IMCI 2008 Edition by WHO
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

IMCI 2008 Edition by WHO

on

  • 4,735 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,735
Views on SlideShare
1,805
Embed Views
2,930

Actions

Likes
3
Downloads
149
Comments
0

25 Embeds 2,930

http://www.allfornursing.com 1420
http://allfornursing.blogspot.com 1396
http://allfornursing.blogspot.in 40
http://allfornursing.blogspot.com.au 11
https://www.facebook.com 10
http://allfornursing.blogspot.ca 9
http://allfornursing.blogspot.ae 8
http://allfornursing.blogspot.co.uk 6
http://allfornursing.blogspot.hk 5
http://allfornursing.blogspot.sg 3
http://www.allfornursing.blogspot.com 3
http://allfornursing.blogspot.ie 2
http://www.google.com.ph 2
http://allfornursing.blogspot.kr 2
http://allfornursing.blogspot.tw 2
http://allfornursing.blogspot.co.il 2
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 1
https://m.facebook.com&_=1405081633361 HTTP 1
https://m.facebook.com&_=1404956234473 HTTP 1
https://m.facebook.com&_=1404936991476 HTTP 1
https://m.facebook.com&_=1404918506586 HTTP 1
http://allfornursing.blogspot.gr 1
https://m.facebook.com&_=1404918470653 HTTP 1
http://allfornursing.blogspot.ru 1
http://webcache.googleusercontent.com 1
More...

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

IMCI 2008 Edition by WHO Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ,17(*5$7( 0$1$*(0(17 2) HSDUWPHQW RI &KLOG DQG $GROHVFHQW +HDOWK DQG HYHORSPHQW &$+ &+,/+22 ,//1(66 6,&. <281* ,1)$17 $*( 83 72 0217+6&+,/ $*( 0217+6 83 72 <($56 75($7 7+( &+,/ FRQWLQXHG $66(66 &/$66,)< $1 75($7 7+( 6,&. <281* ,1)$17 *LYH ([WUD )OXLG IRU LDUUKRHD$66(66 $1 &/$66,)< 7+( 6,&. &+,/ DQG &RQWLQXH )HHGLQJ $VVHVV &ODVVLI DQG ,GHQWLI 7UHDWPHQW$VVHVV &ODVVLI DQG ,GHQWLI 7UHDWPHQW 3ODQ $ 7UHDW IRU LDUUKRHD DW +RPH &KHFN IRU 6HYHUH LVHDVH DQG /RFDO ,QIHFWLRQ«« « 3ODQ % 7UHDW IRU 6RPH HKGUDWLRQ ZLWK 256 7KHQ FKHFN IRU -DXQGLFH «« «&KHFN IRU *HQHUDO DQJHU 6LJQV 3ODQ & 7UHDW IRU 6HYHUH HKGUDWLRQ 4XLFNO 7KHQ DVN RHV WKH RXQJ LQIDQW KDYH GLDUUKRHD" «7KHQ $VN $ERXW 0DLQ 6PSWRPV 7KHQ FKHFN IRU )HHGLQJ 3UREOHP RU /RZ :HLJKW IRU $JH««««««« «« RHV WKH FKLOG KDYH FRXJK RU GLIILFXOW EUHDWKLQJ" *LYH )ROORZ XS &DUH 7KHQ FKHFN WKH RXQJ LQIDQW¶V LPPXQL]DWLRQ VWDWXV«« « RHV WKH FKLOG KDYH GLDUUKRHD" 3QHXPRQLD $VVHVV 2WKHU 3UREOHPV « RHV WKH FKLOG KDYH IHYHU" RHV WKH FKLOG KDYH DQ HDU SUREOHP" VHQWHU 7UHDW WKH <RXQJ ,QIDQW DQG &RXQVHO WKH 0RWKHU7KHQ &KHFN IRU 0DOQXWULWLRQ DQG $QDHPLD 3HUVLVWHQW GLDUUKRHD 0DODULD ,QWUDPXVFXODU DQWLELRWLFV«««««««««««««««««««««««7KHQ &KHFN WKH &KLOG¶V ,PPXQL]DWLRQ 6WDWXV )HYHU± PDODULD XQOLNHO 7UHDW WKH RXQJ LQIDQW WR SUHYHQW ORZ EORRG VXJDU««««««««««««$VVHVV 2WKHU 3UREOHPV 0HDVOHV ZLWK HH RU PRXWK FRPSOLFDWLRQV «««« .HHS WKH RXQJ LQIDQW ZDUP RQ WKH ZD WR KRVSLWDO««««««««««« (DU ,QIHFWLRQ 2UDO DQWLELRWLF««««««««««««««««««««««««««««75($7 7+( &+,/ )HHGLQJ SUREOHP 7UHDW ORFDO LQIHFWLRQV DW KRPH«««««««««««««««««««««7HDFK WKH PRWKHU WR JLYH RUDO GUXJV DW KRPH $QDHPLD &RUUHFW SRVLWLRQLQJ DQG DWWDFKPHQW IRU EUHDVWIHHGLQJ««««««««««« 2UDO $QWLELRWLF 3DOORU «««««««««««««««««««« 7HDFK PRWKHU KRZ WR H[SUHVV EUHDVW PLON ««««««« «««««««« &LSURIOR[DFLQ 9HU /RZ :HLJKW 7HDFK PRWKHU KRZ WR IHHG E FXS««««««««««« ««««««« ,URQ 6HYHUH XQFRPSOLFDWHG PDOQXWULWLRQ ««««««« 7HDFK WKH PRWKHU WR NHHS WKH ORZ ZHLJKW LQIDQW ZDUP DW KRPH««««««« &R DUWHPHWKHU $GYLFH PRWKHU WR JLYH KRPH FDUH WR WKH RXQJ LQIDQW««« ««««« «« %URQFKRGLODWRU &2816(/ 7+( 027+(57HDFK WKH 0RWKHU WR 7UHDW /RFDO ,QIHFWLRQV DW +RPH $VVHVV WKH IHHGLQJ RI VLFN LQIDQWV *LYH )ROORZ XS &DUH IRU WKH 6LFN <RXQJ ,QIDQW )HHGLQJ 5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV &OHDU WKH HDU E GU ZLFNLQJ DQG JLYH HDUGURSV /RFDO %DFWHULDO ,QIHFWLRQ &RXQVHO WKH PRWKHU DERXW IHHGLQJ 3UREOHPV 7UHDW IRU PRXWK XOFHUV DQG WKUXVK -DXQGLFH &RXQVHO WKH PRWKHU DERXW KHU RZQ KHDOWK 6RRWKH WKURDW UHOLHYH FRXJK ZLWK VDIH UHPHG LDUUKRHD « $GYLVH PRWKHU WR LQFUHDVH IOXLGV GXULQJ LOOQHVV 7UHDW HH LQIHFWLRQ ««««««««««««« )HHGLQJ 3UREOHP $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ WR KHDOWK ZRUNHU «« /RZ :HLJKW IRU DJH $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO*LYH 3UHYHQWLYH 7UHDWPHQWV LQ &OLQLF 7KUXVK « 9LWDPLQ $ ««««««««««««««««« 0HEHQGD]ROH ««««« «««««««««« 5HFRUGLQJ )RUPV 6LFN &KLOG*LYH (PHUJHQF 7UHDWPHQW LQ &OLQLF RQO 6LFN RXQJ LQIDQW 4XLQLQH IRU VHYHUH PDODULD ,QWUDPXVFXODU $QWLELRWLF LD]HSDP IRU FRQYXOVLRQV «««««« «« 7UHDW ORZ EORRG VXJDU
  • 2. $66(66 $1 &/$66,)< 7+( 6,&. &+,/ $*( 0217+6 83 72 <($56 $66(66 &/$66,)< ,(17,)< 75($70(17 $6. 7+( 027+(5 :+$7 7+( &+,/¶6 352%/(06 $5( x HWHUPLQH ZKHWKHU WKLV LV DQ LQLWLDO RU IROORZ XS YLVLW IRU WKLV SUREOHP LI IROORZ XS YLVLW XVH WKH IROORZ XS LQVWUXFWLRQV RQ 75($7 7+( &+,/ FKDUW LI LQLWLDO YLVLW DVVHVV WKH FKLOG DV IROORZV &+(&. )25 *(1(5$/ $1*(5 6,*16 $6. /22. x ,V WKH FKLOG DEOH WR GULQN RU EUHDVWIHHG" x 6HH LI WKH FKLOG LV OHWKDUJLF RU XQFRQVFLRXV x RHV WKH FKLOG YRPLW HYHUWKLQJ" x ,V WKH FKLOG FRQYXOVLQJ QRZ" 86( $// %2;(6 7+$7 0$7&+ 7+( x +DV WKH FKLOG KDG FRQYXOVLRQV" &+,/¶6 6<037206 $1 352%/(06 72 &/$66,)< 7+( ,//1(66 $ FKLOG ZLWK DQ JHQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQ QHHGV 85*(17 DWWHQWLRQ FRPSOHWH WKH DVVHVVPHQW DQG DQ SUH UHIHUUDO WUHDWPHQW LPPHGLDWHO VR WKDW UHIHUUDO LV QRW GHODHG7+(1 $6. $%287 0$,1 6<037206 6,*16 &/$66,)< $6 75($70(17RHV WKH FKLOG KDYH FRXJK RU GLIILFXOW EUHDWKLQJ" 8UJHQW SUH UHIHUUDO WUHDWPHQWV DUH LQ EROG SULQW ,) <(6 /22. /,67(1 )((/ x $Q JHQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQ RU ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI DQ DSSURSULDWH DQWLELRWLF 6(9(5( $6. &ODVVLI ¾ 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO x &KHVW LQGUDZLQJ RU 31(8021,$ &28*+ RU ` 25 9(5< x )RU KRZ x &RXQW WKH EUHDWKV ,)),&8/7 x 6WULGRU LQ D FDOP FKLOG 6(9(5( ,6($6( ORQJ" LQ RQH PLQXWH &+,/ %5($7+,1* x /RRN IRU FKHVW LQGUDZLQJ 0867 ¾ *LYH RUDO DQWLELRWLF IRU GDV %( &$/0 x )DVW EUHDWKLQJ x /RRN DQG OLVWHQ IRU VWULGRU ¾ ,I ZKHH]LQJ HYHQ LI LW GLVDSSHDUHG DIWHU UDSLGO DFWLQJ 31(8021,$ EURQFKRGLODWRU JLYH DQ LQKDOHG EURQFKRGLODWRU IRU GDV x /RRN DQG OLVWHQ IRU ZKHH]LQJ ¾ 6RRWKH WKH WKURDW DQG UHOLHYH WKH FRXJK ZLWK D VDIH UHPHG ,I ZKHH]LQJ DQG HLWKHU IDVW EUHDWKLQJ RU FKHVW LQGUDZ ¾ ,I FRXJKLQJ IRU PRUH WKDQ ZHHNV RU LI KDYLQJ UHFXUUHQW LQJ *LYH D WULDO RI UDSLG DFWLQJ ZKHH]LQJ UHIHU IRU DVVHVVPHQW IRU 7% RU DVWKPD LQKDOHG EURQFKRGLODWRU IRU XS WR ¾ $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO WKUHH WLPHV PLQXWHV ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV DSDUW &RXQW WKH EUHDWKV DQG ORRN IRU FKHVW LQGUDZLQJ DJDLQ x 1R VLJQV RI SQHXPRQLD ¾ ,I ZKHH]LQJ HYHQ LI LW GLVDSSHDUHG DIWHU UDSLGO DFWLQJ DQG WKHQ FODVVLI RU YHU VHYHUH GLVHDVH &28*+ 25 &2/ EURQFKRGLODWRU JLYH DQ LQKDOHG EURQFKRGLODWRU IRU GDV ¾ 6RRWKH WKH WKURDW DQG UHOLHYH WKH FRXJK ZLWK D VDIH UHPHG ,I WKH FKLOG LV )DVW EUHDWKLQJ LV ¾ ,I FRXJKLQJ IRU PRUH WKDQ ZHHNV RU LI KDYLQJ UHFXUUHQW PRQWKV XS EUHDWKV SHU ZKHH]LQJ UHIHU IRU DVVHVVPHQW IRU 7% RU DVWKPD WR PRQWKV PLQXWH RU PRUH ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO PRQWKV XS EUHDWKV SHU ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV LI QRW LPSURYLQJ WR HDUV PLQXWH RU PRUH ,I UHIHUUDO LV QRW SRVVLEOH PDQDJH WKH FKLOG DV GHVFULEHG LQ ,QWHJUDWHG 0DQDJHPHQW RI &KLOGKRRG ,OOQHVV ,Q VHWWLQJV ZKHUH LQKDOHG EURQFKRGLODWRU LV QRW DYDLODEOH RUDO VDOEXWDPRO PD EH WKH VHFRQG FKRLFH7UHDW WKH &KLOG $QQH[ :KHUH 5HIHUUDO ,V 1RW 3RVVLEOH DQG :+2 JXLGHOLQHV IRU LQSDWLHQW FDUH
  • 3. 7ZR RI WKH IROORZLQJ VLJQV ¾ ,I FKLOG KDV QR RWKHU VHYHUH FODVVLILFDWLRQ RHV WKH FKLOG KDYH GLDUUKRHD" *LYH IOXLG IRU VHYHUH GHKGUDWLRQ 3ODQ & 25 x /HWKDUJLF RU XQFRQVFLRXV x 6XQNHQ HHV ,I FKLOG DOVR KDV DQRWKHU VHYHUH FODVVLILFDWLRQ x 1RW DEOH WR GULQN RU GULQNLQJ SRRUO 6(9(5( 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO ZLWK PRWKHU IRU (+<5$7,21 JLYLQJ IUHTXHQW VLSV RI 256 RQ WKH ZD x 6NLQ SLQFK JRHV EDFN YHU VORZO (+<5$7,21 $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR FRQWLQXH EUHDVWIHHGLQJ ¾ ,I FKLOG LV HDUV RU ROGHU DQG WKHUH LV FKROHUD LQ RXU DUHD,) <(6 /22. $1 )((/ JLYH DQWLELRWLF IRU FKROHUD$6. x /RRN DW WKH FKLOG¶V JHQHUDO FRQGLWLRQ 7ZR RI WKH IROORZLQJ VLJQV ¾ *LYH IOXLG ]LQF VXSSOHPHQWV DQG IRRG IRU VRPH GHKGUDWLRQ ,V WKH FKLOG 3ODQ %x )RU KRZ ORQJ" /HWKDUJLF RU XQFRQVFLRXV" x 5HVWOHVV LUULWDEOH x 6XQNHQ HHV 620( ¾ ,I FKLOG DOVR KDV D VHYHUH FODVVLILFDWLRQx ,V WKHUH EORRG 5HVWOHVV DQG LUULWDEOH" x ULQNV HDJHUO WKLUVW (+<5$7,21 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO ZLWK PRWKHU LQ WKH VWRRO" x 6NLQ SLQFK JRHV EDFN VORZO JLYLQJ IUHTXHQW VLSV RI 256 RQ WKH ZD x /RRN IRU VXQNHQ HHV $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR FRQWLQXH EUHDVWIHHGLQJ x 2IIHU WKH FKLOG IOXLG ,V WKH FKLOG &ODVVLI ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO 1RW DEOH WR GULQN RU ,$55+2($ ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV LI QRW LPSURYLQJ GULQNLQJ SRRUO" ULQNLQJ HDJHUO WKLUVW" 1RW HQRXJK VLJQV WR FODVVLI DV VRPH 12 ¾ *LYH IOXLG ]LQF VXSSOHPHQWV DQG IRRG WR WUHDW GLDUUKRHD DW KRPH x 3LQFK WKH VNLQ RI WKH DEGRPHQ RU VHYHUH GHKGUDWLRQ (+<5$7,21 3ODQ $ RHV LW JR EDFN ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO 9HU VORZO ORQJHU WKDQ ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV LI QRW LPSURYLQJ VHFRQGV " 6ORZO" DQG LI GLDUUKRHD IRU x HKGUDWLRQ SUHVHQW 6(9(5( ¾7UHDW GHKGUDWLRQ EHIRUH UHIHUUDO XQOHVV WKH FKLOG KDV DQRWKHU GDV RU PRUH 3(56,67(17 VHYHUH FODVVLILFDWLRQ ,$55+2($ ¾ 5HIHU WR KRVSLWDO x 1R GHKGUDWLRQ 3(56,67(17 ¾$GYLVH WKH PRWKHU RQ IHHGLQJ D FKLOG ZKR KDV 3(56,67(17 ,$55+2($ ,$55+2($ ¾*LYH PXOWLYLWDPLQV DQG PLQHUDOV LQFOXGLQJ ]LQF IRU GDV ¾)ROORZ XS LQ GDV DQG LI EORRG x %ORRG LQ WKH VWRRO ¾ *LYH FLSURIOR[DFLQ IRU GDV <6(17(5< ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV LQ VWRRO
