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  • 1. Philippine Myth
  • 2. There lived an accomplished but sad “datu”. He had achieved a lot for his tribe at a young age but he seemed to be bored by it all. He didn’t find meaning in all his success. So, he wondered what it was like to be in heaven. Perhaps, he thought, his satisfaction would be realized when he reached heaven. When? Why not right now? He told himself. So he planned to end his life then and there.
  • 3. One day, he prayed to Bathala, “I am getting more bored and fed up with life everyday. As to my accomplishments here on Earth, I find them increasingly meaningless. Please allow me to ascend to heaven earlier!” Before this, he had thought of saying “allow me to kill myself” but later re-worded it to something more tolerable to God. Suddenly a voice said, “But your time on earth is not yet over.”
  • 4. The datu felt a little disappointed and left the palace. Suddenly an old man came up to him. Knowing the grievance in his heart, the old man tried to cheer him up by saying, “It might surprise you to know, my Lord, that we can already find heaven on earth!” With that remark, he led the datu to a place where there grew a kind of plant that has a long, slim, and tall body, and long leaves that looked very much like a bamboo. It looked like a long purple tube.
  • 5. The old man went on to say, “This is a heavenly plant. Its incredibly sweet stem will take you to heaven.” The datu started chewing its stem and found it indeed very sweet. He really felt like heaven. He told himself, this sweet tube-plant was even sweeter than all his achievements combined. He examined the tube-plant and decided to call it a tube, or “tubo” in the vernacular.
  • 6. SUGARCANE Scientific Name: Saccharum officinarum L. Family: Poaceae Origin: Burma-China-India area of southern Asia Growth Habits: Giant grass, most cultivated species grow to 5-7 feet tall (1.5 to 2 m), some much higher. Watering Needs: Regular to heavy watering Propagation: Clump division or cuttings (setts) of 2-3 buds
  • 7. SUGARCANE Sugarcane is any of six to 37 species of tall tropical perennial true grasses. Its stalk contains sweet juice from which sugar can be extracted. Most varieties are hybrids of the 4 cultivated species of sugarcane. Saccharum officinarum is the main "ingredient" of the cultivated hybrids.
  • 8. SUGARCANE The main product of sugarcane is sucrose, which accumulates in the stalk internodes. Sucrose, extracted and purified in specialized mill factories, is used as raw material in human food industries or is fermented to produce ethanol. Ethanol is produced on a large scale on some countries like Brazil.
  • 9. SUGARCANE Sugarcane is the world's largest crop. In 2010, FAO estimates it was cultivated on about 23.8 million hectares, in more than 90 countries, with a worldwide harvest of 1.69 billion tons.
  • 10. SUGARCANE The sugarcane industry currently contributes P70 billion annually to the Philippine economy. 75 percent of the sugarcane farmers till less than five hectares of land with only two percent tilling 50 to 100 hectares, and one percent with more than 100 hectares. Source: http://www.visayandailystar.com/2012/September/29/topstory3.htm
  • 11. Western Visayas senators will join forces in pushing for the passage of the Senate’s version of House Bill 6113 or the Sugarcane Industry Development Act of 2012. Trivia
  • 12. VMC 86-550 Yield Performance Tonnage Average to High Sweetness High Stable Agronomic Characteristics Germination Good Growth Habit Average Tillering Habit Average Stalk Fairy Tall, Effect Trashiness Highly Self Detrashing Flowering Sparse Maturity 11 to 12 months Disease Resistance Smut Susceptible Downy Mildew Susceptible Borer Susceptible General Recommendation Planting Time early to Mid (October to Feb.) Area Adaptability Lowland to Intermediate Specific Sites Adaptability Luzon Batangas Bais, BISCOM, Capiz, HPCo, La Visayas Carlota, Lopez, Ormoc, Sagay, San Carlos, Sonedco, VMC Mindanao Davao
  • 13. VMC 84-549 Yield Performance Tonnage High Sweetness Moderately High Agronomic Characteristics Germination Average Growth Habit Very Fast Tillering Habit Average Stalk Tall, Reclining to Lodging Trashiness Semi-Self Detrashing Flowering Profuse Maturity 10 months Disease Resistance Smut Resistant Downy Mildew Resistant Leaf Scorch Resistant Rust Resistant General Recommendation Planting Time Late (May to July) Area Adaptability Lowland to Upland Harvest Preferably dry months Specific Sites Adaptability Luzon Batangas, Pampanga, Tarlac Visayas Bais, Bogo, Maao, Sagay Mindanao Davao
