( PUT YOUR TITLE HERE…. Follow Format Below )LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND ACCEPTANCE ON HUMAN PAPILLOMA VACCINE AMONG FEMALE CALL CENTER AGENTS: AN ASSESSMENT A Thesis Proposal Presented to Thesis Committee and Faculty of System Technology Institute College of Nursing Global City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Nursing Presented by ( Researcher’s Name ) FEBUARY 2011
APPROVAL SHEETThis thesis entitled “Thesis Title” was prepared and submitted by Researcher’s Namepartial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Mark Fredderick R. Abejo RN, MAN Adviser PANEL OF EXAMINERS Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a grade of ________% __________________________ _____________________ ______________________ Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ofBachelor of Science in Nursing. Mr. Peter V. Agruda RN, MAN OIC, College of Nursing
TABLE OF CONTENTSCHAPTERI. THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction…………………………………………………..……...…… Conceptual Framework……………………….…………………..….….. Statement of the Problem………….…………….……………….……... Significance of the Study……………………..…….………..........…….. Scope and Limitations………………………………...……….……….... Definitions of Terms……………………………………….….…….…….II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Related Foreign Literature………………………………………..…....… Related Local Literature…………………………………..……..….…... Related Foreign Studies………………………………………..……...… Related Local Studies………………………………………………..…...III. METHODS AND PROCEDURES Research Design ………………….……………………………….…….. Participant Selection…………….……………………………….….. Research Instrument…………….……………………………….….. Data Gathering Technique…………………..………….…………….… Data Collection Procedure…………………..………….……………… Statistical Treatment…….…………………..………….……….………
CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction The student / researcher explain the background of the study and citessituations or statements of authorities to explain why the study is beingconducted. The student/researcher points out that the study is on/about a specialproblem different from other problems. The interplay of identified variables thatmay cause a process to take place is discussed.Example: One of the biggest health problems in the world today is diabetes.Diabetes is a chronic (long-term) condition marked by abnormally high levels ofsugar (glucose) in the blood. People with diabetes either do not produce enoughinsulin, a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food intoenergy needed for daily life or cannot use the insulin that their bodies produce.As a result, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. If left untreated, diabetes canlead to blindness, kidney disease, nerve disease, heart disease, and stroke. It isa common chronic disease that affects approximately 245 million peopleworldwide and the numbers simply keep on growing with each passing day. Formany people, diabetes is a reality that they have live with every single day.However, it is possible to lead a healthy and wholesome life even with diabetes.
Diabetes kills one person every 10 seconds and infects two persons in thesame short time. This is the scary reality behind this silent killer, which is takingas many lives as Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immune DeficiencySyndrome. According to the Philippine Diabetes Association, 3.8 million peopledie every year because of diabetes-related causes while 245 million are inflictedwith the disease worldwide. By 2025, the figure is expected to double, affecting mostly Asia, the Pacificregion, Latin America and Africa, including the Philippines. The National CapitalRegion has the most number which totals to 8 percent of the population whilerural areas have an average of 4 percent as of the last survey. The burden ofdiabetes is often carried by the poor, mainly because treatment requiresfinances. There are even some people who pull their relatives from the hospitalsand just wait for them to die in their homes because of expensive medication andtreatment.Theoretical Framework The theoretical framework justifies the rationale for the investigations. Itgives the reason for search for new data and for analyzing, interpreting andsynthesizing these data. The framework also cites the theory / theories on whichthe study is premised in order to establish the relationship among the variables inthe study.
Some disciplines require the presentation of a paradigm in order to explainhow the theory is going to rationalize in the study. In this discussion, pertinentconcepts or new ideas are cited for clarification.Example: Self – Awareness Theory If you are watching a home video taken by a family member where you arethe centered attraction, you will be in a state of self- awareness (Arroson, Wilson,& Akert, 2007). Self- awareness theory is the “idea that when people focus theirattention on themselves, they evaluate and compare their behavior to theirinternal standards and values. Humans differentiate from most other species inthe way they can use self-concept, which is our own knowledge about who weare, and they do this by taking the self as a focus of attention. The fact that ashuman beings we are able to be self- aware enables us in a way to self-evaluate,the way a person views themselves. People can compare themselves to internalstandards and assess whether they are sufficiently physically attractive,intelligent, and sociable or anything that is seen as accurate and good. If anydiscrepancies occur between your behavior and your inner standard, it will causea change of the behavior to create balance with your internal standards andvalues. The research paradigm will serve as a guide in conducting this study,shown in Figure 1.