  • 4. RHV WKH FKLOG KDYH IHYHU" +,*+ 0$/$5,$ 5,6. E KLVWRU RU IHHOV KRW RU WHPSHUDWXUH ƒ& RU DERYH x $Q JHQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQ RU ¾ *LYH TXLQLQH IRU VHYHUH PDODULD ILUVW GRVH x 6WLII QHFN 9(5< 6(9(5( ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI DQ DSSURSULDWH DQWLELRWLF +LJK )(%5,/( ¾ 7UHDW WKH FKLOG WR SUHYHQW ORZ EORRG VXJDU,) <(6 0DODULD 5LVN ,6($6( ¾ *LYH RQH GRVH RI SDUDFHWDPRO LQ FOLQLF IRU KLJK IHYHUHFLGH 0DODULD 5LVN KLJK RU ORZ ƒ& RU DERYH ¾ 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO7+(1 $6. /22. $1 )((/ ¾ *LYH RUDO FR DUWHPHWKHU RU RWKHU UHFRPPHQGHG DQWLPDODULDO x )HYHU E KLVWRU RU IHHOV KRW RU WHPSHUDWXUH ƒ& RU DERYH ¾ *LYH RQH GRVH RI SDUDFHWDPRO LQ FOLQLF IRU KLJK IHYHUx )RU KRZ ORQJ" x /RRN RU IHHO IRU VWLII QHFN ƒ& RU DERYH x /RRN IRU UXQQ QRVH 0$/$5,$ ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHOx ,I PRUH WKDQ GDV KDV IHYHU EHHQ SUHVHQW HYHU GD" ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV LI IHYHU SHUVLVWV ¾ ,I IHYHU LV SUHVHQW HYHU GD IRU PRUH WKDQ GDV UHIHU IRU &ODVVLI DVVHVVPHQWx +DV WKH FKLOG KDG PHDVOHV /RRN IRU VLJQV RI 0($6/(6 ZLWKLQ WKH ODVW PRQWKV" )(9(5 x *HQHUDOL]HG UDVK DQG x 2QH RI WKHVH FRXJK UXQQ QRVH /2: 0$/$5,$ 5,6. RU UHG HHV x $Q JHQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQ RU ¾ *LYH TXLQLQH IRU VHYHUH PDODULD ILUVW GRVH XQOHVV QR PDODULD ULVN x 6WLII QHFN 9(5< 6(9(5( ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI DQ DSSURSULDWH DQWLELRWLF /RZ )(%5,/( ¾ 7UHDW WKH FKLOG WR SUHYHQW ORZ EORRG VXJDU 0DODULD 5LVN ,6($6( ¾ *LYH RQH GRVH RI SDUDFHWDPRO LQ FOLQLF IRU KLJK IHYHU x /RRN IRU PRXWK XOFHUV ƒ& RU DERYH,I WKH FKLOG KDV PHDVOHV QRZ $UH WKH GHHS DQG H[WHQVLYH" ¾ 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDORU ZLWKLQ WKH ODVW PRQWKV x /RRN IRU SXV GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH x 12 UXQQ QRVH DQG ¾ *LYH RUDO FR DUWHPHWKHU RU RWKHU UHFRPPHQGHG DQWLPDODULDO HH 12 PHDVOHV DQG ¾ *LYH RQH GRVH RI SDUDFHWDPRO LQ FOLQLF IRU KLJK IHYHU x /RRN IRU FORXGLQJ RI WKH FRUQHD 12 RWKHU FDXVH RI IHYHU ƒ& RU DERYH 0$/$5,$ ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV LI IHYHU SHUVLVWV ¾ ,I IHYHU LV SUHVHQW HYHU GD IRU PRUH WKDQ GDV UHIHU IRU DVVHVVPHQW x 5XQQ QRVH 35(6(17 RU ¾ *LYH RQH GRVH RI SDUDFHWDPRO LQ FOLQLF IRU KLJK IHYHU x 0HDVOHV 35(6(17 RU )(9(5 ƒ& RU DERYH x 2WKHU FDXVH RI IHYHU 0$/$5,$ ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO 35(6(17 81/,.(/< ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV LI IHYHU SHUVLVWV ¾ ,I IHYHU LV SUHVHQW HYHU GD IRU PRUH WKDQ GDV UHIHU IRU DVVHVVPHQW LI 0($6/(6 x $Q JHQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQ RU ¾ *LYH 9LWDPLQ $ WUHDWPHQW QRZ RU ZLWKLQ x &ORXGLQJ RI FRUQHD RU 6(9(5( ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI DQ DSSURSULDWH DQWLELRWLF ODVW PRQWKV x HHS RU H[WHQVLYH PRXWK &203/,&$7( ¾ ,I FORXGLQJ RI WKH FRUQHD RU SXV GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HH DSSO &ODVVLI XOFHUV 0($6/(6 WHWUDFFOLQH HH RLQWPHQW ¾ 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO x 3XV GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HH RU 0($6/(6 :,7+ ¾ *LYH 9LWDPLQ $ WUHDWPHQW 7KHVH WHPSHUDWXUHV DUH EDVHG RQ D[LOODU WHPSHUDWXUH 5HFWDO WHPSHUDWXUH UHDGLQJV DUH x 0RXWK XOFHUV (<( 25 0287+ ¾ ,I SXV GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HH WUHDW HH LQIHFWLRQ ZLWK &203/,&$7,216 WHWUDFFOLQH HH RLQWPHQW DSSUR[LPDWHO ƒ& KLJKHU 2WKHU LPSRUWDQW FRPSOLFDWLRQV RI PHDVOHV SQHXPRQLD VWULGRU GLDUUKRHD HDU LQIHFWLRQ DQG ¾ ,I PRXWK XOFHUV WUHDW ZLWK JHQWLDQ YLROHW PDOQXWULWLRQ DUH FODVVLILHG LQ RWKHU WDEOHV ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV x 0HDVOHV QRZ RU ZLWKLQ WKH 0($6/(6 ¾ *LYH 9LWDPLQ $ WUHDWPHQW ODVW PRQWKV
  • 5. RHV WKH FKLOG KDYH DQ HDU SUREOHP" x 7HQGHU VZHOOLQJ EHKLQG WKH HDU ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI DQ DSSURSULDWH DQWLELRWLF,) <(6 $6. /22. $1 )((/ &ODVVLI 0$672,,7,6 ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI SDUDFHWDPRO IRU SDLQ ($5 352%/(0 ¾ 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDOx ,V WKHUH HDU SDLQ" x /RRN IRU SXV GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HDUx ,V WKHUH HDU GLVFKDUJH" x )HHO IRU WHQGHU VZHOOLQJ EHKLQG WKH HDU x 3XV LV VHHQ GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HDU ¾ *LYH DQ DQWLELRWLF IRU GDV ,I HV IRU KRZ ORQJ" DQG GLVFKDUJH LV UHSRUWHG IRU OHVV $&87( ($5 ¾ *LYH SDUDFHWDPRO IRU SDLQ WKDQ GDV RU ,1)(&7,21 ¾ U WKH HDU E ZLFNLQJ x (DU SDLQ ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV x 3XV LV VHHQ GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HDU ¾ U WKH HDU E ZLFNLQJ DQG GLVFKDUJH LV UHSRUWHG IRU &+521,& ($5 ¾ 7UHDW ZLWK WRSLFDO TXLQRORQH HDUGURSV IRU ZHHNV GDV RU PRUH ,1)(&7,21 ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV x 1R HDU SDLQ DQG ¾ 1R WUHDWPHQW 1R SXV VHHQ GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HDU 12 ($5 ,1)(&7,21
  • 6. 7+(1 &+(&. )25 0$/1875,7,21 $1 $1$(0,$&+(&. )25 0$/1875,7,21 x 9LVLEOH VHYHUH ZDVWLQJ RU ¾7UHDW WKH FKLOG WR SUHYHQW ORZ VXJDU /22. $1 )((/ &/$66,)< 6(9(5( ¾5HIHU 85*(17/< WR D KRVSLWDO x 2HGHPD RI ERWK IHHW x /RRN IRU YLVLEOH VHYHUH ZDVWLQJ 1875,7,21$/ 0$/1875,7,21 x /RRN IRU RHGHPD RI ERWK IHHW 67$786 x HWHUPLQH ZHLJKW IRU DJH x 9HU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH ¾ $VVHVV WKH FKLOG¶V IHHGLQJ DQG FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU RQ IHHG 9(5< /2: LQJ DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH IHHGLQJ UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV :(,*+7 ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV x 1RW YHU ORZ ZLJKW IRU DJH DQG ¾,I FKLOG LV OHVV WKDQ HDUV ROG DVVHVV WKH FKLOG¶V IHHGLQJ QR RWKHU VLJQV RI PDOQXWULWLRQ 127 9(5< DQG FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU RQ IHHGLQJ DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH IHHGLQJ /2: :(,*+7 UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV ,I IHHGLQJ SUREOHP IROORZ XS LQ GDV ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO&+(&. )25 $1$(0,$ x 6HYHUH SDOPDU SDOORU 6(9(5( $1$(0,$ ¾ 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO /22. DQG )((/ &/$66,)< x /RRN IRU SDOPDU SDOORU ,V LW $1$(0,$ ¾ *LYH LURQ 6HYHUH SDOPDU SDOORU" x 6RPH SDOPDU SDOORU $1$(0,$ ¾ *LYH RUDO DQWLPDODULDO LI KLJK PDODULD ULVN 6RPH SDOPDU SDOORU" ¾ *LYH PHEHQGD]ROH LI FKLOG LV HDU RU ROGHU DQG KDV QRW KDG D GRVH LQ WKH SUHYLRXV VL[ PRQWKV ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV ,I FKLOG LV OHVV WKDQ HDUV ROG DVVHVV WKH FKLOG¶V IHHGLQJ DQG x 1R SDOPDU SDOORU 12 $1$(0,$ FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU RQ IHHGLQJ DFFRUGLQJ WR WKH IHHGLQJ UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV ,I IHHGLQJ SUREOHP IROORZ XS LQ GDV
  • 7. 7+(1 &+(&. 7+( &+,/¶6 ,0081,=$7,21 9,7$0,1 $ $1 (:250,1* 67$786,0081,=$7,21 6&+(8/( )ROORZ QDWLRQDO JXLGHOLQHV 9,7$0,1 $ 6833/(0(17$7,21 *LYH HYHU FKLOG D GRVH RI 9LWDPLQ $ HYHU VL[ $*( 9$&&,1( PRQWKV IURP WKH DJH RI PRQWKV 5HFRUG WKH GRVH RQ WKH FKLOG¶V FDUG %LUWK %&* 239 ZHHNV 37 +,% 239 +HSDWLWLV % 5287,1( :250 75($70(17 ZHHNV 37 +,% 239 +HSDWLWLV % *LYH HYHU FKLOG PHEHQGD]ROH HYHU PRQWKV IURP WKH DJH RI RQH HDU 5HFRUG WKH GRVH RQ WKH FKLOG¶V ZHHNV 37 +,% 239 +HSDWLWLV % FDUG PRQWKV 0HDVOHV 6HFRQG GRVH RI PHDVOHV YDFFLQH PD EH JLYHQ DW DQ RSSRUWXQLVWLF PRPHQW GXULQJ SHULRGLF VXSSOHPHQWDU LPPXQLVDWLRQ DFWLYLWLHV DV HDUO DV RQH PRQWK IROORZLQJ WKH ILUVW GRVH$66(66 27+(5 352%/(06 0$.( 685( &+,/ :,7+ $1< *(1(5$/ $1*(5 6,*1 ,6 5()(55( DIWHU ILUVW GRVH RI DQ DSSURSULDWH DQWLELRWLF DQG RWKHU XUJHQW WUHDWPHQWV
  • 8. 75($7 7+( &+,/ &$55< 287 7+( 75($70(17 67(36 ,(17,),( 21 7+( $66(66 $1 &/$66,)< &+$57 7($&+ 7+( 027+(5 72 *,9( 25$/ 58*6 $7 ¾ *LYH DQ $SSURSULDWH 2UDO $QWLELRWLF +20( ¾ )25 31(8021,$ $&87( ($5 ,1)(&7,21 ),567 /,1( $17,%,27,& BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB )ROORZ WKH LQVWUXFWLRQV EHORZ IRU HYHU RUDO GUXJ WR EH JLYHQ DW KRPH 6(&21 /,1( $17,%,27,& BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB $OVR IROORZ WKH LQVWUXFWLRQV OLVWHG ZLWK HDFK GUXJ¶V GRVDJH WDEOH ¾ HWHUPLQH WKH DSSURSULDWH GUXJV DQG GRVDJH IRU WKH FKLOG¶V DJH RU &2 75,02;$=2/( $02;<&,//,1 WULPHWKRSULP VXOSKDPHWKR[D]ROH ¾ *LYH WZR WLPHV GDLO IRU ZHLJKW ¾*LYH WZR WLPHV GDLO IRU GDV IRU GDV IRU SQHXPRQLD SQHXPRQLD ¾ *LYH WZR WLPHV GDLO IRU ¾ 7HOO WKH PRWKHU WKH UHDVRQ IRU JLYLQJ WKH GUXJ WR WKH FKLOG ¾ *LYH WZR WLPHV GDLO IRU GDV IRU DFXWH HDU GDV IRU DFXWH HDU LQIHFWLRQ LQIHFWLRQ ¾ HPRQVWUDWH KRZ WR PHDVXUH D GRVH $8/7 3$(,$75,& 6<583 7$%/(7 6<583 $*( RU 7$%/(7 7$%/(7 PJ PO PJ PJ PO ¾ :DWFK WKH PRWKHU SUDFWLVH PHDVXULQJ D GRVH E KHUVHOI :(,*+7 PJ PJ ¾ $VN WKH PRWKHU WR JLYH WKH ILUVW GRVH WR KHU FKLOG PRQWKV XS WR PO PO ¾ ([SODLQ FDUHIXOO KRZ WR JLYH WKH GUXJ WKHQ ODEHO DQG SDFNDJH WKH GUXJ PRQWKV ,I PRUH WKDQ RQH GUXJ ZLOO EH JLYHQ FROOHFW FRXQW DQG SDFNDJH HDFK GUXJ  NJ VHSDUDWHO PRQWKV XS WR PO PO ¾ ([SODLQ WKDW DOO WKH WDEOHWV RU VUXS PXVW EH XVHG WR ILQLVK WKH FRXUVH RI HDUV NJ WUHDWPHQW HYHQ LI WKH FKLOG JHWV EHWWHU ¾ &KHFN WKH PRWKHU¶V XQGHUVWDQGLQJ EHIRUH VKH OHDYHV WKH FOLQLF $PR[FLOOLQ VKRXOG EH XVHG LI WKHUH LV KLJK FR WULPR[D]ROH UHVLVWDQFH¾ )RU GVHQWHU JLYH &LSURIOR[DFLQ ¾ )25 &+2/(5$ PJ NJ GD² WLPHV D GD IRU GDV ),567 /,1( $17,%,27,& )25 &+2/(5$ BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 6(&21 /,1( $17,%,27,& )25 &+2/(5$ BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 6(&21 /,1( $17,%,27,& )25 <6(17(5< BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 7(75$&<&/,1( (5<7+520<&,1 ¾ *LYH WLPHV GDLO IRU GDV ¾ *LYH WLPHV GDLO IRU GDV PJ 7$%/(7 PJ 7$%/(7 $*( RU :(,*+7 7$%/(7 7$%/(7 PJ PJ $*( 26( WDEV 26( WDEV HDUV XS WR HDUV /HVV WKDQ PRQWKV WDEOHW WDEOHW NJ PRQWKV XS WR HDUV WDEOHW WDEOHW