  • 14. VMC 71-39 Yield Performance Tonnage Moderate Sweetness High Agronomic Characteristics Germinatio Average Growth Habit Slow, Good Ratooner Tillering Habit Moderate Stalk Erect Trashiness Semi-Self Detrashing Flowering Profuse Maturity 10 to 12 months Disease Resistance Smut Moderately Susceptible Downy Mildew Resistant Leaf Scorch Resistant Rust Resistant General Recommendation Planting Time May to February Area Adaptability Lowland to Intermediate Harvest s4-5 hectares Specific Sites Adaptability Luzon Visayas VMC, HPCo, San Carlos, Bogo Mindanao Davao
  • 15. VMC 89-947 Yield Performance Tonnage High Sweetness Moderately High Agronomic Characteristics Germination Very Good Growth Habit Fast good Ratooner Tillering Habit Heavy Stalk Erect Trashiness Highly self Detrashing Flowering Reluctant Maturity 11 to 12 months Disease Resistance Smut Highly Resistant Downy Mildew Highly Resistant Leaf Scorch Highly Resistant Pokkah Boeng Susceptible Yellow Spot Susceptible General Recommendation Planting Time Mid to Late (January to July) Area Adaptability Lowland to Upland Harvest Going dry to dry Months Specific Sites Adaptability Luzon Visayas San Carlos Bais, Bogo, Capiz, Dacongcogon, Sagay, VMC Mindanao Davao
  • 16. VMC 87-95 Yield Performance Tonnage High Sweetness Moderately High Agronomic Characteristics Germination Very Good Growth Habit Fast good Ratooner Tillering Habit Heavy Stalk Erect Trashiness Highly self Detrashing Flowering Reluctant Maturity 10 to 11 months Disease Resistance Smut Intermediate Downy Mildew Very Highly Resistant Yellow Spot Resistant General Recommendation Planting Time Late (May to July) Area Adaptability Lowland to Intermediate Planting Rate 3-4 hectares Fertilization Add 25% Nitrogen to recommended Rate as Per Soil Analysis Specific Sites Adaptability Luzon Visayas San Carlos, Bogo, Capiz, La Carlota, Mindanao Bukidnon
  • 17. VMC 87-599 Yield Performance Tonnage High Sweetness Moderate Agronomic Characteristics Germination Average Growth Habit Fast Tillering Habit Moderate Stalk Reclining to Lodging Trashiness Self Detrashing Flowering Sparse Maturity 10 to 12 months Disease Resistance Smut Highly Resistant Downy Mildew Highly Resistant Leaf Scorch Highly Resistant Rust Highly Resistant General Recommendation Planting Time Mid to Late (Jan. to July) Area Adaptability Lowland to Upland Harvest Preferably dry months and not less than 10 months old Specific Sites Adaptability Luzon Tarlac Visayas EISCOM, Bogo, Capiz, Dacongcogon, Maao, Sagay Mindanao Davao
  • 18. VMC 80-1390 Yield Performance Tonnage High Sweetness Average Agronomic Characteristics Germination Good Growth Habit Fast Tillering Habit Heavy Stalk Reclining to Lodging Trashiness Semi Self Detrashing Flowering Reluctant Maturity 11 to 12 months Disease Resistance Smut Resistant Yellow Spot Highly Resistant Rust Very Highly Resistant General Recommendation Planting Time Mid to Late (Jan. to July) Area Adaptability Lowland to Upland Specific Sites Adaptability Luzon Pampanga Visayas La Carlota, San Carlos, VMC Mindanao Busco
  • 19. PSR 97-45 Yield Performance Tonnage High Sweetness Moderately High Agronomic Characteristics Germination Average Growth Habit Very Fast Tillering Habit Moderate Stalk Tall, Big and Lodging Trashiness Not Self Detrashing Flowering Sparse Maturity 10 to 11 months Disease Resistance Smut Resistant Downy Mildew Very Highly Resistant Yellow Spot Intermediate Rust Moderately Susceptible Leaf Scorch Moderately Resistant General Recommendation Planting Time Early Milling Session (Oct. to Dec.) Area Adaptability Lowland to Upland Specific Sites Adaptability Luzon Cagayan, Pampanga Visayas La Carlota, Lopez, Ormoc, Biscom, San Carlos
  • 20. K 88-65 Yield Performance Tonnage High Sweetness Average Agronomic Characteristics Germination Average Growth Habit Average Tillering Habit Average Stalk Big Erect to Reclining Trashiness Semi-Self Detrashing Flowering Sparse Maturity 11 to 12 months Disease Resistance Smut Moderately Resistant Yellow Spot Resistant Rust Moderately Susceptible General Recommendation Planting Time Mid to Late (Jan. to June) Area Adaptability Lowland to Intermediate Specific Sites Adaptability Luzon Pampanga Visayas HPCo, La Carlota, San Carlos, VMC Mindanao Busco
  • 21. LAND PREPARATION For higher sugarcane yields, providing optimum soil environment is an essential pre-requisite since the crop remains in the field for about 5 to 6 years due to the practice of raising several ratoon crops.