The first box contains the demographic profiles of the respondents whichare also shown in the statement of the problem. The second box contains the process needed to achieve the goals of thestudy. These are the analysis of documents, tabulation of data gathered from thequestionnaires through statistical methods, interpretation and analysis of datagathered from questionnaires. The third box contains the formulation of instruction guide. Input Process Output1. RESPONDENTS’PROFILE ASSESSMENT 1.1 Age Data are obtained 1.2 Sex by providing a set 1.3 Body Mass of questionnaires Index to each 1.4 Educational Attainment respondent. 1.5 Occupation 1.6 Years of having type2 DM ANALYSIS Instructional2. LEVEL OF StatisticalAWARENESS Guide 2.1 Physiological treatment is symptoms provided to show 2.3 Psychological the exact accurate symptoms data Research Paradigm FIGURE 1
Statement of the Problem The research problem that the student/researcher is investigating mustrelate to his interest, background and expectance. It is expected to yield findingsthat will provide his useful information in the area of this investigation. In thechoice of research topics, originality and relevance to contemporary problemsand issue must be considered. The problem maybe about the relationship among variables which thestudy aims to established and find out the extent of such relationship.Example: The study aimed to assess the level of awareness in the clinicalmanifestation of diabetes mellitus type 2 in prevention of complication.Specifically, it sought to answer the following sub- problems:1. What is the profile of the correspondents in terms of their: 1.1 Age 1.2 Sex 1.3 Body Mass Index2. What is the level of awareness of the respondents in the clinical manifestation of Type 2 Diabetes in terms of: 2.1 Physiological Symptoms 2.2 Psychological Symptoms
3. Is there a significant difference on the level of awareness in terms of physiological and psychological symptoms?4. What instructional plan can be formulated to increase the level of awareness of the type 2 diabetes patients?Hypotheses The hypotheses states the relationship between variables and this relationshipmust be tested. It is tested statistically to solve the research problem. It indicates whatthe researcher must gather. The hypothesis is accepted or rejected depending on theresult of the statistical test.Example: There is a no significant difference between the level of awareness regardingclinical manifestation in term of physiological and psychological symptoms.Significance of the Study In this part of the research, the student/researcher cites the importance ofexpected outcomes of the investigation. Research result will come up with thesolution to a problem or encourage further research on the problem.
The student/researcher also explains that the research is not a duplicationof the previous studies. It may, however, be a replication or follow up of previousstudy, result of which needs further study or verification. Significance of the study also state that the probable effects on the resultsof the study on a theory or practice. The student also gives the importance of thestudy to his profession, to a particular discipline and to the community as well.Example The findings of the study may be of help to the following: Nursing Practice. Analysis, interpretation and implications of the datagathered will provide an actual and practical understanding of nursing practice byfocusing on the resulting strategies for better nursing care management fordiabetic clients. Respondents. The results of the research will enlighten them on how tomanage their own health conditions. It will further help them understand theirhealth problem and realize that there is hope in battling the disease throughappropriate knowledge and awareness of the different clinical manifestation oftype 2 diabetes. Moreover, they can live a happy, healthy long life and canprevent the occurrence of complications. Family Members. The agony of knowing a member of the family issuffering from an incurable and serious disease could cause for a panic.However, the results of the present research can be utilized in educating the
family members on how to help the respondents in their quest in controlling theirblood glucose levels. Researchers. The results can be used by other researchers as referencefor a further study about the effectiveness of diet and exercise managementusing a wider range and diversified groups of respondents.Scope and Delimitation of the Study To specify scope, the student/researcher spells out the coverage of the study interms of subject, concepts, specific aspect of a phenomenon, treatment, sampling andtime frame. The who, what, when, where and how of the study will be clarified. The student delimits the aspects of the subject being investigated consideringspecific constraints such as foreseen weaknesses in methodology and design,statistical analysis, representative of sampling and time. Delimitation sets the limit ofwhat the research will include and what will not include.Example: The study will try to identify the level of awareness of the respondents about theclinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes. It will include type 2 diabetes mellitus patientsat ____________________________________. They were chosen regardless of theirage, gender, civil status, educational attainment and employment status. . A totalnumber of 50 respondents will take as sample. The study is limited to the level ofawareness regarding clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes. It does not include thefinancial issues and other problems of the respondents.
Definition of Terms Terms used in the statement of the problem and title must be definedaccording to how they are used in the study. These terms must be definedcontextually or operationally. This means that the definition is based on how theterm is used within the context of the study. Terms may also be definedaccording to authorities on the subject of investigation. Dictionary definitionshould not be used. The following terms are defined according to its use in the presentresearch.Awareness, as used in the study, it means having knowledge or cognizanceabout the clinical manifestation of type 2 diabetes.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents the related literature and studies conducted by otherresearchers that have relevance to the present research study. The relatedliteratures and results of previous studies will strengthen the findings of thepresent research study. Moreover, the similarities and differences of the findingswill be utilized in the analysis of the results of the present research study. The related literature consists of readings from various authorities on thesubject of the research which provide the student/researcher important conceptsand principles that will go into the theoretical/conceptual framework and guidethe formulation of the questionnaire or survey tool. The related studies/research consists of previous researches that relate tothe current study as to purpose, subject investigated, methodology and moreimportantly the findings. Similarities and differences between previous researchand current research are pointed out. What the current research will contribute tothe field under investigation is discussed to justify its pursuit despite previousresearch on this. The review of related studies/research develops in theresearcher insights into aspects of the study that might be controversial. It helpsthe researcher avoid errors committed by previous investigations. Through thereview, useful ideas and related variables may be identified which will givedirection to the present research.