  • 9. 7($&+ 7+( 027+(5 72 *,9( 25$/ 58*6 $7 +20(¾ *,9( ,1+$/( 6$/%87$02/ IRU :+((=,1* ¾ *LYH ,URQ 86( 2) $ 63$&(5 ¾ *LYH RQH GRVH GDLO IRU GDV $ VSDFHU LV D ZD RI GHOLYHULQJ WKH EURQFKRGLODWRU GUXJV HIIHFWLYHO LQWR WKH OXQJV 1R FKLOG XQGHU HDUV VKRXOG EH JLYHQ DQ LQKDOHU ZLWKRXW D VSDFHU $ VSDFHU ZRUNV DV ,521 )2/$7( 7$%/(7 ,521 6<583 ZHOO DV D QHEXOLVHU LI FRUUHFWO XVHG $*( RU :(,*+7 )HUURXV VXOIDWH PJ )HUURXV IXPDUDWH ¾ )URP VDOEXWDPRO PHWHUHG GRVH LQKDOHU PJ SXII JLYH SXIIV PJ )RODWH PJ SHU PO ¾ 5HSHDW XS WR WLPHV HYHU PLQXWHV EHIRUH FODVVLILQJ SQHXPRQLD PJ HOHPHQWDO LURQ PJ HOHPHQWDO LURQ SHU PO 6SDFHUV FDQ EH PDGH LQ WKH IROORZLQJ ZD ¾ 8VH D PO GULQN ERWWOH RU VLPLODU ¾ &XW D KROH LQ WKH ERWWOH EDVH LQ WKH VDPH VKDSH DV WKH PRXWKSLHFH RI WKH LQKDOHU PRQWKV XS WR PRQWKV  NJ PO  WVS 7KLV FDQ EH GRQH XVLQJ D VKDUS NQLIH ¾ &XW WKH ERWWOH EHWZHHQ WKH XSSHU TXDUWHU DQG WKH ORZHU DQG GLVUHJDUG WKH XS PRQWKV XS WR PRQWKV  NJ PO WVS SHU TXDUWHU RI WKH ERWWOH ¾ &XW D VPDOO 9 LQ WKH ERUGHU RI WKH ODUJH RSHQ SDUW RI WKH ERWWOH WR ILW WR WKH FKLOG¶V PRQWKV XS WR HDUV  NJ WDEOHW PO  WVS QRVH DQG EH XVHG DV D PDVN ¾ )ODPH WKH HGJH RI WKH FXW ERWWOH ZLWK D FDQGOH RU D OLJKWHU WR VRIWHQ LW HDUV XS WR HDUV NJ WDEOHW PO WVS ¾ ,Q D VPDOO EDE D PDVN FDQ EH PDGH E PDNLQJ D VLPLODU KROH LQ D SODVWLF QRW SROVWUHQH FXS ¾ $OWHUQDWLYHO FRPPHUFLDO VSDFHUV FDQ EH XVHG LI DYDLODEOH 7R XVH DQ LQKDOHU ZLWK D VSDFHU ¾ 5HPRYH WKH LQKDOHU FDS 6KDNH WKH LQKDOHU ZHOO ¾ ,QVHUW PRXWKSLHFH RI WKH LQKDOHU WKURXJK WKH KROH LQ WKH ERWWOH RU SODVWLF FXS ¾ *LYH 2UDO &R DUWHPHWKHU ¾ 7KH FKLOG VKRXOG SXW WKH RSHQLQJ RI WKH ERWWOH LQWR KLV PRXWK DQG EUHDWK LQ DQG RXW WKURXJK WKH PRXWK ¾ *LYH WKH ILUVW GRVH RI FR DUWHPHWKHU LQ WKH FOLQLF DQG REVHUYH IRU RQH KRXU ,I FKLOG YRPLWV ¾ $ FDUHU WKHQ SUHVVHV GRZQ WKH LQKDOHU DQG VSUDV LQWR WKH ERWWOH ZKLOH WKH FKLOG ZLWKLQ DQ KRXU UHSHDW WKH GRVH QG GRVH DW KRPH DIWHU KRXUV FRQWLQXHV WR EUHDWK QRUPDOO ¾ 7KHQ WZLFH GDLO IRU IXUWKHU WZR GDV DV VKRZQ EHORZ ¾ :DLW IRU WKUHH WR IRXU EUHDWKV DQG UHSHDW IRU WRWDO RI ILYH VSUDV ¾ )RU RXQJHU FKLOGUHQ SODFH WKH FXS RYHU WKH FKLOG¶V PRXWK DQG XVH DV D VSDFHU LQ ¾ &R DUWHPHWKHU VKRXOG EH WDNHQ ZLWK IRRG WKH VDPH ZD &R DUWHPHWKHU WDEOHWV PJ DUWHPHWKHU DQG PJ OXPHIDQWULQH ,I D VSDFHU LV EHLQJ XVHG IRU WKH ILUVW WLPH LW VKRXOG EH SULPHG E H[WUD SXIIV IURP WKH LQKDOHU :(,*+7 DJH KU K K K K K  NJ PRQWKV XS WR HDUV  NJ HDUV XS WR HDUV
  • 10. 7($&+ 7+( 027+(5 72 75($7 /2&$/ ,1)(&7,216 $7 +20( ¾([SODLQ WR WKH PRWKHU ZKDW WKH WUHDWPHQW LV DQG ZK LW VKRXOG EH JLYHQ ¾HVFULEH WKH WUHDWPHQW VWHSV OLVWHG LQ WKH DSSURSULDWH ER[ ¾:DWFK WKH PRWKHU DV VKH JLYHV WKH ILUVW WUHDWPHQW LQ WKH FOLQLF H[FHSW IRU UHPHG IRU FRXJK RU VRUH WKURDW ¾7HOO KHU KRZ RIWHQ WR GR WKH WUHDWPHQW DW KRPH ¾,I QHHGHG IRU WUHDWPHQW DW KRPH JLYH PRWKHU D WXEH RI WHWUDFFOLQH RLQWPHQW RU D VPDOO ERWWOH RI JHQWLDQ YLROHW ¾&KHFN WKH PRWKHU¶V XQGHUVWDQGLQJ EHIRUH VKH OHDYHV WKH FOLQLF¾ &OHDU WKH (DU E U :LFNLQJ DQG *LYH (DUGURSV ¾ 7UHDW 0RXWK 8OFHUV ZLWK *HQWLDQ 9LROHW *9 ¾ R WKH IROORZLQJ WLPHV GDLO ¾ 7UHDW WKH PRXWK XOFHUV WZLFH GDLO x :DVK KDQGV x 5ROO FOHDQ DEVRUEHQW FORWK RU VRIW VWURQJ WLVVXH SDSHU LQWR D ZLFN x :DVK WKH FKLOG¶V PRXWK ZLWK D FOHDQ VRIW FORWK ZUDSSHG DURXQG WKH ILQJHU x 3ODFH WKH ZLFN LQ WKH FKLOG¶V HDU DQG ZHW ZLWK VDOW ZDWHU x 5HPRYH WKH ZLFN ZKHQ ZHW x 3DLQW WKH PRXWK ZLWK VWUHQJWK JHQWLDQ YLROHW GLOXWLRQ x 5HSODFH WKH ZLFN ZLWK D FOHDQ RQH DQG UHSHDW WKHVH VWHSV XQWLO WKH HDU LV GU x :DVK KDQGV DJDLQ x ,QVWLO TXLQRORQH HDUGURSV IRU WZR ZHHNV x &RQWLQXH XVLQJ *9 IRU KRXUV DIWHU WKH XOFHUV KDYH EHHQ FXUHG x *LYH SDUDFHWDPRO IRU SDLQ UHOLHI4XLQRORQH HDUGURSV PD FRQWDLQ FLSURIOR[DFLQ QRUIOR[DFLQ RU RIOR[DFLQ ¾ 6RRWKH WKH 7KURDW 5HOLHYH WKH &RXJK ZLWK D 6DIH 5HPHG ¾7UHDW (H ,QIHFWLRQ ZLWK 7HWUDFFOLQH (H ¾ 6DIH UHPHGLHV WR UHFRPPHQG 2LQWPHQW %UHDVW PLON IRU D EUHDVWIHG LQIDQW BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB ¾ &OHDQ ERWK HHV WLPHV GDLO x :DVK KDQGV BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB x 8VH FOHDQ FORWK DQG ZDWHU WR JHQWO ZLSH DZD SXV ¾ +DUPIXO UHPHGLHV WR GLVFRXUDJH ¾ 7KHQ DSSO WHWUDFFOLQH HH RLQWPHQW LQ ERWK HHV WLPHV GDLO BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB x 6TXLUW D VPDOO DPRXQW RI RLQWPHQW RQ WKH LQVLGH RI WKH ORZHU OLG BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB x :DVK KDQGV DJDLQ ¾ 7UHDW XQWLO WKHUH LV QR SXV GLVFKDUJH ¾ R QRW SXW DQWKLQJ HOVH LQ WKH HH
  • 11. *,9( 9,7$0,1 $ $1 0(%(1$=2/( ,1 &/,1,& ¾ ([SODLQ WR WKH PRWKHU ZK WKH GUXJ LV JLYHQ ¾ HWHUPLQH WKH GRVH DSSURSULDWH IRU WKH FKLOG¶V ZHLJKW RU DJH ¾ 0HDVXUH WKH GRVH DFFXUDWHO¾ *LYH 9LWDPLQ $ ¾ *LYH 0HEHQGD]ROH ¾ *LYH PJ PHEHQGD]ROH DV D VLQJOH GRVH LQ FOLQLF LI9,7$0,1 $ 6833/(0(17$7,21 KRRNZRUP ZKLSZRUP LV D SUREOHP LQ RXU DUHD ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH DQ WLPH DIWHU PRQWKV RI DJH WR $// &+,/5(1 WKH FKLOG LV HDU RI DJH RU ROGHU DQG ¾ 7KHUHDIWHU JLYH YLWDPLQ $ HYHU VL[ PRQWKV WR $// &+,/5(1 KDV QRW KDG D GRVH LQ WKH SUHYLRXV PRQWKV9,7$0,1 $ 75($70(17 ¾ *LYH DQ H[WUD GRVH RI 9LWDPLQ $ VDPH GRVH DV IRU VXSSOHPHQWDWLRQ DV SDUW RI WUHDWPHQW LI WKH FKLOG KDV PHDVOHV RU 3(56,67(17 ,$55+2($ ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV KDG D GRVH RI 9LWDPLQ $ ZLWKLQ WKH SDVW PRQWK 2 127 *,9( 9,7$0,1 $ ¾ $OZDV UHFRUG WKH GRVH RI 9LWDPLQ $ JLYHQ RQ WKH FKLOG¶V FKDUW $JH 9,7$0,1 $ 26( PRQWKV XS WR PRQWKV ,8 2QH HDU DQG ROGHU ,8
  • 12. *,9( 7+(6( 75($70(176 ,1 7+( &/,1,& 21/< ¾ ([SODLQ WR WKH PRWKHU ZK WKH GUXJ LV JLYHQ ¾ *LYH LD]HSDP WR 6WRS &RQYXOVLRQV ¾ HWHUPLQH WKH GRVH DSSURSULDWH IRU WKH FKLOG¶V ZHLJKW RU DJH ¾ 7XUQ WKH FKLOG WR KLV KHU VLGH DQG FOHDU WKH DLUZD $YRLG SXWWLQJ WKLQJV LQ WKH PRXWK ¾ *LYH PJ NJ GLD]HSDP LQMHFWLRQ VROXWLRQ SHU UHFWXP XVLQJ D VPDOO VULQJH ¾ 8VH D VWHULOH QHHGOH DQG VWHULOH VULQJH ZKHQ JLYLQJ DQ LQMHFWLRQ OLNH D WXEHUFXOLQ VULQJH ZLWKRXW D QHHGOH RU XVLQJ D FDWKHWHU ¾ 0HDVXUH WKH GRVH DFFXUDWHO ¾ &KHFN IRU ORZ EORRG VXJDU WKHQ WUHDW RU SUHYHQW ¾ *LYH R[JHQ DQG 5()(5 ¾ *LYH WKH GUXJ DV DQ LQWUDPXVFXODU LQMHFWLRQ ¾ ,I FRQYXOVLRQV KDYH QRW VWRSSHG DIWHU PLQXWHV UHSHDW GLD]HSDP GRVH ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG FDQQRW EH UHIHUUHG IROORZ WKH LQVWUXFWLRQV SURYLGHG :(,*+7 $*( 26( 2) ,$=(3$0 PJ PO¾ *LYH $Q ,QWUDPXVFXODU $QWLELRWLF  NJ  PRQWKV PO  NJ PRQWKV XS WR PRQWKV PO ¾ *,9( 72 &+,/5(1 %(,1* 5()(55( 85*(17/< ¾ *LYH DPSLFLOOLQ PJ NJ DQG JHQWDPLFLQ PJ NJ  NJ PRQWKV XS WR HDUV PO NJ HDUV XS WR HDUV PO $03,&,///,1 ¾ LOXWH PJ YLDO ZLWK PO RI VWHULOH ZDWHU PJ PO ¾ :KHUH WKHUH LV D VWURQJ VXVSLFLRQ RI PHQLQJLWLV WKH GRVH RI DPSLFLOOLQ ¾ *LYH 4XLQLQH IRU 6HYHUH 0DODULD FDQ EH LQFUHDVHG WLPHV )25 &+,/5(1 %(,1* 5()(55( :,7+ 9(5< 6(9(5( )(%5,/( ,6($6( *(17$0,&,1 ¾ &KHFN ZKLFK TXLQLQH IRUPXODWLRQ LV DYDLODEOH LQ RXU FOLQLF ¾ 8VH XQGLOXWHG PO YLDO PJ PO ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI LQWUDPXVFXODU TXLQLQH DQG UHIHU FKLOG XUJHQWO WR KRVSLWDO ¾ 2I WKH GRVH UDQJH SURYLGHG EHORZ XVH ORZHU GRVH IRU FKLOGUHQ ZLWK ZHLJKW DW ORZHU ,) 5()(55$/ ,6 127 3266,%/( HQG RI WKH FDWHJRU DQG KLJKHU GRVH IRU FKLOGUHQ DW WKH KLJKHU HQG RI WKH FDWHJRU ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI LQWUDPXVFXODU TXLQLQH ¾ 7KH FKLOG VKRXOG UHPDLQ OLQJ GRZQ IRU RQH KRXU $*( :(,*+7 $03,&,//,1 *(17$0,&,1 PO YLDO ¾ 5HSHDW WKH TXLQLQH LQMHFWLRQ DW DQG KRXUV ODWHU DQG WKHQ HYHU KRXUV PJ YLDO DW PJ PO XQWLO WKH FKLOG LV DEOH WR WDNH DQ RUDO DQWLPDODULDO R QRW FRQWLQXH TXLQLQH LQMHFWLRQV IRU PRUH WKDQ ZHHN PRQWKV XS WR PRQWKV ±  NJ PO PO ¾ ,I ORZ ULVN RI PDODULD GR QRW JLYH TXLQLQH WR D FKLOG OHVV WKDQ PRQWKV RI DJH XS WR PRQWKV ± NJ PO PO $*( RU :(,*+7 ,175$086&8/$5 48,1,1( PJ PO LQ PO PJ PO LQ PO PRQWKV XS WR HDUV ± NJ PO PO PRQWKV XS WR PRQWKV  NJ PO PO XS WR HDUV ± NJ PO PO PRQWKV XS WR PRQWKV  NJ PO PO PRQWKV XS WR HDUV  NJ PO PO ¾ ,) 5()(55$/ ,6 127 3266,%/( 25 (/$<( UHSHDW WKH DPSLFLOOLQ LQMHFWLRQ HYHU KRXUV DQG WKH JHQWDPLFLQ LQMHFWLRQ RQFH GDLO HDUV XS WR HDUV  NJ PO PO HDUV XS WR HDUV NJ PO PO TXLQLQH VDOW
  • 13. ¾ 7UHDW WKH &KLOG WR 3UHYHQW /RZ %ORRG 6XJDU ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG LV DEOH WR EUHDVWIHHG $VN WKH PRWKHU WR EUHDVWIHHG WKH FKLOG ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG LV QRW DEOH WR EUHDVWIHHG EXW LV DEOH WR VZDOORZ x *LYH H[SUHVVHG EUHDVW PLON RU EUHDVW PLON VXEVWLWXWH x ,I QHLWKHU RI WKHVH LV DYDLODEOH JLYH VXJDU ZDWHU x *LYH PO RI PLON RU VXJDU ZDWHU EHIRUH GHSDUWXUH 7R PDNH VXJDU ZDWHU LVVROYH OHYHO WHDVSRRQV RI VXJDU JUDPV LQ D PO FXS RI FOHDQ ZDWHU ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG LV QRW DEOH WR VZDOORZ x *LYH PO RI PLON RU VXJDU ZDWHU E QDVR JDVWULF WXEH
