or gift, a public official in the course of that official's work.
  234. 234. Bribery Example You give your county supervisor $25,000 to speak for 5 minutes at your investor club’s breakfast meeting. The meeting is really just two guys at the IHOP. He later votes to approve your apartment building plans.
  235. 235. Bribery Example Your mafia family friends give the prosecutor’s wife $500,000. The prosecutor then drops all charges against you.
  236. 236. Extortion or “Blackmail”
  237. 237. Extortion or “Blackmail”
  238. 238. Extortion or “Blackmail” using force or threats to compel another to give you money or other property, or to compel a public officer to perform an official act
  239. 239. Extortion Nice new restaurant you have here. It’d be a shame if it caught on fire. If you pay me $100 a week, I can make sure that doesn’t happen.
  240. 240. Extortion I have photos of you that you don’t want everyone to see. If you pay me $100,000 I won’t send them to the National Enquirer.
  241. 241. Extortion A friend of mine is scheduled to testify against you in court. If you pay me $107,000 I will have my friend lie for you at your trial. Alfred Nash Villalobos (Lake Tahoe) http://www.sacbee.com/2011/09/01/3878114/villalobos-son-convicted-on-extortion.html
  242. 242. Extortion If you give me $3,000 I’ll help get a law through the State Senate that will help your shrimp company. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-02-03/news/mn-1029_1_corruption-charges CA State Senator Joseph B. Montoya
  243. 243. Crimes against business interests <ul><li>Fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Forgery </li></ul><ul><li>Bribery </li></ul><ul><li>Extortion </li></ul>
  244. 244. Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against business interests </li></ul><ul><li>Defenses to crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments for crimes </li></ul>
  245. 245. Defenses to Crime <ul><li>I didn’t do it! </li></ul><ul><li>It was an accident (not a crime) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Defense of Others </li></ul><ul><li>Entrapment </li></ul><ul><li>Insanity </li></ul>
  246. 246. I didn’t do it!
  247. 247. It was an accident! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlejVWUE1fM
  248. 248. Self-Defense
  249. 249. Self-Defense <ul><li>You committed an act that normally would be a criminal act </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You killed someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You cut someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You hit someone </li></ul></ul>
  250. 250. Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these 3 criteria : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You reasonably believe that you are in imminent danger of being killed, seriously injured, or unlawfully touched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You believe that immediate force is necessary to prevent that danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You use no more force than necessary to defend against that danger </li></ul></ul>
  251. 251. Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these 3 criteria : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You reasonably believe that you are in imminent danger of being killed, seriously injured, or unlawfully touched </li></ul></ul>
  252. 252. Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these 3 criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You believe that immediate force is necessary to prevent that danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(In California, you are not required to attempt to retreat like in other states; in California, you are allowed to “stand your ground”) </li></ul></ul>
  253. 253. Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these 3 criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You use no more force than necessary to defend against that danger </li></ul></ul>
  254. 254. Self-Defense <ul><li>Your act is lawful if you meet these 3 criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You use no more force than necessary to defend against that danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: if your attacker is using his bare hands, you cannot shoot him with a gun in self defense (of course, there are always exceptions). </li></ul></ul>
  255. 255. Self-Defense <ul><li>3 criteria : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You reasonably believe that you are in imminent danger of being killed, seriously injured, or unlawfully touched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You believe that immediate force is necessary to prevent that danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You use no more force than necessary to defend against that danger </li></ul></ul>
  256. 256. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixYqD4q9mDM
  257. 257. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KoopTek6Gi0&NR=1
  258. 258. NOT Self-Defense <ul><li>Korean store owners during the Rodney King riots in LA, April 1992. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lUaoil0wsyU
  259. 259. NOT Self-Defense <ul><li>You cannot shoot someone who is running away from you. </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qWFhDvURLg
  260. 260. Defense of Others
  261. 261. Defense of Others <ul><li>Just like self defense </li></ul><ul><li>You committed an act that normally would be a criminal act </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You killed someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You cut someone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You hit someone </li></ul></ul>
  262. 262. Defense of Others <ul><ul><li>You reasonably believe that someone else is in imminent danger of being killed, seriously injured, or unlawfully touched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You believe that immediate force is necessary to prevent that danger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You use no more force than necessary to defend against that danger </li></ul></ul>