The student/ researcher should used only literature and studies writtenand published 5 years backward from the year of his research and study.ExampleRelated LiteratureLocal Literature (5) According to Susan Trinidad, (2001) RN, A Head Nurse Educator fromMakati Medical Center, health teaching is not new role for nurses. In nursinghistory, health teaching is focused about sanitation, housing and care for the sickin the hospital and community. Today education and training about preventivehealth and practices and health promotion are considered essential componentsof comprehensive health care. Our teaching nurse being a member of the health care team usuallyspends more time with patients or client than other team members. This contactprovides in her the opportunity to develop rapport and build a trust relationshipwith the patient and his/her family. Thus he/she is able to complete theassessment of an individual patient, learning needs, and provides continuitythroughout the teaching process. Hard work and dedication are pre-requisites for a nurse to become adiabetic nurse. Trinidad said; “Anything worthwhile is usually challenging andrequires hard work”. Leadership should be a positive force and one could lead bysetting achievement goals for every diabetic in your care.
Foreign Literature (5) According to the World Health Organization (2000) report, medicalnutrition therapy is important in preventing diabetes, managing existing diabetes,and preventing, or at least slowing, the rate of development of diabetescomplications. It is, therefore, important at all levels of diabetes prevention. MNTis also an integral component of diabetes self-management education (ortraining). Achieving nutrition-related goals requires a coordinated team effort thatincludes the person with diabetes and involves him or her in the decision-makingprocess. It is recommended that a registered dietitian, knowledgeable and skilledin Medical nutrition therapy, be the team member who plays the leading role inproviding nutrition care. However, it is important that all team members, includingphysicians and nurses, be knowledgeable about Medical nutrition therapy andsupport it’s implementation.Related StudiesLocal Studies (5) Dr. Rosa Allyn Sy (2002) from Cardinal Santos Medical Center, noted thedevelopment of different food pyramids worldwide has proven to be an importanteducational tool for health care professionals while counseling patients onhealthy eating habits. Just a year ago, The Philippine Association for the Study of
Overweight and Obesity (PASOO) supported by the president and other officerand members of the Board of Directors, conceptualized the Filipino PyramidActivity Guide. Similar to a food guide, it is intended to help diabetic educatorsillustrate more clearly which activities would be beneficial to their patients. Theactivity pyramid guide uses simple and easy action words or instructions likeHabitually, Often, Regularly and Minimal to indicate activities that would providethe most benefit in terms of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Included in theguide is the number of calories burned per minute per kilogram of body weight ofthe person performing the activity. The base of the pyramid includes activitiesthat are easy, convenient, and accessible to everyone. These activities, part ofour daily routines, when performed habitually or daily for minimum of 30 minutes,even 10 minutes at a time will provide metabolic efficiency by increasing totalenergy expenditure. So if one is diabetic obese, with poor sugar control and have neverengaged in any form of exercise before, activities like walking, climbing the stairs,or doing household chores may be a good start. It is important to note that forbeginners, the amount of cumulative activity time is more important than thespecific type and manner of activity. Aerobic exercise like jogging, brisk walking,swimming, aerobic dancing and recreational activities like ballroom dancing,badminton, tennis etc., burn more calories per millimeter per body weight and areadvised for those who want to lose more weight. To get the most benefit from theactivity, it has easy action words or instructions which can be done 3-5 times a
week for at least 30-45 minutes. These activities will improve cardiovascularendurance. The Filipino Pyramid Activity Guide is intended to be a guide thatshould help everyone select an activity that best fits his lifestyle and healthneeds. Just thirty minutes of the different activities over the course of a day ishealthy and rewarding.Foreign Studies (5) Dr. Diana Chau and Steven V. Edelman (2003) in the fall issue of ClinicalDiabetes noted “Goals of therapy for the elderly diabetic patients should includethe evaluation of their functional status, life expectancy, social and financialsupport, and their own desires for treatment. A full geriatrics assessmentperformed before establishing any long term therapy may aid in identifyingpotential problems that could significantly impair the success of a given therapy.Often, elderly patients have cognitive impairment, limitation in their activities ofdaily living, undiagnosed depression, and difficult social issues that need to beaddressed.” The population of the elderly is increasing and more attention shouldbe paid to social security systems may fail to ensure the appropriate care to themillions who will be affected by diabetes in 2025. Moreover by promotingdiabetes prevention, we will ensure that those millions who already havediabetes will not face the nightmare of a regression in the quality of care theydeserve while, on the country, there is a great need in many parts of the world toimprove it