  • 14. *,9( (;75$ )/8, )25 ,$55+2($ $1 &217,18( )((,1* 6HH )22 DGYLFH RQ &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5 FKDUW 3ODQ $ 7UHDW IRU LDUUKRHD DW +RPH 3ODQ % 7UHDW IRU 6RPH HKGUDWLRQ ZLWK 256&RXQVHO WKH PRWKHU RQ WKH 5XOHV RI +RPH 7UHDWPHQW ,Q WKH FOLQLF JLYH UHFRPPHQGHG DPRXQW RI 256 RYHU KRXU SHULRG *LYH ([WUD )OXLG *LYH =LQF 6XSSOHPHQWV DJH PRQWKV XS WR HDUV &RQWLQXH )HHGLQJ :KHQ WR 5HWXUQ ¾ (7(50,1( $02817 2) 256 72 *,9( 85,1* ),567 +2856 $*( 8S WR PRQWKV PRQWKV XS PRQWKV XS HDUV XS *,9( (;75$ )/8, DV PXFK DV WKH FKLOG ZLOO WDNH WR PRQWKV WR HDUV WR HDUV ¾ 7(// 7+( 027+(5 x %UHDVWIHHG IUHTXHQWO DQG IRU ORQJHU DW HDFK IHHG x ,I WKH FKLOG LV H[FOXVLYHO EUHDVWIHG JLYH 256 RU FOHDQ ZDWHU LQ DGGLWLRQ WR EUHDVW PLON :(,*+7  NJ  NJ  NJ  NJ x ,I WKH FKLOG LV QRW H[FOXVLYHO EUHDVWIHG JLYH RQH RU PRUH RI WKH IROORZLQJ IRRG EDVHG IOXLGV VXFK DV VRXS ULFH ZDWHU DQG RJKXUW GULQNV RU 256 $PRXQW RI IOXLG PO RYHU KRXUV ,W LV HVSHFLDOO LPSRUWDQW WR JLYH 256 DW KRPH ZKHQ x WKH FKLOG KDV EHHQ WUHDWHG ZLWK 3ODQ % RU 3ODQ & GXULQJ WKLV YLVLW x WKH FKLOG FDQQRW UHWXUQ WR D FOLQLF LI WKH GLDUUKRHD JHWV ZRUVH 8VH WKH FKLOG¶V DJH RQO ZKHQ RX GR QRW NQRZ WKH ZHLJKW 7KH DSSUR[LPDWH DPRXQW RI 256 UHTXLUHG LQ PO FDQ DOVR EH FDOFXODWHG E PXOWLSOLQJ WKH FKLOG¶V ZHLJKW LQ NJ WLPHV ¾ 7($&+ 7+( 027+(5 +2: 72 0,; $1 *,9( 256 *,9( 7+( 027+(5 3$&.(76 2) 256 72 86( $7 +20( x ,I WKH FKLOG ZDQWV PRUH 256 WKDQ VKRZQ JLYH PRUH x )RU LQIDQWV EHORZ PRQWKV ZKR DUH QRW EUHDVWIHG DOVR JLYH PO FOHDQ ¾ 6+2: 7+( 027+(5 +2: 08&+ )/8, 72 *,9( ,1 $,7,21 72 7+( ZDWHU GXULQJ WKLV SHULRG 868$/ )/8, ,17$.( 8S WR HDUV WR PO DIWHU HDFK ORRVH VWRRO ¾ 6+2: 7+( 027+(5 +2: 72 *,9( 256 62/87,21 HDUV RU PRUH WR PO DIWHU HDFK ORRVH VWRRO x *LYH IUHTXHQW VPDOO VLSV IURP D FXS x ,I WKH FKLOG YRPLWV ZDLW PLQXWHV WKHQ FRQWLQXH EXW PRUH VORZO 7HOO WKH PRWKHU WR x &RQWLQXH EUHDVWIHHGLQJ ZKHQHYHU WKH FKLOG ZDQWV x *LYH IUHTXHQW VPDOO VLSV IURP D FXS x ,I WKH FKLOG YRPLWV ZDLW PLQXWHV WKHQ FRQWLQXH EXW PRUH VORZO ¾ $)7(5 +2856 x &RQWLQXH JLYLQJ H[WUD IOXLG XQWLO WKH GLDUUKRHD VWRSV x 5HDVVHVV WKH FKLOG DQG FODVVLI WKH FKLOG IRU GHKGUDWLRQ *,9( =,1& DJH PRQWKV XS WR HDUV x 6HOHFW WKH DSSURSULDWH SODQ WR FRQWLQXH WUHDWPHQW x %HJLQ IHHGLQJ WKH FKLOG LQ FOLQLF ¾ 7(// 7+( 027+(5 +2: 08&+ =,1& 72 *,9( PJ WDE PRQWKV XS WR PRQWKV ²² WDEOHW GDLO IRU GDV ¾ ,) 7+( 027+(5 0867 /($9( %()25( &203/(7,1* 75($70(17 PRQWKV RU PRUH ²² WDEOHW GDLO IRU GDV x 6KRZ KHU KRZ WR SUHSDUH 256 VROXWLRQ DW KRPH x 6KRZ KHU KRZ PXFK 256 WR JLYH WR ILQLVK KRXU WUHDWPHQW DW KRPH ¾ 6+2: 7+( 027+(5 +2: 72 *,9( =,1& 6833/(0(176 x *LYH KHU LQVWUXFWLRQV KRZ WR SUHSDUH VDOW DQG VXJDU VROXWLRQ IRU XVH DW KRPH x ,QIDQWV²GLVVROYH WDEOHW LQ D VPDOO DPRXQW RI H[SUHVVHG EUHDVW PLON 256 x ([SODLQ WKH 5XOHV RI +RPH 7UHDWPHQW RU FOHDQ ZDWHU LQ D FXS x 2OGHU FKLOGUHQ WDEOHWV FDQ EH FKHZHG RU GLVVROYHG LQ D VPDOO DPRXQW RI *,9( (;75$ )/8, FOHDQ ZDWHU LQ D FXS *,9( =,1& DJH PRQWKV XS WR HDUV &217,18( )((,1* H[FOXVLYH EUHDVWIHHGLQJ LI DJH OHVV WKDQ PRQWKV &217,18( )((,1* H[FOXVLYH EUHDVWIHHGLQJ LI DJH OHVV WKDQ PRQWKV :+(1 72 5(7851 :+(1 72 5(7851
  • 15. *,9( (;75$ )/8, )25 ,$55+2($ $1 &217,18( )((,1* 6HH )22 DGYLFH RQ &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5 FKDUW3ODQ & 7UHDW IRU 6HYHUH HKGUDWLRQ 4XLFNO )2//2: 7+( $552:6 ,) $16:(5 ,6 ³<(6´ *2 $&5266 ,) ³12´ *2 2:1 x 6WDUW ,9 IOXLG LPPHGLDWHO x ,I WKH FKLOG FDQ GULQN JLYH 256 E PRXWK ZKLOH WKH GULS LV VHW XS x *LYH PO NJ 5LQJHU¶V /DFWDWH 6ROXWLRQ RU LI QRW DYDLODEOH QRUPDO VDOLQH GLYLGHG DV IROORZV $*( )LUVW JLYH PO NJ LQ 7KHQ JLYH PO NJ LQ &DQ RX JLYH <(6 ,QIDQWV KRXU KRXUV LQWUDYHQRXV ,9 XQGHU PRQWKVIOXLG LPPHGLDWHO" &KLOGUHQ PLQXWHV ò KRXUV PRQWKV XS WR HDUV x 5HDVVHVV WKH FKLOG HYHU KRXUV ,I KGUDWLRQ VWDWXV LV QRW LPSURYLQJ JLYH WKH ,9 GULS PRUH UDSLGO 12 x $OVR JLYH 256 DERXW PO NJ KRXU DV VRRQ DV WKH FKLOG FDQ GULQN XVXDOO DIWHU KRXUV LQIDQWV RU KRXUV FKLOGUHQ x 5HDVVHVV DQ LQIDQW DIWHU KRXUV DQG D FKLOG DIWHU KRXUV &ODVVLI GHKGUDWLRQ 7KHQ FKRRVH WKH DSSURSULDWH SODQ $ % RU & WR FRQWLQXH WUHDWPHQW ,V ,9 WUHDWPHQW x 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO IRU ,9 WUHDWPHQW DYDLODEOH QHDUE <(6 ZLWKLQ PLQXWHV " x ,I WKH FKLOG FDQ GULQN SURYLGH WKH PRWKHU ZLWK 256 VROXWLRQ DQG VKRZ KHU KRZ WR JLYH IUHTXHQW VLSV GXULQJ WKH WULS RU JLYH 256 E QDVR JDVWLF WXEH 12 x 6WDUW UHKGUDWLRQ E WXEH RU PRXWK ZLWK 256 VROXWLRQ JLYH PO NJ KRXU IRU KRXUV $UH RX WUDLQHG WR XVH WRWDO RI PO NJD QDVR JDVWULF 1* WXEH IRU UHKGUDWLRQ" x 5HDVVHVV WKH FKLOG HYHU KRXUV ZKLOH ZDLWLQJ IRU WUDQVIHU ,I WKHUH LV UHSHDWHG YRPLWLQJ RU DEGRPLQDO GLVWHQVLRQ JLYH WKH IOXLG PRUH VORZO 12 <(6 ,I WKH KGUDWLRQ VWDWXV LV QRW LPSURYLQJ DIWHU KRXUV VHQG WKH FKLOG IRU ,9 WKHUDS x $IWHU KRXUV UHDVVHVV WKH FKLOG &ODVVLI GHKGUDWLRQ 7KHQ FKRRVH WKH DSSURSULDWH SODQ $ % RU & WR FRQWLQXH WUHDWPHQW &DQ WKH FKLOG GULQN" 12 12 127( ,0081,=( (9(5< 6,&.5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO IRU ,9 RU x ,I WKH FKLOG LV QRW UHIHUUHG WR KRVSLWDO REVHUYH WKH FKLOG DW OHDVW KRXUV DIWHU UHKGUDWLRQ WR EH VXUH &+,/ $6 1((( 1* WUHDWPHQW WKH PRWKHU FDQ PDLQWDLQ KGUDWLRQ JLYLQJ WKH FKLOG 256 VROXWLRQ E PRXWK
  • 16. *,9( )2//2: 83 &$5(¾ &DUH IRU WKH FKLOG ZKR UHWXUQV IRU IROORZ XS XVLQJ DOO WKH ER[HV WKDW PDWFK WKH FKLOG¶V SUHYLRXV FODVVLILFDWLRQ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV DQ QHZ SUREOHPV DVVHVV FODVVLI DQG WUHDW WKH QHZ SUREOHP DV RQ WKH $66(66 $1 &/$66,)< FKDUW¾ 31(8021,$ ¾ <6(17(5< $IWHU GDV $IWHU GDV &KHFN WKH FKLOG IRU JHQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQV $VVHVV WKH FKLOG IRU FRXJK RU GLIILFXOW EUHDWKLQJ ` 6HH $66(66 &/$66,)< FKDUW $VVHVV WKH FKLOG IRU GLDUUKRHD ! 6HH $66(66 &/$66,)< FKDUW $VN ,V WKH FKLOG EUHDWKLQJ VORZHU" $VN ,V WKHUH OHVV IHYHU" $UH WKHUH IHZHU VWRROV" ,V WKH FKLOG HDWLQJ EHWWHU" ,V WKHUH OHVV EORRG LQ WKH VWRRO" ,V WKHUH OHVV IHYHU" 7UHDWPHQW ,V WKHUH OHVV DEGRPLQDO SDLQ" ,V WKH FKLOG HDWLQJ EHWWHU" ¾ ,I FKHVW LQGUDZLQJ RU D JHQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQ JLYH D GRVH RI VHFRQG OLQH DQWLELRWLF RU LQWUDPXVFXODU FKORUDPSKHQLFRO 7KHQ UHIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO 7UHDWPHQW ¾ ,I EUHDWKLQJ UDWH IHYHU DQG HDWLQJ DUH WKH VDPH FKDQJH WR WKH VHFRQG OLQH DQWLELRWLF ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG LV GHKGUDWHG WUHDW IRU GHKGUDWLRQ DQG DGYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ LQ GDV RU UHIHU ,I WKLV FKLOG KDG PHDVOHV ZLWKLQ WKH ODVW PRQWKV UHIHU ¾ ,I QXPEHU RI VWRROV EORRG LQ WKH VWRROV IHYHU DEGRPLQDO SDLQ RU HDWLQJ LV ¾ ,I EUHDWKLQJ VORZHU OHVV IHYHU RU HDWLQJ EHWWHU FRPSOHWH WKH GDV RI DQWLELRWLF ZRUVH RU WKH VDPH &KDQJH WR VHFRQG OLQH RUDO DQWLELRWLF UHFRPPHQGHG IRU GVHQWHU LQ RXU DUHD *LYH LW IRU GDV $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ LQ GDV ,I RX GR QRW KDYH WKH VHFRQG OLQH DQWLELRWLF 5()(5 72 +263,7$/¾ 3(56,67(17 ,$55+2($ $IWHU GDV ([FHSWLRQV LI WKH FKLOG LV OHVV WKDQ PRQWKV ROG RU ZDV GHKGUDWHG RQ WKH $VN ILUVW YLVLW RU LI KH KDG PHDVOHV ZLWKLQ WKH ODVW PRQWKV UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO +DV WKH GLDUUKRHD VWRSSHG" +RZ PDQ ORRVH VWRROV LV WKH FKLOG KDYLQJ SHU GD" ¾ ,I IHZHU VWRROV OHVV IHYHU OHVV DEGRPLQDO SDLQ DQG HDWLQJ EHWWHU FRQWLQXH JLYLQJ FLSURIOR[DFLQ XQWLO ILQLVKHG 7UHDWPHQW (QVXUH WKDW WKH PRWKHU XQGHUVWDQGV WKH RUDO UHKGUDWLRQ PHWKRG IXOO DQG WKDW ¾ ,I WKH GLDUUKRHD KDV QRW VWRSSHG FKLOG LV VWLOO KDYLQJ RU PRUH ORRVH VWRROV SHU GD VKH DOVR XQGHUVWDQGV WKH QHHG IRU DQ H[WUD PHDO HDFK GD IRU D ZHHN GR D IXOO DVVHVVPHQW RI WKH FKLOG 7UHDW IRU GHKGUDWLRQ LI SUHVHQW 7KHQ UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO ¾ ,I WKH GLDUUKRHD KDV VWRSSHG FKLOG KDYLQJ OHVV WKDQ ORRVH VWRROV SHU GD WHOO WKH PRWKHU WR IROORZ WKH XVXDO IHHGLQJ UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV IRU WKH FKLOG¶V DJH
  • 17. *,9( )2//2: 83 &$5( ¾ )(9(5 0$/$5,$ 81/,.(/< /RZ 0DODULD 5LVN¾ &DUHIRU WKH FKLOG ZKR UHWXUQV IRU IROORZ XS XVLQJ DOO WKH ER[HV WKDW PDWFK WKH FKLOG¶V SUHYLRXV FODVVLILFDWLRQ ,I IHYHU SHUVLVWV DIWHU GDV R D IXOO UHDVVHVVPHQW RI WKH FKLOG ! 6HH $66(66 &/$66,)< FKDUW¾ ,IWKH FKLOG KDV DQ QHZ SUREOHPV DVVHVV FODVVLI DQG WUHDW WKH QHZ $VVHVV IRU RWKHU FDXVHV RI IHYHU SUREOHP DV RQ WKH $66(66 $1 &/$66,)< FKDUW 7UHDWPHQW ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV DQ JHQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQ RU VWLII QHFN WUHDW DV 9(5< 6(9(5( )(%5,/( ,6($6( ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV DQ FDXVH RI IHYHU RWKHU WKDQ PDODULD SURYLGH WUHDWPHQW ¾ ,I PDODULD LV WKH RQO DSSDUHQW FDXVH RI IHYHU¾ 0$/$5,$ /RZ RU +LJK 0DODULD 5LVN 7UHDW ZLWK WKH ILUVW OLQH RUDO DQWLPDODULDO $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ DJDLQ LQ GDV LI WKH IHYHU ,I IHYHU SHUVLVWV DIWHU GDV RU UHWXUQV ZLWKLQ GDV SHUVLVWV ,I IHYHU KDV EHHQ SUHVHQW IRU GDV UHIHU IRU DVVHVVPHQW R D IXOO UHDVVHVVPHQW RI WKH FKLOG ! 6HH $66(66 &/$66,)< FKDUW $VVHVV IRU RWKHU FDXVHV RI IHYHU 7UHDWPHQW ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV DQ JHQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQ RU VWLII QHFN WUHDW DV 9(5< 6(9(5( )(%5,/( ,6($6( ¾ 0($6/(6 :,7+ (<( 25 0287+ &203/,&$7,216 ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV DQ FDXVH RI IHYHU RWKHU WKDQ PDODULD SURYLGH WUHDWPHQW $IWHU GDV ¾ ,I PDODULD LV WKH RQO DSSDUHQW FDXVH RI IHYHU /RRN IRU UHG HHV DQG SXV GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HHV 7UHDW ZLWK WKH VHFRQG OLQH RUDO DQWLPDODULDO LI QR VHFRQG OLQH DQWLPDODULDO LV /RRN DW PRXWK XOFHUV DYDLODEOH UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ DJDLQ LQ GDV LI WKH IHYHU 6PHOO WKH PRXWK SHUVLVWV ,I IHYHU KDV EHHQ SUHVHQW IRU GDV UHIHU IRU DVVHVVPHQW 7UHDWPHQW IRU (H ,QIHFWLRQ ¾ ,I SXV LV GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HH DVN WKH PRWKHU WR GHVFULEH KRZ VKH KDV WUHDWHG WKH HH LQIHFWLRQ ,I WUHDWPHQW KDV EHHQ FRUUHFW UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO ,I WUHDWPHQW KDV QRW EHHQ FRUUHFW WHDFK PRWKHU FRUUHFW WUHDWPHQW ¾ ,I WKH SXV LV JRQH EXW UHGQHVV UHPDLQV FRQWLQXH WKH WUHDWPHQW ¾ ,I QR SXV RU UHGQHVV VWRS WKH WUHDWPHQW 7UHDWPHQW IRU 0RXWK 8OFHUV ¾ ,I PRXWK XOFHUV DUH ZRUVH RU WKHUH LV D YHU IRXO VPHOO FRPLQJ IURP WKH PRXWK UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO ¾ ,I PRXWK XOFHUV DUH WKH VDPH RU EHWWHU FRQWLQXH XVLQJ KDOI VWUHQJWK JHQWLDQ YLROHW IRU D WRWDO RI GDV