  • 22. LAND PREPARATION Good Land Preparation Improper Land Preparation
  • 23. LAND PREPARATION Objectives of Land Preparation • To prepare a seed bed which permits optimal soil water air relations • Good physical conditions for early root penetration and proliferation • To incorporate preceding crop residues and organic manures • To destroy weeds and hibernating pest & disease organisms • To facilitate proper soil chemical and microbial activity
  • 24. LAND PREPARATION Without Subsoiling With Subsoiling
  • 25. LAND PREPARATION Steps in Land Preparation Involve the Following: • Subsoiling or chiseling to a depth of 50 to 75 cm to break hard compact sub-pan layer • Ploughing to incorporate previous crop's crop residues and organic manures • Discing to break clods • Land shaping to provide the required gradient for draining excess water during rainy season
  • 26. LAND PREPARATION Steps in Land Preparation Involve the Following: • Field layout - Construct ridges & furrows and shape them. Depth of furrows should be 25 cm. The furrow bottom should be loosened to about 10 cm. • Provide drainage channels, which are deeper than the furrows along the field borders as well as within the field at regular intervals. Drainage channels are particularly important in the high rainfall areas to drain the excess water during rainy season. • Table 7 summarizes the power requirement and output during land preparation.
  • 27. LAND PREPARATION Table 7. Sugarcane: Power Requirement and Work Output for Land Preparation Operation Power requirement/ha Output (ha/hr) kWatts Diesel (Litres/ha) Pre-discing 125 18 2.5 Ripping 165 48 0.5 Ploughing 165 24 1.7 Post-discing 125 18 2.5 Land leveling 125 7 3.5 Ridging 70 16 0.5
  • 28. PLANTING SUGARCANE Planting practices affect to considerable degree the germination of the seed pieces and subsequent growth of the plant. Good planting practices do not only mean rapid germination but also fast growth of the crops. It is therefore important to know when and how to plant good seed pieces. Planting in sugarcane farming is consist of the following operations;
  • 29. PLANTING SUGARCANE a. Selection of seed pieces The following characteristics of a good planting material must be considered be it taken from the nursery or plantation; • " Should contain three well-developed and viable buds or eyes and should not include the central growing point or "ubod". • " Must come from a healthy plants and disease and pest free plantation or nursery. • " Must be about 30 cm long and prepared in such a way that there is about three to five cm clearance from the nodes at both ends. • " If taken from the nursery, must not more than six months of age and the cane points obtained from the top half must be separated from the bottom half of the stalk and plant them separately in the field to obtain uniform germination.
  • 30. PLANTING SUGARCANE b. Soaking of the seed pieces Soaking of cane points in water is another common practice in sugarcane farming. Usually, the cane points are soaked in running water for about 48 hours to hasten germination. Generally, this is carried out when there is no enough moisture in the soil that could induce germination of the cane points after planting. Some planters prefer to soak the cane points in fungicide solution to protect them from fungal infection. The most common practice is to dip the cane points in Mercuric Chloride solution for about a minute. This is normally prepared by dissolving about 125 grams of 6% Agallol per 100 liters of water.
  • 31. PLANTING SUGARCANE c. Incubation of the seed pieces After soaking, the seed pieces are incubated for about 2 days by placing them under the shade and covering with moist rice straw or any similar materials. Incubation must be done with proper precautionary measures to ensure higher number of developed stalks. Prolonged incubation may cause the buds to over swell thus it would require careful handling during planting time so as not to destroy the swelled buds.
  • 32. PLANTING SUGARCANE d. Making the furrows Furrows should be made only when there are already available cane points for planting to take advantage of the available soil moisture. Making the furrows several days ahead of planting time can result to drying up of soil and planting with this soil condition will result to delayed and poor germination.
  • 33. PLANTING SUGARCANE e. Distribution and laying out of the seed pieces Distribution of prepared sugarcane seed pieces must be done immediately after making the furrows to take advantage of the available soil moisture.