  263. 263. <ul><li>Now let’s watch a scene in the stands of the US Open (tennis) from two vantage points… </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll look for: </li></ul><ul><li>Battery </li></ul><ul><li>Self-defense </li></ul><ul><li>Defense of Others </li></ul>
  264. 264. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E19D_-h9MIo
  265. 265. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPelP6HG7ig
  266. 266. Entrapment
  267. 267. Entrapment <ul><li>You committed an act that normally would be a criminal act </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You bought marijuana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You stole something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You helped plan a terrorist attack </li></ul></ul>
  268. 268. Entrapment <ul><li>Your act may be excused if you can prove that the police pressured you into doing something a reasonable law-abiding person would not do. </li></ul><ul><li>That’s “entrapment” </li></ul>
  269. 269. Entrapment <ul><li>Has to do with the law enforcement officer’s conduct, not yours. </li></ul>
  270. 270. Entrapment <ul><li>Does not mean the police were “sneaky”. Police can be sneaky. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not mean the police left “bait”. Police can leave bait. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not mean the police lied. Police can lie (with exceptions) </li></ul>
  271. 271. Entrapment <ul><li>Means that the police: </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatedly pressured you to commit the crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Used threats </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatedly harassed you </li></ul><ul><li>Told you the act was legal </li></ul>
  272. 272. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHAqoWQFOvc 4:27
  273. 273. Entrapment? Newburgh Four
  274. 274. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lmzq81vYzDM
  275. 275. Entrapment? Crosswalk sting operations
  276. 276. Insanity
  277. 277. Insanity <ul><li>Plead “Not guilty by reason of insanity” </li></ul>
  278. 278. Insanity <ul><li>Defense must prove 2 things: </li></ul>“ Act prong” OR “ Wrongfulness prong” “ Mental Defect prong”
  279. 279. Insanity: Act prong <ul><li>Defense must prove: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant was “ incapable of knowing or understanding the nature or quality of his or her act ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ knowing or understanding” means “aware” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeezing lemon test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually not a proven prong </li></ul></ul>
  280. 280. Insanity: Wrongfulness prong <ul><li>Defense must prove: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant was “ incapable of distinguishing right from wrong at the time of the commission of the offense ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does “wrong” mean? </li></ul></ul>
  281. 281. Insanity: Wrongfulness prong <ul><li>Defense must prove: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant was “ incapable of distinguishing right from wrong at the time of the commission of the offense ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does “wrong” mean? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legally wrong </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morally wrong </li></ul></ul></ul>
  282. 282. Insanity: Wrongfulness prong <ul><ul><li>Legally wrong (unlawful act) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant knew his act was unlawful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: He knew that killing his wife was unlawful, that’s why he hid her body in the bushes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUT, just because you know something is unlawful doesn’t mean you know it’s “wrong” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  283. 283. Insanity: Wrongfulness prong <ul><ul><li>Morally wrong: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A defendant who is incapable of understanding that his act is morally wrong is not criminally liable merely because he knows the act is [legally] wrongful . </li></ul>
  284. 284. Insanity: Wrongfulness prong <ul><ul><li>Morally wrong: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A defendant who is incapable of understanding that his act is morally wrong is not criminally liable merely because he knows the act is [legally] wrongful . </li></ul><ul><li>Example: A person who murders an abortion doctor may not understand that his action is morally wrong. </li></ul>
  285. 285. Insanity: Mental Defect Prong <ul><li>Defendant incapable by reason of mental disease or defect (MDOD). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MDOD must be “settled” (being drunk or high does not change you into insane) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MDOD must be at least in part organic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic MDOD cannot be caused by voluntary intoxicants </li></ul></ul>
  286. 286. Insanity <ul><li>Defense must prove 2 things: </li></ul>“ Act prong” OR “ Wrongfulness prong” “ Mental Defect prong”
  287. 287. Here’s what we’ll learn in this unit: <ul><li>Criminal laws are complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Types of crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of a crime </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against people </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against business interests </li></ul><ul><li>Defenses to crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Punishments for crimes </li></ul>
  288. 288. Punishment for Crimes <ul><li>Counseling/Training </li></ul><ul><li>Restitution </li></ul><ul><li>Community service </li></ul><ul><li>Probation </li></ul><ul><li>Fines </li></ul><ul><li>Imprisonment </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul>
  289. 289. <ul><li>Assault: http://injury.findlaw.com/assault-and-battery/elements-of-assault.html </li></ul><ul><li>Sexting: https://apps.cla.umn.edu/timedig/webs/14/pages/1257 </li></ul><ul><li>A delusion is a systemic belief not shared by most other persons. </li></ul>
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