  • 18. *,9( )2//2: 83 &$5(¾ &DUH IRU WKH FKLOG ZKR UHWXUQV IRU IROORZ XS XVLQJ DOO WKH ER[HV WKDW PDWFK WKH FKLOG¶V SUHYLRXV FODVVLILFDWLRQ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV DQ QHZ SUREOHPV DVVHVV FODVVLI DQG WUHDW WKH QHZ SUREOHP DV RQ WKH $66(66 $1 &/$66,)< FKDUW¾ ($5 ,1)(&7,21 ¾ $1$(0,$ $IWHU GDV $IWHU GDV 5HDVVHVV IRU HDU SUREOHP ! 6HH $66(66 &/$66,)< FKDUW ¾ *LYH LURQ $GYLVH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ LQ GDV IRU PRUH LURQ 0HDVXUH WKH FKLOG¶V WHPSHUDWXUH ¾ &RQWLQXH JLYLQJ LURQ HYHU GDV IRU PRQWKV ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV SDOPDU SDOORU DIWHU PRQWKV UHIHU IRU DVVHVVPHQW 7UHDWPHQW ¾ ,I WKHUH LV WHQGHU VZHOOLQJ EHKLQG WKH HDU RU KLJK IHYHU ƒ& RU DERYH UHIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO ¾ $FXWH HDU LQIHFWLRQ LI HDU SDLQ RU GLVFKDUJH SHUVLVWV WUHDW ZLWK PRUH GDV RI WKH VDPH DQWLELRWLF &RQWLQXH ZLFNLQJ WR GU WKH HDU )ROORZ XS LQ GDV ¾ &KURQLF HDU LQIHFWLRQ &KHFN WKDW WKH PRWKHU LV ZLFNLQJ WKH HDU FRUUHFWO (QFRXUDJH KHU WR FRQWLQXH ¾ 9(5< /2: :(,*+7 ¾ ,I QR HDU SDLQ RU GLVFKDUJH SUDLVH WKH PRWKHU IRU KHU FDUHIXO WUHDWPHQW ,I VKH KDV QRW HW ILQLVKHG WKH $IWHU GDV GDV RI DQWLELRWLF WHOO KHU WR XVH DOO RI LW EHIRUH VWRSSLQJ :HLJK WKH FKLOG DQG GHWHUPLQH LI WKH FKLOG LV VWLOO YHU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH 5HDVVHVV IHHGLQJ ! 6HH TXHVWLRQV DW WKH WRS RI WKH &2816(/ FKDUW 7UHDWPHQW ¾ )((,1* 352%/(0 ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG LV QR ORQJHU YHU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH SUDLVH WKH PRWKHU DQG HQFRXUDJH $IWHU GDV KHU WR FRQWLQXH ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG LV VWLOO YHU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU DERXW DQ IHHGLQJ 5HDVVHVV IHHGLQJ ! 6HH TXHVWLRQV DW WKH WRS RI WKH &2816(/ FKDUW SUREOHP IRXQG $VN WKH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ DJDLQ LQ RQH PRQWK &RQWLQXH WR VHH WKH FKLOG $VN DERXW DQ IHHGLQJ SUREOHPV IRXQG RQ WKH LQLWLDO YLVLW PRQWKO XQWLO WKH FKLOG LV IHHGLQJ ZHOO DQG JDLQLQJ ZHLJKW UHJXODUO RU LV QR ORQJHU YHU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH ¾ &RXQVHO WKH PRWKHU DERXW DQ QHZ RU FRQWLQXLQJ IHHGLQJ SUREOHPV ,I RX FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU WR PDNH VLJQLILFDQW FKDQJHV LQ IHHGLQJ DVN KHU WR EULQJ WKH FKLOG EDFN DJDLQ ([FHSWLRQ ,I RX GR QRW WKLQN WKDW IHHGLQJ ZLOO LPSURYH RU LI WKH FKLOG KDV ORVW ZHLJKW UHIHU WKH FKLOG ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG LV YHU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH DVN WKH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ GDV DIWHU WKH LQLWLDO YLVLW WR PHDVXUH WKH FKLOG¶V ZHLJKW JDLQ
  • 19. &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5 ¾ $VVHVV WKH )HHGLQJ RI 6LFN ,QIDQWV XQGHU HDUV RU LI FKLOG KDV YHU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH$VN TXHVWLRQV DERXW WKH FKLOG¶V XVXDO IHHGLQJ DQG IHHGLQJ GXULQJ WKLV LOOQHVV &RPSDUH WKH PRWKHU¶V DQVZHUV WR WKH )HHGLQJ 5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV IRU WKH FKLOG¶V DJH $6. ² +RZ DUH RX IHHGLQJ RXU FKLOG" ,I WKH LQIDQW LV UHFHLYLQJ DQ EUHDVW PLON $6. +RZ PDQ WLPHV GXULQJ WKH GD" R RX DOVR EUHDVWIHHG GXULQJ WKH QLJKW" RHV WKH LQIDQW WDNH DQ RWKHU IRRG RU IOXLGV" :KDW IRRG RU IOXLGV" +RZ PDQ WLPHV SHU GD" :KDW GR RX XVH WR IHHG WKH FKLOG" ,I YHU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH $6. +RZ ODUJH DUH VHUYLQJV" RHV WKH FKLOG UHFHLYH KLV RZQ VHUYLQJ" :KR IHHGV WKH FKLOG DQG KRZ" XULQJ WKLV LOOQHVV KDV WKH LQIDQW¶V IHHGLQJ FKDQJHG" ,I HV KRZ"
  • 20. )((,1* 5(&200(1$7,216 85,1* 6,&.1(66 $1 +($/7+ 8S WR 0RQWKV 0RQWKV XS 0RQWKV <HDUV RI $JH WR 0RQWKV XS WR <HDUV DQG 2OGHU x %UHDVWIHHG DV RIWHQ DV WKH FKLOG x %UHDVWIHHG DV RIWHQ DV WKH FKLOG ZDQWV x %UHDVWIHHG DV RIWHQ DV WKH FKLOG x *LYH IDPLO IRRGV DW PHDOV ZDQWV GD DQG QLJKW DW OHDVW ZDQWV HDFK GD $OVR WZLFH GDLO JLYH WLPHV LQ KRXUV x *LYH DGHTXDWH VHUYLQJV RI QXWULWLRXV IRRG EHWZHHQ PHDOV BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB x *LYH DGHTXDWH VHUYLQJV RI VXFK DV x R QRW JLYH RWKHU IRRGV RU IOXLGV BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB WLPHV SHU GD LI EUHDVWIHG SOXV BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB VQDFNV RU IDPLO IRRGV RU WLPHV SHU GD WLPHV SHU GD LI QRW EUHDVWIHG SOXV VQDFNV$ JRRG TXDOLW GLHW VKRXOG EH DGHTXDWH LQ TXDQWLW DQG LQFOXGH DQ HQHUJ ULFK IRRG IRU H[DPSOH WKLFN FHUHDO ZLWK DGGHG RLO PHDW ILVK HJJV RU SXOVHV DQG IUXLWV DQG YHJHWDEOHV )HHGLQJ 5HFRPPHQGDWLRQV IRU D FKLOG ZKR KDV 3(56,67(17 ,$55+2($ x ,I VWLOO EUHDVWIHHGLQJ JLYH PRUH IUHTXHQW ORQJHU EUHDVWIHHGV GD DQG QLJKW x ,I WDNLQJ RWKHU PLON UHSODFH ZLWK LQFUHDVHG EUHDVWIHHGLQJ 25 UHSODFH ZLWK IHUPHQWHG PLON SURGXFWV VXFK DV RJKXUW 25 UHSODFH KDOI WKH PLON ZLWK QXWULHQW ULFK VHPLVROLG IRRG
  • 21. &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5 $%287 )((,1* 352%/(06,I WKH FKLOG LV QRW EHLQJ IHG DV GHVFULEHG LQ WKH DERYH UHFRPPHQGDWLRQV FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU DFFRUGLQJO ,Q DGGLWLRQ ¾ ,I WKH PRWKHU UHSRUWV GLIILFXOW ZLWK EUHDVWIHHGLQJ DVVHVV EUHDVWIHHGLQJ VHH <281* ,1)$17 FKDUW $V QHHGHG VKRZ WKH PRWKHU FRUUHFW SRVLWLRQLQJ DQG DWWDFKPHQW IRU EUHDVWIHHGLQJ ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG LV OHVV WKDQ PRQWKV ROG DQG LV WDNLQJ RWKHU PLON RU IRRGV %XLOG PRWKHU¶V FRQILGHQFH WKDW VKH FDQ SURGXFH DOO WKH EUHDVW PLON WKDW WKH FKLOG QHHGV 6XJJHVW JLYLQJ PRUH IUHTXHQW ORQJHU EUHDVWIHHGV GD RU QLJKW DQG JUDGXDOO UHGXFLQJ RWKHU PLON RU IRRGV ,I RWKHU PLON QHHGV WR EH FRQWLQXHG FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU WR %UHDVWIHHG DV PXFK DV SRVVLEOH LQFOXGLQJ DW QLJKW 0DNH VXUH WKDW RWKHU PLON LV D ORFDOO DSSURSULDWH EUHDVW PLON VXEVWLWXWH 0DNH VXUH RWKHU PLON LV FRUUHFWO DQG KJLHQLFDOO SUHSDUHG DQG JLYHQ LQ DGHTXDWH DPRXQWV )LQLVK SUHSDUHG PLON ZLWKLQ DQ KRXU ¾ ,I WKH PRWKHU LV XVLQJ D ERWWOH WR IHHG WKH FKLOG 5HFRPPHQG VXEVWLWXWLQJ D FXS IRU ERWWOH 6KRZ WKH PRWKHU KRZ WR IHHG WKH FKLOG ZLWK D FXS ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG LV QRW IHHGLQJ ZHOO GXULQJ LOOQHVV FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU WR %UHDVWIHHG PRUH IUHTXHQWO DQG IRU ORQJHU LI SRVVLEOH 8VH VRIW YDULHG DSSHWL]LQJ IDYRXULWH IRRGV WR HQFRXUDJH WKH FKLOG WR HDW DV PXFK DV SRVVLEOH DQG RIIHU IUHTXHQW VPDOO IHHGV &OHDU D EORFNHG QRVH LI LW LQWHUIHUHV ZLWK IHHGLQJ ([SHFW WKDW DSSHWLWH ZLOO LPSURYH DV FKLOG JHWV EHWWHU ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV D SRRU DSSHWLWH 3ODQ VPDOO IUHTXHQW PHDOV *LYH PLON UDWKHU WKDQ RWKHU IOXLGV H[FHSW ZKHUH WKHUH LV GLDUUKRHD ZLWK VRPH GHKGUDWLRQ *LYH VQDFNV EHWZHHQ PHDOV *LYH KLJK HQHUJ IRRGV &KHFN UHJXODUO ¾ ,I WKH FKLOG KDV VRUH PRXWK RU XOFHUV *LYH VRIW IRRGV WKDW ZLOO QRW EXUQ WKH PRXWK VXFK DV HJJV PDVKHG SRWDWRHV SXPSNLQ RU DYRFDGR $YRLG VSLF VDOW RU DFLG IRRGV &KRS IRRGV ILQHO *LYH FROG GULQNV RU LFH LI DYDLODEOH
  • 22. &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5 $%287 +(5 2:1 +($/7+¾ ,I WKH PRWKHU LV VLFN SURYLGH FDUH IRU KHU RU UHIHU KHU IRU KHOS¾ ,I VKH KDV D EUHDVW SUREOHP VXFK DV HQJRUJHPHQW VRUH QLSSOHV EUHDVW LQIHFWLRQ SURYLGH FDUH IRU KHU RU UHIHU KHU IRU KHOS¾ $GYLVH KHU WR HDW ZHOO WR NHHS XS KHU RZQ VWUHQJWK DQG KHDOWK¾ &KHFN WKH PRWKHU¶V LPPXQL]DWLRQ VWDWXV DQG JLYH KHU WHWDQXV WR[RLG LI QHHGHG¾ 0DNH VXUH VKH KDV DFFHVV WR x )DPLO SODQQLQJ x &RXQVHOOLQJ RQ 67 DQG $,6 SUHYHQWLRQ
  • 23. )/8,$GYLVH WKH 0RWKHU WR ,QFUHDVH )OXLG XULQJ ,OOQHVV )25 $1< 6,&. &+,/ ¾ ,I FKLOG LV EUHDVWIHG EUHDVWIHHG PRUH IUHTXHQWO DQG IRU ORQJHU DW HDFK IHHG ,I FKLOG LV WDNLQJ EUHDVW PLON VXEVWLWXWHV LQFUHDVH WKH DPRXQW RI PLON JLYHQ ¾ ,QFUHDVH RWKHU IOXLGV )RU H[DPSOH JLYH VRXS ULFH ZDWHU RJKXUW GULQNV RU FOHDQ ZDWHU )25 &+,/ :,7+ ,$55+2($ ¾ *LYLQJ H[WUD IOXLG FDQ EH OLIHVDYLQJ *LYH IOXLG DFFRUGLQJ WR 3ODQ $ RU 3ODQ % RQ WKH 75($7 7+( &+,/ FKDUW:+(1 72 5(7851 $GYLVH WKH 0RWKHU :KHQ WR 5HWXUQ WR +HDOWK :RUNHU )2//2: 83 9,6,7 $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR FRPH IRU IROORZ XS DW WKH HDUOLHVW WLPH OLVWHG IRU WKH FKLOG¶V SUREOHPV ,I WKH FKLOG KDV 5HWXUQ IRU ILUVW IROORZ XS LQ x 31(8021,$ x <6(17(5< GDV x 0$/$5,$ LI IHYHU SHUVLVWV x )(9(5 0$/$5,$ 81/,.(/< LI IHYHU SHUVLVWV x 0($6/(6 :,7+ (<( 25 0287+ &203/,&$7,216 x 3(56,67(17 ,$55+2($ x $&87( ($5 ,1)(&7,21 GDV :+(1 72 5(7851 ,00(,$7(/< x &+521,& ($5 ,1)(&7,21 x )((,1* 352%/(0 $GYLVH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO LI WKH FKLOG KDV DQ RI WKHVH VLJQV x &28*+ 25 &2/ LI QRW LPSURYLQJ $Q VLFN FKLOG x 1RW DEOH WR GULQN RU EUHDVWIHHG x $1$(0,$ x %HFRPHV VLFNHU GDV x HYHORSV D IHYHU x 9(5< /2: :(,*+7 )25 $*( GDV ,I FKLOG KDV &28*+ 25 &2/ DOVR x )DVW EUHDWKLQJ UHWXUQ LI x LIILFXOW EUHDWKLQJ 1(;7 :(// &+,/ 9,6,7 ,I FKLOG KDV LDUUKRHD DOVR UHWXUQ LI x %ORRG LQ VWRRO $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ IRU QH[W LPPXQL]DWLRQ DFFRUGLQJ WR x ULQNLQJ SRRUO LPPXQL]DWLRQ VFKHGXOH