  • 34. PLANTING SUGARCANE f. Planting Planting should be done immediately after making the furrows for higher percentage germination. Planting position varies depending on the season. During dry season, cane points must be laid flat in the furrow with the eyes on both sides and covered with two inches pulverized soil. Planting the cane points this manner enables them to take advantage of the soil moisture and prevent from rapid drying.
  • 35. PLANTING SUGARCANE Replanting Replanting of vacant hills must be done immediately and within 30 days after planting. Delayed replanting results to non-uniform crop stand and uneven crop maturity.
  • 36. PLANTING SUGARCANE Cultivation Cultivation in sugarcane farming is loosening of the soil to provide aeration thereby increasing the supply of oxygen needed by the plant roots and by the soil organisms thus, ultimately enhances microbial activity in the decomposition of organic matter.
  • 37. PLANTING SUGARCANE Distributed Setts in Field
  • 38. PLANTING SUGARCANE Cover the Setts with Soil
  • 39. PLANTING SUGARCANE Place the setts along the centre of the furrows
  • 40. PLANTING SUGARCANE Sugarcane in ridges and furrows
  • 41. HARVESTING SUGARCANE Harvesting of sugarcane at a proper time i.e., peak maturity, by adopting right technique is necessary to realize maximum weight of the millable canes (thus sugar) produced with least possible field losses under the given growing environment.
  • 42. HARVESTING SUGARCANE Proper harvesting should ensure: (1) To harvest the cane at peak maturity (i.e., avoiding cutting of either over-matured or under-matured cane) (2) Cutting cane to ground level so that the bottom sugar rich internodes are harvested which add to yield and sugar (3) De-topping at appropriate height so that the top immature internodes are eliminated (4) Proper cleaning of the cane i.e., removing the extraneous matter such as leaves, trash, roots etc. (5) Quick disposal of the harvested cane to factory
  • 43. HARVESTING SUGARCANE Crop Age Harvesting is done based on maturity (age) group. Farmers who grow a particular variety are usually conversant with the harvesting time. Even most sugar factories give cutting orders to farmers based on crop age. This is not a scientific method since, planting time, crop management practices, weather conditions etc influences maturity.
  • 44. HARVESTING SUGARCANE Visual Symptoms Yellowing and drying of leaves, metallic sound of mature canes when tapped, appearance of sugar crystal glistening when a mature cane is cut in a slanting way and held against the sun are some of the visual indices of assessing maturity of cane.
  • 45. HARVESTING SUGARCANE Quality Parameters Juice Brix: Juice Brix refers to the total solids content present in the juice expressed in percentage. Juice Sucrose Or Pol Per Cent: The juice sucrose per cent is the actual cane sugar present in the juice. Purity Coefficient: It refers to the percentage of sucrose present in the total solids content in the juice. Reducing Sugars: The reducing sugars refer to the percentage of other sugars (fructose and glucose) in the juice. Commercial Cane Sugar: The commercial cane sugar (CCS) refers to the total recoverable sugar percent in the cane.
  • 46. HARVESTING SUGARCANE Manual Harvesting In many countries even today harvesting is done manually using various types of hand knives or hand axes. Among the several tools the cutting blade is usually heavier and facilitates easier and efficient cutting of cane. Manual harvesting requires skilled labourers as improper harvest of cane leads to loss of cane & sugar yield, poor juice quality and problems in milling due to extraneous matter.
  • 47. HARVESTING SUGARCANE Mechanical Harvesting Harvesting labour is becoming scarce and costly in view of diversion of labour to other remunerative work in industry, construction, business etc. Mill stoppages because of non-availability of canes are not uncommon owing to shortage of harvesting labour. And, most of the new mills are of higher crushing capacity and many are expanding their crushing capacities. Therefore daily requirement of cane is increasing and hence greater demand for harvesting labour.
  • 48. END
  • 49. Sources • http://philsurin.org/varieties/variety_05_vmc_87_95.htm • http://www.sucrose.com/lcane.html • http://www.sugarcanecrop.com/agronomic_practices/harvest ing_management/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugarcane#Cultivation • http://sugarcanecrops.com/agronomic_practices/land_prepar ation/
  • 50. REPORTERS 1. Introduction (Slide 2-13) – Castillo 2. Crop Varieties (14-20) – Caladman 3. Land Preparation (21-27) – Celda 4. Planting (28-32) - Casipe 5. Harvesting (33-39) - Celis