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This part of the research/study presents the design of the study,particularly the research methods and techniques to be used, how the subjectsare chosen, how the sample size is determined, the instrument to be used andtheir validation and the data analysis scheme which includes the application ofstatistical tools for treatment of data yielded by the study.Research Design The research design identifies the procedures by which the studypopulation will be selected, how these subjects will be used to yield the requireddata, how the data will be collected and how these data will be analyzed.Example: The researcher used the descriptive method research in determining thelevel of awareness regarding the clinical manifestation of the respondents withtype 2 diabetes mellitus. Costales (2001) discussed the descriptive research design and pointed outthat specifically, the survey research was used to gather pertinent data. Themethodology’s time focus was the present condition as well as the future. It alsoinvolves description, recording, analysis and interpretation of the status and
condition that were obtained in a particular research situation. It usually involvescomparison and contrast, and may attempt to discover a cause and effectrelationship that exists between non-manipulative variables. This research uses both quantitative and qualitative methods of study. Inassessing the profile the respondents, quantitative method was used. And also,the data were collected through the patients’ health records in the health center.Respondents of the Study In this section, the student describes the population, why and how the subject arechosen and discusses the sampling technique employed. A statistician may be consultedto determine the appropriateness of the sample size for the study.Example: The study will be conducted at Rizal Medical Center Diabetic Center. It is atertiary hospital with more than 100 bed capacity. The Diabetic Center consists of35 Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients .The respondents will be type 2 diabetesmellitus patients of Rizal Medical Center Diabetic Center which is non-probabilitypurposive.Instrument Used In this part of research, the tools for data collection are described such astest and questionnaires to be constructed, validated and administered. If theinstrument is prepared by researcher, it should be tested for validity and
reliability. If the instrument is standardized, the student/researcher indicates itsreliability coefficient.Example: The instruments used in this study were one set of questionnaires for therespondents.The questionnaire for the respondents are consists of two parts:Part I. Dealt with the respondent’s personal and professional profile. This partelicited data on name, age, sex, body mass index, educational attainment,occupation and the years having type 2 diabetes.Part II. Dealt on the level of awareness regarding the clinical manifestation of type2 diabetes in terms of physiological and psychological symptoms. Before the questionnaires / checklist were distributed and administered, apre-test was conducted with 5 respondents who were not participants in thestudy. Their comments were included in the final form of the refined instrumentand submitted for final draft.Statistical Treatment of Data This part of the research identifies the kind of data yielded by the studyand presents the testing of hypothesis. The kind of statistical tool used isdetermined by the hypothesis presented in the study. It is advisable to consult a
statistician before administering the questionnaire since the manner ofquestioning and what question to ask will help determine the treatment of thehypotheses. The statistical treatment should be appropriate to the data yieldedby the study. This section also presents the statistical formula used and justifiedtheir used.Example:Specific Question Number 1 What is the profile of the correspondents in terms age, gender, civil status,educational attainment, employment status and frequency of monitoring bloodglucose? To determine the answer to problem number 1 which is concerned with theprofile of the respondents in terms of their age, gender, civil status, educationalattainment, employment status and frequency of monitoring blood glucose, thefrequency and percentage was used.The formula was: % = F/N X 100Where: F- is the frequency of responses N- is the total number of respondents 100- is the constant in order to get the percentage
Specific Question Number 2 What is the extent of compliance of the respondents to blood glucosemonitoring through finger sticks analysis in terms of their knowledge and skills?Specific Question Number 3 How do the respondents perceived the effects of home blood glucosemonitoring in terms of physiological and psychological effects? To determine the extent to which the home blood glucose monitoring hascomplied with the standard procedures and the perceived effect of home bloodglucose monitoring, the weighted means was determined by multiplying thefrequency the weight and by dividing the frequency using the following formula:WM = ∑ wf _____ nWhere: WM = weighted mean wf = the sum of the product of the frequency and unit weight n = total number of cases
A Likert five point scale with the following interpretation was provided toguide the respondents as follows: Unit Weight Weighted Mean Verbal Assigned Values Interval Interpretation 5 4.20 – 5.00 Fullest Extent (FstE) 4 3.4 – 4.19 Full Extent (FE) 3 2.6 – 3.39 Moderate Extent (ME) 2 1.80 – 2.59 Partial Extent (PE) 1 1.0 – 1.79 No Influence (NI)