  • 24. $66(66 &/$66,)< $1 75($7 7+( 6,&. <281* ,1)$17 $*( 83 72 0217+6 2 $ 5$3, $35$,6$/ 2) $// :$,7,1* ,1)$176 $6. 7+( 027+(5 :+$7 7+( <281* ,1)$17¶6 352%/(06 $5( x HWHUPLQH LI WKLV LV DQ LQLWLDO RU IROORZ XS YLVLW IRU WKLV SUREOHP 86( $// %2;(6 7+$7 0$7&+ ,1)$17¶6 LI IROORZ XS YLVLW XVH WKH IROORZ XS LQVWUXFWLRQV 6<037206 $1 352%/(06 72 LI LQLWLDO YLVLW DVVHVV WKH RXQJ LQIDQW DV IROORZV &/$66,)< 7+( ,//1(66 &+(&. )25 9(5< 6(9(5( ,6($6( $1 75($70(17 /2&$/ %$&7(5,$/ ,1)(&7,21 6,*16 &/$66,)< $6 8UJHQW SUH UHIHUUDO WUHDWPHQWV DUH LQ EROG SULQW $Q RQH RI WKH IROORZLQJ VLJQV ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI LQWUDPXVFXODU DQWLELRWLFV$6. /22. /,67(1 )((/ &ODVVLI x 1RW IHHGLQJ ZHOO RU ` $// x &RQYXOVLRQV RU ¾ 7UHDW WR SUHYHQW ORZ EORRG VXJDU x &RXQW WKH EUHDWKV LQ RQH PLQXWH 9(5<x ,V WKH LQIDQW KDYLQJ <281* <281* x )DVW EUHDWKLQJ EUHDWKV SHU PLQXWH RU GLIILFXOW LQ IHHGLQJ" 5HSHDW WKH FRXQW LI RU PRUH ,1)$17 PRUH RU 6(9(5( ¾ 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO EUHDWKV SHU PLQXWH 0867 ,1)$176 x 6HYHUH FKHVW LQGUDZLQJ RU ,6($6(x +DV WKH LQIDQW KDG %( x )HYHU ƒ& RU DERYH RU ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU KRZ WR NHHS WKH LQIDQW x /RRN IRU VHYHUH FKHVW LQGUDZLQJ &$/0 FRQYXOVLRQV ILWV " x /RZ ERG WHPSHUDWXUH OHVV WKDQ ƒ& ZDUP RQ WKH ZD WR WKH KRVSLWDO RU x 0HDVXUH D[LOODU WHPSHUDWXUH x 0RYHPHQW RQO ZKHQ VWLPXODWHG RU QR PRYHPHQW DW DOO x /RRN DW WKH XPELOLFXV ,V LW UHG RU GUDLQLQJ SXV" x /RRN IRU VNLQ SXVWXOHV ¾ *LYH DQ DSSURSULDWH RUDO DQWLELRWLF x 8PELOLFXV UHG RU GUDLQLQJ SXV /2&$/ %$&7(5,$/ ¾ 7HDFK PRWKHU WR WUHDW ORFDO LQIHFWLRQV DW x /RRN DW WKH RXQJ LQIDQW¶V PRYHPHQWV ,I LQIDQW LV x 6NLQ SXVWXOHV ,1)(&7,21 KRPH VOHHSLQJ DVN WKH PRWKHU WR ZDNH KLP KHU ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU WR JLYH KRPH FDUH RHV WKH LQIDQW PRYH RQ KLV KHU RZQ" IRU WKH RXQJ LQIDQW ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV ,I WKH LQIDQW LV QRW PRYLQJ JHQWO VWLPXODWH KLP KHU RHV WKH LQIDQW PRYH RQO ZKHQ VWLPXODWHG EXW x 1RQH RI WKH VLJQV RI YHU VHYHUH GLVHDVH 6(9(5( ,6($6( ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU WR JLYH KRPH FDUH IRU WKHQ VWRSV" RU ORFDO EDFWHULDO LQIHFWLRQ 25 /2&$/ WKH RXQJ LQIDQW ,1)(&7,21 RHV WKH LQIDQW QRW PRYH DW DOO " 81/,.(/<7KHVH WKUHVKROGV DUH EDVHG RQ D[LOODU WHPSHUDWXUH 7KH WKUHVKROGV IRU UHFWDO WHPSHUDWXUH UHDGLQJV DUH DSSUR[LPDWHO ƒ& KLJKHU,I UHIHUUDO LV QRW SRVVLEOH VHH ,QWHJUDWHG 0DQDJHPHQW RI &KLOGKRRG ,OOQHVV 0DQDJHPHQW RI WKH VLFN RXQJ LQIDQW PRGXOH $QQH[ ³:KHUH UHIHUUDO LV QRW SRVVLEOH´
  • 25. 7+(1 &+(&. )25 -$81,&( 75($70(17 6,*16 &/$66,)< $6 8UJHQW SUH UHIHUUDO WUHDWPHQWV DUH LQ EROG SULQW /22. /,67(1 )((/ x $Q MDXQGLFH LI DJH OHVV WKDQ 6(9(5( ¾ 7UHDW WR SUHYHQW ORZ EORRG VXJDU &ODVVLI KRXUV RU -$81,&(,I MDXQGLFH SUHVHQW x /RRN IRU MDXQGLFH HOORZ HHV RU -DXQGLFH ¾ 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO VNLQ x <HOORZ SDOPV DQG VROHV DW DQ DJH$6. ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU KRZ WR NHHS WKH LQIDQW ZDUP x /RRN DW WKH RXQJ LQIDQW¶V SDOPV DQG RQ WKH ZD WR WKH KRVSLWDOx :KHQ GLG MDXQGLFH ILUVW VROHV $UH WKH HOORZ" DSSHDU" x -DXQGLFH DSSHDULQJ DIWHU KRXUV RI -$81,&( ¾ $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR JLYH KRPH FDUH IRU WKH DJH DQG RXQJ LQIDQW x 3DOPV DQG VROHV QRW HOORZ ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO LI SDOPV DQG VROHV DSSHDU HOORZ ¾ ,I WKH RXQJ LQIDQW LV ROGHU WKDQ ZHHNV UHIHU WR D KRVSLWDO IRU DVVHVVPHQW ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GD x 1R MDXQGLFH 12 ¾ $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR JLYH KRPH FDUH IRU WKH RXQJ LQIDQW -$81,&(
  • 26. 7+(1 $6. RHV WKH RXQJ LQIDQW KDYH GLDUUKRHD " 75($70(17 6,*16 &/$66,)< $6 8UJHQW SUH UHIHUUDO WUHDWPHQWV DUH LQ EROG SULQW 7ZR RI WKH IROORZLQJ VLJQV ¾,I LQIDQW KDV QR RWKHU VHYHUH FODVVLILFDWLRQ,) <(6 /22. $1 )((/ &ODVVLI *LYH IOXLG IRU VHYHUH GHKGUDWLRQ 3ODQ & ,$55+2($ x 0RYHPHQW RQO ZKHQ 25 x /RRN DW WKH RXQJ LQIDQW¶V JHQHUDO FRQGLWLRQ )25 (+<5$7,21 VWLPXODWHG RU QR PRYHPHQW 6(9(5( DW DOO ,I LQIDQW DOVR KDV DQRWKHU VHYHUH (+<5$7,21 FODVVLILFDWLRQ x 6XQNHQ HHV ,QIDQW¶V PRYHPHQWV 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO ZLWK PRWKHU x 6NLQ SLQFK JRHV EDFN YHU RHV WKH LQIDQW PRYH RQ KLV KHU RZQ" JLYLQJ IUHTXHQW VLSV RI 256 RQ WKH ZD VORZO RHV WKH LQIDQW PRYH RQO ZKHQ VWLPXODWHG EXW WKHQ $GYLVH WKH PRWKHU WR FRQWLQXH VWRSV" EUHDVWIHHGLQJ RHV WKH LQIDQW QRW PRYH DW DOO " 7ZR RI WKH IROORZLQJ VLJQV ¾ *LYH IOXLG DQG IRU VRPH GHKGUDWLRQ DQG ,V WKH LQIDQW UHVWOHVV DQG LUULWDEOH" x 5HVWOHVV LUULWDEOH FRQWLQXH EUHDVWIHHGLQJ 3ODQ % x 6XQNHQ HHV 620( (+<5$7,21 x /RRN IRU VXQNHQ HHV x 6NLQ SLQFK JRHV EDFN ¾,I LQIDQW KDV DQ VHYHUH FODVVLILFDWLRQ VORZO 5HIHU 85*(17/< WR KRVSLWDO ZLWK PRWKHU x 3LQFK WKH VNLQ RI WKH DEGRPHQ JLYLQJ IUHTXHQW VLSV RI 256 RQ WKH ZD RHV LW JR EDFN $GYLVH PRWKHU WR FRQWLQXH EUHDVWIHHGLQJ 9HU VORZO ORQJHU WKDQ VHFRQGV " ¾$GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO RU VORZO" ¾)ROORZ XS LQ GDV LI QRW LPSURYLQJ ¾ *LYH IOXLGV WR WUHDW IRU GLDUUKRHD DW KRPH DQG x 1RW HQRXJK VLJQV WR FODVVLI 12 (+<5$7,21 FRQWLQXH EUHDVWIHHGLQJ 3ODQ $ DV VRPH RU VHYHUH GHKGUDWLRQ ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO ¾ )ROORZ XS LQ GDV LI QRW LPSURYLQJ :KDW LV GLDUUKRHD LQ D RXQJ LQIDQW"$ RXQJ LQIDQW KDV GLDUUKRHD LI WKH VWRROV KDYH FKDQJHG IURP XVXDO SDWWHUQ DQGDUH PDQ DQG ZDWHU PRUH ZDWHU WKDQ IHFDO PDWWHU7KH QRUPDOO IUHTXHQW RU VHPL VROLG VWRROV RI D EUHDVWIHG EDE DUH QRW GLDUUKRHD
  • 27. 7+(1 &+(&. )25 )((,1* 352%/(0 25 /2: :(,*+7 )25 $*( 75($70(17 ,I DQ LQIDQW KDV QR LQGLFDWLRQV WR UHIHU XUJHQWO WR KRVSLWDO 6,*16 &/$66,)< $6 8UJHQW SUH UHIHUUDO WUHDWPHQWV DUH LQ EROG SULQW x 1RW ZHOO DWWDFKHG WR ¾,I QRW ZHOO DWWDFKHG RU QRW VXFNOLQJ $6. /22. /,67(1 )((/ &ODVVLI EUHDVW RU HIIHFWLYHO WHDFK FRUUHFW SRVLWLRQLQJ DQG )((,1* DWWDFKPHQW x ,V WKH LQIDQW EUHDVWIHG" ,I HV x HWHUPLQH ZHLJKW IRU DJH x 1RW VXFNOLQJ HIIHFWLYHO x ,I QRW DEOH WR DWWDFK ZHOO LPPHGLDWHO KRZ PDQ WLPHV LQ KRXUV" RU WHDFK WKH PRWKHU WR H[SUHVV EUHDVW PLON x /RRN IRU XOFHUV RU ZKLWH SDWFKHV LQ WKH DQG IHHG E D FXS x RHV WKH LQIDQW XVXDOO UHFHLYH PRXWK WKUXVK DQ RWKHU IRRGV RU GULQNV" ,I HV KRZ RIWHQ" ¾,I EUHDVWIHHGLQJ OHVV WKDQ WLPHV LQ x /HVV WKDQ EUHDVWIHHGV LQ KRXUV RU KRXUV DGYLVH WR LQFUHDVH IUHTXHQF RI x ,I HV ZKDW GR RX XVH WR IHHG WKH LQIDQW" )((,1* IHHGLQJ $GYLVH KHU WR EUHDVWIHHG DV RIWHQ 352%/(0 DQG IRU DV ORQJ DV WKH LQIDQW ZDQWV GD 25 DQG QLJKW /2: :(,*+7 x 5HFHLYHV RWKHU IRRGV RU )25 $*( ¾,I UHFHLYLQJ RWKHU IRRGV RU GULQNV FRXQVHO $66(66 %5($67)((,1* GULQNV RU PRWKHU DERXW EUHDVWIHHGLQJ PRUH UHGXFLQJ RWKHU IRRGV RU GULQNV DQG XVLQJx +DV WKH LQIDQW EUHDVWIHG LQ ,I WKH LQIDQW KDV QRW IHG LQ WKH SUHYLRXV KRXU DVN WKH PRWKHU D FXS WKH SUHYLRXV KRXU" WR SXW KHU LQIDQW WR WKH EUHDVW 2EVHUYH WKH EUHDVWIHHG IRU x ,I QRW EUHDVWIHHGLQJ DW DOO PLQXWHV 5HIHU IRU EUHDVWIHHGLQJ FRXQVHOOLQJ DQG SRVVLEOH UHODFWDWLRQ ,I WKH LQIDQW ZDV IHG GXULQJ WKH ODVW KRXU DVN WKH PRWKHU LI $GYLVH DERXW FRUUHFWO SUHSDULQJ VKH FDQ ZDLW DQG WHOO RX ZKHQ WKH LQIDQW LV ZLOOLQJ WR IHHG EUHDVWPLON VXEVWLWXWHV DQG XVLQJ D DJDLQ FXS x ,V WKH LQIDQW ZHOO DWWDFKHG" x /RZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH RU ¾$GYLVH WKH PRWKHU KRZ WR IHHG DQG NHHS WKH ORZ ZHLJKW LQIDQW ZDUP DW KRPH QRW ZHOO DWWDFKHG JRRG DWWDFKPHQW 72 &+(&. $77$&+0(17 /22. )25 x 7KUXVK XOFHUV RU ZKLWH ¾,I WKUXVK WHDFK WKH PRWKHU WR WUHDW WKUXVK SDWFKHV LQ PRXWK DW KRPH 0RUH DUHROD VHHQ DERYH LQIDQW¶V WRS OLS WKDQ EHORZ ERWWRP OLS 0RXWK ZLGH RSHQ ¾$GYLVH PRWKHU WR JLYH KRPH FDUH IRU WKH /RZHU OLS WXUQHG RXWZDUGV RXQJ LQIDQW &KLQ WRXFKLQJ EUHDVW $OO RI WKHVH VLJQV VKRXOG EH SUHVHQW LI WKH DWWDFKPHQW LV JRRG ¾)ROORZ XS DQ IHHGLQJ SUREOHP RU WKUXVK LQ GDV ¾)ROORZ XS ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH LQ GDV x ,V WKH LQIDQW VXFNOLQJ HIIHFWLYHO WKDW LV VORZ GHHS VXFNV x 1RW ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH 12 )((,1* ¾ $GYLVH PRWKHU WR JLYH KRPH FDUH IRU VRPHWLPHV SDXVLQJ " DQG QR RWKHU VLJQV RI 352%/(0 WKH RXQJ LQIDQW QRW VXFNOLQJ HIIHFWLYHO VXFNOLQJ HIIHFWLYHO LQDGHTXDWH IHHGLQJ &OHDU D EORFNHG QRVH LI LW LQWHUIHUHV ZLWK EUHDVWIHHGLQJ ¾ 3UDLVH WKH PRWKHU IRU IHHGLQJ WKH LQIDQW ZHOO
  • 28. 7+(1 &+(&. 7+( <281* ,1)$17¶6 ,0081,=$7,21 $1 9,7$0,1 $ 67$786 $*( 9$&&,1( 9,7$0,1 $ ,0081,=$7,21 %LUWK %&* 239 ,8 WR WKH PRWKHU ZLWKLQ ZHHNV RI GHOLYHU 6&+(8/( ZHHNV 37 +,% 239 +HSDWLWLV % ZHHNV 37 +,% 239 +HSDWLWLV % ¾ *LYH DOO PLVVHG GRVHV RQ WKLV YLVLW ¾ ,PPXQL]H VLFN LQIDQWV XQOHVV EHLQJ UHIHUUHG ¾ $GYLVH WKH FDUHWDNHU ZKHQ WR UHWXUQ IRU WKH QH[W GRVH$66(66 27+(5 352%/(06
  • 29. 75($7 7+( <281* ,1)$17 $1 &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5¾ *LYH )LUVW RVH RI ,QWUDPXVFXODU $QWLELRWLFV ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI DPSLFLOOLQ LQWUDPXVFXODUO DQG ¾ *LYH ILUVW GRVH RI JHQWDPLFLQ LQWUDPXVFXODUO $03,&,//,1 *(17$0,&,1 RVH PJ SHU NJ 7R D YLDO RI PJ 8QGLOXWHG PO YLDO FRQWDLQLQJ PJ PO DW PJ PO 25 :(,*+7 $GG PO VWHULOH ZDWHU $GG PO VWHULOH ZDWHU WR PO YLDO FRQWDLQLQJ PJ PO DW PJ PO PJ PO $*(  GDV $*(! GDV RVH PJ SHU NJ RVH PJ SHU NJ  NJ PO PO PO  NJ PO PO PO  NJ PO PO PO  NJ PO PO PO  NJ PO PO PO  NJ PO PO PO  NJ PO PO PO $YRLG XVLQJ XQGLOXWHG PJ PO JHQWDPLFLQ ¾ 5HIHUUDO LV WKH EHVW RSWLRQ IRU D RXQJ LQIDQW FODVVLILHG DV 9(5< 6(9(5( ,6($6( ,I UHIHUUDO LV QRW SRVVLEOH FRQWLQXH WR JLYH DPSLFLOOLQ DQG JHQWDPLFLQ IRU DW OHDVW GDV *LYH DPSLFLOOLQ WZR WLPHV GDLO WR LQIDQWV OHVV WKDQ RQH ZHHN RI DJH DQG WLPHV GDLO WR LQIDQWV RQH ZHHN RU ROGHU *LYH JHQWDPLFLQ RQFH GDLO¾ 7UHDW WKH <RXQJ ,QIDQW WR 3UHYHQW /RZ %ORRG 6XJDU ¾ ,I WKH RXQJ LQIDQW LV DEOH WR EUHDVWIHHG $VN WKH PRWKHU WR EUHDVWIHHG WKH RXQJ LQIDQW ¾ ,I WKH RXQJ LQIDQW LV QRW DEOH WR EUHDVWIHHG EXW LV DEOH WR VZDOORZ *LYH PO PO NJ H[SUHVVHG EUHDVW PLON EHIRUH GHSDUWXUH ,I QRW SRVVLEOH WR JLYH H[SUHVVHG EUHDVW PLON JLYH PO PO NJ VXJDU ZDWHU 7R PDNH VXJDU ZDWHU LVVROYH OHYHO WHDVSRRQV RI VXJDU JUDPV LQ D PO FXS RI FOHDQ ZDWHU ¾ ,I WKH RXQJ LQIDQW LV QRW DEOH WR VZDOORZ *LYH PO PO NJ RI H[SUHVVHG EUHDVW PLON RU VXJDU ZDWHU E QDVR JDVWULF WXEH
  • 30. 75($7 7+( <281* ,1)$17¾ 7HDFK WKH 0RWKHU +RZ WR .HHS WKH <RXQJ ,QIDQW :DUP RQ WKH :D WR WKH +RVSLWDO ¾ 3URYLGH VNLQ WR VNLQ FRQWDFW 25 ¾ .HHS WKH RXQJ LQIDQW FORWKHG RU FRYHUHG DV PXFK DV SRVVLEOH DOO WKH WLPH UHVV WKH RXQJ LQIDQW ZLWK H[WUD FORWKLQJ LQFOXGLQJ KDW JORYHV VRFNV DQG ZUDS WKH LQIDQW LQ D VRIW GU FORWK DQG FRYHU ZLWK D EODQNHW¾*LYH DQ $SSURSULDWH 2UDO $QWLELRWLF IRU ORFDO LQIHFWLRQ )RU ORFDO EDFWHULDO LQIHFWLRQ )LUVW OLQH DQWLELRWLF BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 6HFRQG OLQH DQWLELRWLF BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB &275,02;$=2/( $02;,&,//,1 WULPHWKRSULP VXOSKDPHWKR[D]ROH ¾ *LYH WZR WLPHV GDLO IRU GDV ¾ *LYH WZR WLPHV GDLO IRU GDV $GXOW 7DEOHW 3DHGLDWULF 7DEOHW 6UXS 7DEOHW 6UXS $*( RU :(,*+7 VLQJOH VWUHQJWK PJ WULPHWKRSULP PJ WULPHWKRSULP PJ WULPHWKRSULP PJ PJ PJ PJ LQ PO PJ VXOSKDPHWKR[D]ROH VXOSKDPHWKR[D]ROH VXOSKDPHWKR[D]ROH %LUWK XS WR PRQWK  NJ PO PO PRQWK XS WR PRQWKV  NJ PO PO $YRLG FRWULPR[D]ROH LQ LQIDQWV OHVV WKDQ PRQWK RI DJH ZKR DUH SUHPDWXUH RU MDXQGLFHG
  • 31. 75($7 7+( <281* ,1)$17 $1 &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5¾ 7HDFK WKH 0RWKHU +RZ WR 7UHDW /RFDO ,QIHFWLRQV DW +RPH ¾ ([SODLQ KRZ WKH WUHDWPHQW LV JLYHQ ¾ :DWFK KHU DV VKH GRHV WKH ILUVW WUHDWPHQW LQ WKH FOLQLF ¾ 7HOO KHU WR UHWXUQ WR WKH FOLQLF LI WKH LQIHFWLRQ ZRUVHQV 7R 7UHDW 6NLQ 3XVWXOHV RU 8PELOLFDO ,QIHFWLRQ 7R 7UHDW 7KUXVK XOFHUV RU ZKLWH SDWFKHV LQ PRXWK 7KH PRWKHU VKRXOG GR WKH WUHDWPHQW WZLFH GDLO IRU GDV 7KH PRWKHU VKRXOG GR WKH WUHDWPHQW IRXU WLPHV GDLO IRU GDV ¾ :DVK KDQGV ¾ :DVK KDQGV ¾ *HQWO ZDVK RII SXV DQG FUXVWV ZLWK VRDS DQG ZDWHU ¾ 3DLQW WKH PRXWK ZLWK KDOI VWUHQJWK JHQWLDQ YLROHW XVLQJ D FOHDQ VRIW FORWK ZUDSSHG DURXQG WKH ILQJHU ¾ U WKH DUHD ¾ :DVK KDQGV DJDLQ ¾ 3DLQW WKH VNLQ RU XPELOLFXV FRUG ZLWK IXOO VWUHQJWK JHQWLDQ YLROHW ¾ :DVK KDQGV DJDLQ¾7R 7UHDW LDUUKRHD 6HH 75($7 7+( &+,/ &+$57¾ ,PPXQL]H (YHU 6LFN <RXQJ ,QIDQW DV QHHGHG
  • 32. &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5¾ 7HDFK &RUUHFW 3RVLWLRQLQJ DQG $WWDFKPHQW IRU %UHDVWIHHGLQJ ¾ 6KRZ WKH PRWKHU KRZ WR KROG KHU LQIDQW ZLWK WKH LQIDQW¶V KHDG DQG ERG LQ OLQH ZLWK WKH LQIDQW DSSURDFKLQJ EUHDVW ZLWK QRVH RSSRVLWH WR WKH QLSSOH ZLWK WKH LQIDQW KHOG FORVH WR WKH PRWKHU¶V ERG ZLWK WKH LQIDQW¶V ZKROH ERG VXSSRUWHG QRW MXVW QHFN DQG VKRXOGHUV ¾ 6KRZ KHU KRZ WR KHOS WKH LQIDQW WR DWWDFK 6KH VKRXOG WRXFK KHU LQIDQW¶V OLSV ZLWK KHU QLSSOH ZDLW XQWLO KHU LQIDQW¶V PRXWK LV RSHQLQJ ZLGH PRYH KHU LQIDQW TXLFNO RQWR KHU EUHDVW DLPLQJ WKH LQIDQW¶V ORZHU OLS ZHOO EHORZ WKH QLSSOH ¾ /RRN IRU VLJQV RI JRRG DWWDFKPHQW DQG HIIHFWLYH VXFNOLQJ ,I WKH DWWDFKPHQW RU VXFNOLQJ LV QRW JRRG WU DJDLQ¾ 7HDFK WKH 0RWKHU +RZ WR ([SUHVV %UHDVW 0LON $VN WKH PRWKHU WR ¾ :DVK KHU KDQGV WKRURXJKO ¾ 0DNH KHUVHOI FRPIRUWDEOH ¾ +ROG D ZLGH QHFNHG FRQWDLQHU XQGHU KHU QLSSOH DQG DUHROD ¾ 3ODFH KHU WKXPE RQ WRS RI WKH EUHDVW DQG WKH ILUVW ILQJHU RQ WKH XQGHU VLGH RI WKH EUHDVW VR WKH DUH RSSRVLWH HDFK RWKHU DW OHDVW FP IURP WKH WLS RI WKH QLSSOH ¾ &RPSUHVV DQG UHOHDVH WKH EUHDVW WLVVXH EHWZHHQ KHU ILQJHU DQG WKXPE D IHZ WLPHV ¾ ,I WKH PLON GRHV QRW DSSHDU VKH VKRXOG UH SRVLWLRQ KHU WKXPE DQG ILQJHU FORVHU WR WKH QLSSOH DQG FRPSUHVV DQG UHOHDVH WKH EUHDVW DV EHIRUH ¾ &RPSUHVV DQG UHOHDVH DOO WKH ZD DURXQG WKH EUHDVW NHHSLQJ KHU ILQJHUV WKH VDPH GLVWDQFH IURP WKH QLSSOH %H FDUHIXO QRW WR VTXHH]H WKH QLSSOH RU WR UXE WKH VNLQ RU PRYH KHU WKXPE RU ILQJHU RQ WKH VNLQ ¾ ([SUHVV RQH EUHDVW XQWLO WKH PLON MXVW GULSV WKHQ H[SUHVV WKH RWKHU EUHDVW XQWLO WKH PLON MXVW GULSV ¾ $OWHUQDWH EHWZHHQ EUHDVWV RU WLPHV IRU DW OHDVW WR PLQXWHV ¾ 6WRS H[SUHVVLQJ ZKHQ WKH PLON QR ORQJHU IORZV EXW GULSV IURP WKH VWDUW
  • 33. &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5 ¾ 7HDFK WKH 0RWKHU +RZ WR )HHG E D &XS ¾ 3XW D FORWK RQ WKH LQIDQW¶V IURQW WR SURWHFW KLV FORWKHV DV VRPH PLON FDQ VSLOO ¾ +ROG WKH LQIDQW VHPL XSULJKW RQ WKH ODS ¾ 3XW D PHDVXUHG DPRXQW RI PLON LQ WKH FXS ¾ +ROG WKH FXS VR WKDW LW UHVWV OLJKWO RQ WKH LQIDQW¶V ORZHU OLS ¾ 7LS WKH FXS VR WKDW WKH PLON MXVW UHDFKHV WKH LQIDQW¶V OLSV ¾ $OORZ WKH LQIDQW WR WDNH WKH PLON KLPVHOI 2 127 SRXU WKH PLON LQWR WKH LQIDQW V PRXWK¾ 7HDFK WKH 0RWKHU +RZ WR .HHS WKH /RZ :HLJKW ,QIDQW :DUP DW +RPH .HHS WKH RXQJ LQIDQW LQ WKH VDPH EHG ZLWK WKH PRWKHU .HHS WKH URRP ZDUP DW OHDVW ƒ& ZLWK KRPH KHDWLQJ GHYLFH DQG PDNH VXUH WKDW WKHUH LV QR GUDXJKW RI FROG DLU $YRLG EDWKLQJ WKH ORZ ZHLJKW LQIDQW :KHQ ZDVKLQJ RU EDWKLQJ GR LW LQ D YHU ZDUP URRP ZLWK ZDUP ZDWHU GU LPPHGLDWHO DQG WKRURXJKO DIWHU EDWKLQJ DQG FORWKH WKH RXQJ LQIDQW LPPHGLDWHO &KDQJH FORWKHV H J QDSSLHV ZKHQHYHU WKH DUH ZHW 3URYLGH VNLQ WR VNLQ FRQWDFW DV PXFK DV SRVVLEOH GD DQG QLJKW )RU VNLQ WR VNLQ FRQWDFW ¾ UHVV WKH LQIDQW LQ D ZDUP VKLUW RSHQ DW WKH IURQW D QDSS KDW DQG VRFNV ¾ 3ODFH WKH LQIDQW LQ VNLQ WR VNLQ FRQWDFW RQ WKH PRWKHU¶V FKHVW EHWZHHQ WKH PRWKHU¶V EUHDVWV .HHS WKH LQIDQW¶V KHDG WXUQHG WR RQH VLGH ¾ &RYHU WKH LQIDQW ZLWK PRWKHU¶V FORWKHV DQG DQ DGGLWLRQDO ZDUP EODQNHW LQ FROG ZHDWKHU :KHQ QRW LQ VNLQ WR VNLQ FRQWDFW NHHS WKH RXQJ LQIDQW FORWKHG RU FRYHUHG DV PXFK DV SRVVLEOH DW DOO WLPHV UHVV WKH RXQJ LQIDQW ZLWK H[WUD FORWKLQJ LQFOXGLQJ KDW DQG VRFNV ORRVHO ZUDS WKH RXQJ LQIDQW LQ D VRIW GU FORWK DQG FRYHU ZLWK D EODQNHW &KHFN IUHTXHQWO LI WKH KDQGV DQG IHHW DUH ZDUP ,I FROG UH ZDUP WKH EDE XVLQJ VNLQ WR VNLQ FRQWDFW %UHDVWIHHG RU JLYH H[SUHVVHG EUHDVW PLON E FXS WKH LQIDQW IUHTXHQWO
  • 34. &2816(/ 7+( 027+(5¾ $GYLVH WKH 0RWKHU WR *LYH +RPH &DUH IRU WKH <RXQJ ,QIDQW (;&/86,9(/< %5($67)(( 7+( <281* ,1)$17 *LYH RQO EUHDVWIHHGV WR WKH RXQJ LQIDQW %UHDVWIHHG IUHTXHQWO DV RIWHQ DQG IRU DV ORQJ DV WKH LQIDQW ZDQWV 0$.( 685( 7+$7 7+( <281* ,1)$17 ,6 .(37 :$50 $7 $// 7,0(6 ,Q FRRO ZHDWKHU FRYHU WKH LQIDQW¶V KHDG DQG IHHW DQG GUHVV WKH LQIDQW ZLWK H[WUD FORWKLQJ :+(1 72 5(7851 :+(1 72 5(7851 ,00(,$7(/< )ROORZ XS YLVLW $GYLVH WKH FDUHWDNHU WR UHWXUQ LPPHGLDWHO LI WKH RXQJ LQIDQW KDV DQ RI WKHVH VLJQV ,I WKH LQIDQW KDV 5HWXUQ IRU ILUVW IROORZ XS LQ ¾ %UHDVWIHHGLQJ SRRUO x -$81,&( GD ¾ 5HGXFHG DFWLYLW x /2&$/ %$&7(5,$/ ,1)(&7,21 ¾ %HFRPHV VLFNHU x )((,1* 352%/(0 GDV ¾ HYHORSV D IHYHU x 7+586+ ¾ )HHOV XQXVXDOO FROG x ,$55+2($ ¾ )DVW EUHDWKLQJ ¾ LIILFXOW EUHDWKLQJ ¾ 3DOPV DQG VROHV DSSHDU HOORZ x /2: :(,*+7 )25 $*( GDV
  • 35. *,9( )2//2: 83 &$5( )25 7+( <281* ,1)$17 $66(66 (9(5< <281* ,1)$17 )25 ³9(5< 6(9(5( ,6($6(´ 85,1* )2//2: 83 9,6,7¾ /2&$/ %$&7(5,$/ ,1)(&7,21 $IWHU GDV /RRN DW WKH XPELOLFXV ,V LW UHG RU GUDLQLQJ SXV" /RRN IRU VNLQ SXVWXOHV 7UHDWPHQW ¾ ,I XPELOLFDO SXV RU UHGQHVV UHPDLQV VDPH RU LV ZRUVH UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO ,I SXV DQG UHGQHVV DUH LPSURYHG WHOO WKH PRWKHU WR FRQWLQXH JLYLQJ WKH GDV RI DQWLELRWLF DQG FRQWLQXH WUHDWLQJ WKH ORFDO LQIHFWLRQ DW KRPH ¾ ,I VNLQ SXVWXOHV DUH VDPH RU ZRUVH UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO ,I LPSURYHG WHOO WKH PRWKHU WR FRQWLQXH JLYLQJ WKH GDV RI DQWLELRWLF DQG FRQWLQXH WUHDWLQJ WKH ORFDO LQIHFWLRQ DW KRPH¾ -$81,&( $IWHU GD /RRN IRU MDXQGLFH $UH SDOPV DQG VROHV HOORZ" ¾ ,I SDOPV DQG VROHV DUH HOORZ UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO ¾ ,I SDOPV DQG VROHV DUH QRW HOORZ EXW MDXQGLFH KDV QRW GHFUHDVHG DGYLVH WKH PRWKHU KRPH FDUH DQG DVN KHU WR UHWXUQ IRU IROORZ XS LQ GD ¾ ,I MDXQGLFH KDV VWDUWHG GHFUHDVLQJ UHDVVXUH WKH PRWKHU DQG DVN KHU WR FRQWLQXH KRPH FDUH $VN KHU WR UHWXUQ IRU IROORZ XS DW WKUHH ZHHNV RI DJH ,I MDXQGLFH FRQWLQXHV EHRQG WKUHH ZHHNV RI DJH UHIHU WKH RXQJ LQIDQW WR D KRVSLWDO IRU IXUWKHU DVVHVVPHQW¾ ,$55+2($ $IWHU GDV $VN +DV WKH GLDUUKRHD VWRSSHG " 7UHDWPHQW ¾ ,I WKH GLDUUKRHD KDV QRW VWRSSHG DVVHVV DQG WUHDW WKH RXQJ LQIDQW IRU GLDUUKRHD !6(( ³RHV WKH <RXQJ ,QIDQW +DYH LDUUKRHD "´ ¾ ,I WKH GLDUUKRHD KDV VWRSSHG WHOO WKH PRWKHU WR FRQWLQXH H[FOXVLYH EUHDVWIHHGLQJ
  • 36. *,9( )2//2: 83 &$5( )25 7+( <281* ,1)$17¾ )((,1* 352%/(0 $IWHU GDV 5HDVVHVV IHHGLQJ ! 6HH ³7KHQ &KHFN IRU )HHGLQJ 3UREOHP RU /RZ :HLJKW´ DERYH $VN DERXW DQ IHHGLQJ SUREOHPV IRXQG RQ WKH LQLWLDO YLVLW ¾ &RXQVHO WKH PRWKHU DERXW DQ QHZ RU FRQWLQXLQJ IHHGLQJ SUREOHPV ,I RX FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU WR PDNH VLJQLILFDQW FKDQJHV LQ IHHGLQJ DVN KHU WR EULQJ WKH RXQJ LQIDQW EDFN DJDLQ ¾ ,I WKH RXQJ LQIDQW LV ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH DVN WKH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ GDV DIWHU WKH LQLWLDO YLVLW WR PHDVXUH WKH RXQJ LQIDQW¶V ZHLJKW JDLQ ([FHSWLRQ ,I RX GR QRW WKLQN WKDW IHHGLQJ ZLOO LPSURYH RU LI WKH RXQJ LQIDQW KDV ORVW ZHLJKW UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO
  • 37. *,9( )2//2: 83 &$5( )25 7+( <281* ,1)$17¾ /2: :(,*+7 )25 $*( $IWHU GDV :HLJK WKH RXQJ LQIDQW DQG GHWHUPLQH LI WKH LQIDQW LV VWLOO ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH 5HDVVHVV IHHGLQJ ! 6HH ³7KHQ &KHFN IRU )HHGLQJ 3UREOHP RU /RZ :HLJKW´ DERYH ¾ ,I WKH LQIDQW LV QR ORQJHU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH SUDLVH WKH PRWKHU DQG HQFRXUDJH KHU WR FRQWLQXH ¾ ,I WKH LQIDQW LV VWLOO ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH EXW LV IHHGLQJ ZHOO SUDLVH WKH PRWKHU $VN KHU WR KDYH KHU LQIDQW ZHLJKHG DJDLQ ZLWKLQ D PRQWK RU ZKHQ VKH UHWXUQV IRU LPPXQL]DWLRQ ¾ ,I WKH LQIDQW LV VWLOO ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH DQG VWLOO KDV D IHHGLQJ SUREOHP FRXQVHO WKH PRWKHU DERXW WKH IHHGLQJ SUREOHP $VN WKH PRWKHU WR UHWXUQ DJDLQ LQ GDV RU ZKHQ VKH UHWXUQV IRU LPPXQL]DWLRQ LI WKLV LV ZLWKLQ GDV &RQWLQXH WR VHH WKH RXQJ LQIDQW HYHU IHZ ZHHNV XQWLO WKH LQIDQW LV IHHGLQJ ZHOO DQG JDLQLQJ ZHLJKW UHJXODUO RU LV QR ORQJHU ORZ ZHLJKW IRU DJH ([FHSWLRQ ,I RX GR QRW WKLQN WKDW IHHGLQJ ZLOO LPSURYH RU LI WKH RXQJ LQIDQW KDV ORVW ZHLJKW UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO ¾ 7+586+ $IWHU GDV /RRN IRU XOFHUV RU ZKLWH SDWFKHV LQ WKH PRXWK WKUXVK 5HDVVHVV IHHGLQJ ! 6HH ³7KHQ &KHFN IRU )HHGLQJ 3UREOHP RU /RZ :HLJKW´ DERYH ¾ ,I WKUXVK LV ZRUVH RU WKH LQIDQW KDV SUREOHPV ZLWK DWWDFKPHQW RU VXFNOLQJ UHIHU WR KRVSLWDO ¾ ,I WKUXVK LV WKH VDPH RU EHWWHU DQG LI WKH LQIDQW LV IHHGLQJ ZHOO FRQWLQXH KDOI VWUHQJWK JHQWLDQ YLROHW IRU D WRWDO RI GDV
  • 38. 0$1$*(0(17 2) 7+( 6,&. &+,/ $*( 0217+6 83 72 <($56 1DPH BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB $JH BBBBBBBBBBBBB :HLJKW BBBBBBBBBB NJ 7HPSHUDWXUH BBBBBBBBƒ& $6. :KDW DUH WKH FKLOG¶V SUREOHPV" BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB ,QLWLDO YLVLW" BBB )ROORZ XS 9LVLW" BBB $66(66 &LUFOH DOO VLJQV SUHVHQW &/$66,)<&+(&. )25 *(1(5$/ $1*(5 6,*16 *HQHUDO GDQJHU VLJQV SUHVHQW" 127 $%/( 72 5,1. 25 %5($67)(( /(7+$5*,& 25 81&216&,286 <HVBBB 1RBBB 920,76 (9(5<7+,1* &2198/6,1* 12: 5HPHPEHU WR XVH GDQJHU VLJQ &2198/6,216 ZKHQ VHOHFWLQJ FODVVLILFDWLRQV2(6 7+( &+,/ +$9( &28*+ 25 ,)),&8/7 %5($7+,1*" <HVBBB 1RBBBx )RU KRZ ORQJ" BBBB DV x &RXQW WKH EUHDWKV LQ RQH PLQXWH BBBBBBB EUHDWKV SHU PLQXWH )DVW EUHDWKLQJ" x /RRN IRU FKHVW LQGUDZLQJ x /RRN DQG OLVWHQ IRU VWULGRU x /RRN DQG OLVWHQ IRU ZKHH]LQJ2(6 7+( &+,/ +$9( ,$55+2($" <HV BBB 1R BBBx )RU KRZ ORQJ" BBBBB DV x /RRN DW WKH FKLOG¶V JHQHUDO FRQGLWLRQ ,V WKH FKLOGx ,V WKHUH EORRG LQ WKH VWRROV" /HWKDUJLF RU XQFRQVFLRXV" 5HVWOHVV RU LUULWDEOH" x /RRN IRU VXQNHQ HHV x 2IIHU WKH FKLOG IOXLG ,V WKH FKLOG 1RW DEOH WR GULQN RU GULQNLQJ SRRUO" ULQNLQJ HDJHUO WKLUVW" x 3LQFK WKH VNLQ RI WKH DEGRPHQ RHV LW JR EDFN 9HU VORZO ORQJHU WKDQ VHFRQGV " 6ORZO"2(6 7+( &+,/ +$9( )(9(5" E KLVWRU IHHOV KRW WHPSHUDWXUH ƒ& RU DERYH <HVBBB 1RBBBHFLGH 0DODULD 5LVN +LJK /RZx )RU KRZ ORQJ" BBBBB DV x /RRN RU IHHO IRU VWLII QHFNx ,I PRUH WKDQ GDV KDV IHYHU EHHQ x /RRN IRU UXQQ QRVH SUHVHQW HYHU GD" /RRN IRU VLJQV RI 0($6/(6x +DV FKLOG KDG PHDVOHV ZLWKLQ x *HQHUDOL]HG UDVK DQG WKH ODVW WKUHH PRQWKV" x 2QH RI WKHVH FRXJK UXQQ QRVH RU UHG HHV,I WKH FKLOG KDV PHDVOHV QRZ x /RRN IRU PRXWK XOFHUVRU ZLWKLQ WKH ODVW PRQWKV ,I <HV DUH WKH GHHS DQG H[WHQVLYH" x /RRN IRU SXV GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HH x /RRN IRU FORXGLQJ RI WKH FRUQHD2(6 7+( &+,/ +$9( $1 ($5 352%/(0" <HVBBB 1RBBBx ,V WKHUH HDU SDLQ" x /RRN IRU SXV GUDLQLQJ IURP WKH HDUx ,V WKHUH HDU GLVFKDUJH" x )HHO IRU WHQGHU VZHOOLQJ EHKLQG WKH HDU ,I <HV IRU KRZ ORQJ" BBB DV7+(1 &+(&. )25 0$/1875,7,21 $1 $1$(0,$ x /RRN IRU YLVLEOH VHYHUH ZDVWLQJ x /RRN IRU RHGHPD RI ERWK IHHW x HWHUPLQH ZHLJKW IRU DJH 9HU /RZ BBB 1RW 9HU /RZ BBB x /RRN IRU SDOPDU SDOORU 6HYHUH SDOPDU SDOORU" 6RPH SDOPDU SDOORU"&+(&. 7+( &+,/¶6 ,0081,=$7,21 67$786 &LUFOH LPPXQL]DWLRQV QHHGHG WRGD 5HWXUQ IRU QH[W LPPXQL]DWLRQ RQ BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBB %&* 37 +,% 37 +,% 37 +,% 9LWDPLQ $ 0HEHQGD]ROH BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB 239 239 239 239 0HDVOHV DWH$66(66 &+,/¶6 )((,1* LI FKLOG KDV $1$(0,$ 25 9(5< /2: :(,*+7 RU LV OHVV WKDQ HDUV ROGx R RX EUHDVWIHHG RXU FKLOG" <HVBBBB 1R BBBB )((,1* 352%/(06 ,I <HV KRZ PDQ WLPHV LQ KRXUV" BBB WLPHV R RX EUHDVWIHHG GXULQJ WKH QLJKW" <HVBBB 1RBBBx RHV WKH FKLOG WDNH DQ RWKHU IRRG RU IOXLGV" <HVBBB 1R BBB ,I <HV ZKDW IRRG RU IOXLGV" BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB +RZ PDQ WLPHV SHU GD" BBB WLPHV :KDW GR RX XVH WR IHHG WKH FKLOG" BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB ,I YHU ORZ ZHJKW IRU DJH +RZ ODUJH DUH VHUYLQJV" BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB RHV WKH FKLOG UHFHLYH KLV RZQ VHUYLQJ" BBB :KR IHHGV WKH FKLOG DQG KRZ" BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBx XULQJ WKH LOOQHVV KDV WKH FKLOG¶V IHHGLQJ FKDQJHG" <HV BBBB 1R BBBB ,I <HV KRZ"$66(66 27+(5 352%/(06 $VN DERXW PRWKHU¶V RZQ KHDOWK
  • 39. 0$1$*(0(17 2) 7+( 6,&. <281* ,1)$17 $*( 83 72 0217+61DPH BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB $JH BBBBBBBBBBB :HLJKW BBBBBBBB NJ 7HPSHUDWXUH BBBBBBBBƒ&$6. :KDW DUH WKH LQIDQW¶V SUREOHPV" BBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBBB ,QLWLDO YLVLW" BBB )ROORZ XS YLVLW" BBB$66(66 &LUFOH DOO VLJQV SUHVHQW &/$66,)<&+(&. )25 9(5< 6(9(5( ,6($6( $1 /2&$/ %$&7(5,$/ ,1)(&7,21 &ODVVLI DOO RXQJ LQIDQWVx ,V WKH LQIDQW KDYLQJ GLIILFXOW LQ IHHGLQJ" x &RXQW WKH EUHDWKV LQ RQH PLQXWH BBBBBBB EUHDWKV SHU PLQXWHx +DV WKH LQIDQW KDG FRQYXOVLRQV ILWV " 5HSHDW LI EUHDWKV RU PRUH BBBBBBBB )DVW EUHDWKLQJ" x /RRN IRU VHYHUH FKHVW LQGUDZLQJ x )HYHU WHPSHUDWXUH ƒ& RU DERYH x /RZ ERG WHPSHUDWXUH OHVV WKDQ ƒ& x /RRN DW WKH XPELOLFXV ,V LW UHG RU GUDLQLQJ SXV" x /RRN IRU VNLQ SXVWXOHV x /RRN DW WKH RXQJ LQIDQW¶V PRYHPHQWV RHV WKH LQIDQW PRYH RQO ZKHQ VWLPXODWHG" RHV WKH LQIDQW QRW PRYH DW DOO"7+(1 &+(&. )25 -$81,&(x ,I MDXQGLFH SUHVHQW ZKHQ GLG MDXQGLFH ILUVW x /RRN IRU MDXQGLFH HOORZ HHV RU VNLQ DSSHDU" x /RRN DW WKH RXQJ LQIDQW V SDOPV DQG VROHV $UH WKH HOORZ"2(6 7+( <281* ,1)$17 +$9( ,$55+2($" <HV BBBBB 1R BBBBBB x /RRN DW WKH RXQJ LQIDQW¶V JHQHUDO FRQGLWLRQ RHV WKH LQIDQW PRYH RQO ZKHQ VWLPXODWHG" RHV WKH LQIDQW QRW PRYH DW DOO" ,V WKH LQIDQW UHVWOHVV RU LUULWDEOH" x /RRN IRU VXQNHQ HHV x 3LQFK WKH VNLQ RI WKH DEGRPHQ RHV LW JR EDFN 9HU VORZO ORQJHU WKDQ VHFRQGV " 6ORZO",I WKH LQIDQW KDV QR LQGLFDWLRQV WR UHIHU XUJHQWO WR KRVSLWDO7+(1 &+(&. )25 )((,1* 352%/(0 25 /2: :(,*+7 )25 $*(x ,V WKH LQIDQW EUHDVWIHG" <HV BBBBB 1R BBBBB x HWHUPLQH ZHLJKW IRU DJH /RZ BBB 1RW /RZ BBBBB ,I <HV KRZ PDQ WLPHV LQ KRXUV" BBBBB WLPHV x /RRN IRU XOFHUV RU ZKLWH SDWFKHV LQ WKH PRXWK WKUXVKx RHV WKH LQIDQW XVXDOO UHFHLYH DQ RWKHU IRRGV RU GULQNV" <HV BBBBB 1R BBBBB ,I <HV KRZ RIWHQ" ,I <HV ZKDW GR RX XVH WR IHHG WKH LQIDQW"$66(66 %5($67)((,1*x +DV WKH LQIDQW EUHDVWIHG LQ WKH SUHYLRXV KRXU" ,I LQIDQW KDV QRW IHG LQ WKH SUHYLRXV KRXU DVN WKH PRWKHU WR SXW KHU LQIDQW WR WKH EUHDVW 2EVHUYH WKH EUHDVWIHHG IRU PLQXWHV x ,V WKH LQIDQW DEOH WR DWWDFK" 7R FKHFN DWWDFKPHQW ORRN IRU 0RUH DUHROD VHHQ DERYH LQIDQW¶V WRS OLS <HV BBB 1R BBB WKDQ EHORZ ERWWRP OLS 0RXWK ZLGH RSHQ <HV BBB 1R BBB /RZHU OLS WXUQHG RXWZDUGV <HV BBB 1R BBB &KLQ WRXFKLQJ EUHDVW <HV BBB 1R BBB QRW ZHOO DWWDFKHG JRRG DWWDFKPHQW x ,V WKH LQIDQW VXFNOLQJ HIIHFWLYHO WKDW LV VORZ GHHS VXFNV VRPH WLPHV SDXVLQJ " QRW VXFNOLQJ HIIHFWLYHO VXFNOLQJ HIIHFWLYHO&+(&. 7+( <281* ,1)$17¶6 ,0081,=$7,21 $1 9,7$0,1 $ 67$786 &LUFOH LPPXQL]DWLRQV QHHGHG WRGD 5HWXUQ IRU QH[W LPPXQL]DWLRQ RQ BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBB %&* 37 +,% 37 +,% BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBBBBBBBBBB 239 239 239 DWH BBBBBB BBBBBB BBBBBB9LWDPLQ $ WR PRWKHU +HSDWLWLV % +HSDWLWLV %$66(66 27+(5 352%/(06 $VN DERXW PRWKHU¶V RZQ KHDOWK
  • 40. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness Chart bookletProcess of updating the chart bookletThe generic IMCI chart booklet was developed and published in 1995 based on evidence existing at that time (Reference: Integratedmanagement of Childhood Illness Adaptation Guide: C. Technical basis for adapting clinical guidelines, 1998). New evidence on themanagement of acute respiratory infections, diarrhoeal diseases, malaria, ear infections and infant feeding, published between 1995and 2004, was summarized in the document "Technical updates of the guidelines on IMCI : evidence and recommendations for furtheradaptations, 2005".Evidence reviews supported the formulation of recommendations in each of these areas (see document and the references). Reviewswere usually followed by technical consultations where the recommendations and their technical bases were discussed and consensusreached. Similarly, a review and several expert meetings were held to update the young infant section of IMCI to include "care of thenewborn in the first week of life". More recently, findings of a multi-centre study (Lancet, 2008) led to the development of simplifiedrecommendations for the assessment of severe infections in the newbornWho was involved and their declaration of interestsThe following experts were involved in the development of the updated newborn recommendations: Zulfiqar Bhutta, Ayivi Blaise,Wally Carlo, Rolando Cerezo, Magdy Omar, Pavel Mazmanyan, MK Bhan, Helenlouise Taylor, Gary Darmstadt, Vinod Paul, AnneRimoin, Linda Wright and WHO staff from Regional and Headquarter offices. Dr. Gul Rehman and a team of CAH staff membersdrafted the updated chart booklet based on the above. Dr Antonio Pio did the technical editing of the draft IMCI chart booklet, inaddition to participating in its peer-review. Other persons who reviewed the draft chart booklet and provided comments include AshokDeorari, Teshome Desta,, Assaye Kassie, Dinh Phuang Hoa, Harish Kumar, Vinod Paul and Siddhorth Ramzi.. Their contributions areacknowledged.None of the above experts declared any conflict of interest.The Department plans to review the need for an update of this chart booklet by 2011.
  • 41. WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data :Integrated Management of Childhood Illness chart booklet.1.Integrated management of childhood illness. 2.Infant, Newborn. 3.Child. 4.Infant. 5.Disease management. 6.Teaching materials. I.World HealthOrganization. II.UNICEF.ISBN 978 92 4 159728 9 (NLM classification: WC 503.2) © World Health Organization 2008All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from WHO Press, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia,1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel.: +41 22 791 3264; fax: +41 22 791 4857; e-mail: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduceor translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press, at the above address(fax: +41 22 791 4806; e-mail: permissions@who.int).The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on thepart of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning thedelimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the WorldHealth Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietaryproducts are distinguished by initial capital letters.All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. However, thepublished material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. The responsibility for the interpretation and use ofthe material lies with the reader. In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use.